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Ancient Greece Geography of Ancient Greece Mountains and Sea Ancient Greece was made up of a part of southern ______________ mainland and many _____________. The two largest islands are _________ and __________, found in the Mediterranean Sea. About 9 out of every 10 acres in Greece are ____________________. Little farmable land exists; so shepherds kept herds of sheep and goats because they can live on the shrubs that grow on the rugged hillsides. The peninsula of ________, on the east coast of Greece, has some of the precious arable land. A peninsula is an area of land surrounded by __________ on __________ sides. Attica contains many ______________, sheltered places along the coast. ____________________ is a large hand-shaped peninsula in the southern area of mainland Greece. Peloponnesus is a mountainous region ringed by a thin band of fertile land. Early Economy in Greece Greece is not as ___________ as the river valleys of the Indus or Huang rivers; however, ancient Greeks figured out how to make a living from the few fertile valleys and the sea. Summers were hot and dry, and winters in Greece were wet and windy making agriculture difficult. Farmers grew ___________ and ____________ to make bread, in addition to ___________ and ____________. ______________ became an important part of life because farmers could not produce huge grain surpluses. Sailors traveled as far as Ancient Egypt and Phoenicia, modern day Lebanon. __________ oil was one of the most prized Greek exports because it was tasty to ________ with, useful as ________ fuel, and body __________. This made it possible to __________ for the much needed grain. The Rise of Greek Cities Greek historian, ________________, is considered the “Father of ___________.” A Greek Polis In Greece, a city-state was called a ________. It was a self-governing city ruled by a group of powerful _______. Most city-states were built around an acropolis, a large _____ where city residents could seek shelter and __________ in times of war. Farmers and craftworkers sold their goods at an agora, a _________________ and meeting place in a clearing. Each polis was ruled by leaders who were ______________ of the polis. In ancient Greece, only free ______ could be citizens. Women and slaves were not citizens and had few rights. A small group of the richest, most powerful citizens called an ________________ generally controlled decision making. Early Greek polis were ruled by a king and queen, called a _________________, which means ruled by one. A modern day citizen is a person who was born in a ___________ and has certain rights and responsibilities. Two Greek Cities __________ and ____________ are two city-states whose artifacts were preserved and told archaeologists about life in these polis. Sparta covered most of the southern _____________________ peninsula and the central city was located about 30 miles from the Mediterranean Sea. A low mountain formed Sparta’s acropolis and a nearby agora where political decisions were made. Most of Sparta’s farm workers were ____________. Sparta had more slaves than any other polis. Sparta’s leaders made Sparta the strongest ______________ power in Greece after defeating a slave revolt. Spartan boys started training to be soldiers by ___ years old. Spartan girls trained in ______________ to be strong mothers of strong children. Athens lay on the peninsula of __________, northeast of Sparta. Athenian girls wove _________ and helped in __________ at harvest. Athenian boys worked with their fathers to learn their craft, or rich boys went to ___________ to learn _____________ and ______________. Like Sparta, Athens was ruled by an oligarchy around 600 B.C. Average citizens demanded more of a say in government. Large meetings were now held where all ____________ could take part in making decisions about the polis. This form of government is called a ____________________. Athens had the _________ known democracy in history. Shared Culture The ancient Greeks worshipped many ________. The most powerful gods lived on Mount ________________. Mount Olympus was a mountain in northern Greece. Each polis honored at least one god or goddess as its special protector and provider. In Athens, people worshipped ____________, the goddess of ____________. _______, the most powerful god, was also worshipped by people all over Greece. At huge festivals honoring the gods, people sang, danced, proceeded to the temple, sacrificed animals, and held athletic competitions like the Olympics. __________ is a favorite Greek poet who wrote the Iliad and the Odyssey, stories of war and adventure. The Greeks settled ______________ throughout the Mediterranean Sea. The colonies were made up of groups of people who lived apart from, but kept ties with, Greece. Many colonies became important trading partners because they could grow grain and serve as stopping points on the long journey to trade with Egypt. Ancient Olympic Games The first Olympic Games were held nearly _________ years ago. They were started so that the Greeks could honor the _______ on Mt. Olympus. In ancient Greece, the Olympics were __________________ competitions, and _________ were not allowed to compete. Only free ____ from Greek city-states. Today there are ________ events, and women can now compete. We also have Summer and Winter Games, and there are Olympics for disabled athletes too. Athens’ Age of Glory The Athenians understood the importance of ______ power and built a mighty naval fleet. During the war against ___________, Athens and ___________ joined together to defeat the Persians. Many Greek colonies continued to be threatened by Persia and _______ the Athenian navy to protect them. Some of this payment expanded the navy and the rest developed the city of Athens into a rich cultural center. Golden Age of Athens Athens’ “Golden Age” was a time of great _____________________. Athens’ large _________________ was the religious center of the city. Buildings such as the temple to Athena, the _______________, showed the cities wealth and power. At this time, Athens was the _____________ city in Greece. Many people came to do business in the agora. In the agora, shopkeepers traded their goods; students studied their lessons; and lawyers conducted government. Athenian Government In the early 400s B.C., a small council of _____________ citizens made the cities important decisions. Later, the council’s powers were taken over by an _________________. An assembly is a ____________________ body of government. _____________, an Athenian leader around 450 B.C., made sure that ________ citizens as well as rich citizens could take part in government decisions. Citizens served on the ________________ and sat on ___________. A jury is a group of ____________ chosen to hear evidence and make decisions in a court of law. Pericles arranged for citizens to be ________ when they held office or served on a jury. Socrates taught philosophy, or the search for _________ and the right way to live. The philosophers and students discussed what makes the best government, what it means to love, or what it means to be a good citizen. Shortly before 400 B.C., _____________ began questioning Athenian ________, such as laws, customs, and religion. Socrates was brought to trial and found ___________ of “urging Athens’ young people to revolt”. __________, a student of Socrates, wrote down all of Socrates’ teachings. War and Conflict The _______________________ Wars began because ________ and other Greek city-states became jealous of Athens’ ____________ and ____________. ___________ attacked Athens. Pericles knew that the Athens army was no match for the Spartans, so he called for all Athenians to move within the city walls. The Spartan army destroyed the fields surrounding the city, but Athens continued to have food because their army could bring grain from elsewhere. Not all deaths occurred on the battlefield. A terrible disease killed ____-_______ of the population in the crowded city. Sparta won most _______ battles, while Athens won most of the ______ battles. The Athenians did not surrender until their people were ______________ because Sparta cut off the grain supply from the Black Sea. After the Peloponnesian War, Sparta became a leading polis once again. No city-state could maintain control for long before others challenged it. This made Greece vulnerable to outside _____________. The Greek Empire At the end of the Peloponnesian Wars, ___________ was the most powerful remaining empire. The Persians controlled lands in __________, Phoenicia, ___________, _______, Persia, and Jewish lands. Alexander of Macedonia Alexander, king of Macedonia, was educated by _________, a Greek philosopher. Alexander had grown to _____________ the Greek culture and traditions because of Aristotle’s teachings. Alexander’s army conquered __________ after the city-states had been weakened by the Peloponnesian Wars. In 334 B.C., Alexander and his armies set off to conquer ____________. His conquest continued through Persia and into the ________ valley. Alexander’s army never ______ a battle, and he helped to spread Greek culture from Egypt to India. Alexander died after becoming ______ in 323 B.C. A City in the Empire ______________ was founded as a capital for the newly conquered ___________ kingdom. Alexandria’s basic layout mirrored a _________ polis. The city had an agora, a theater, several temples, a stadium, and a gymnasium. At the mouth of the harbor stood one of the world’s first _________________. This lighthouse was one of the _________ wonders of the ancient world. These wonders include the Pyramids of Giza, the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, the Lighthouse of Alexandria, the Colossus of Rhodes, the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus, the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus, and the Statue of Zeus at Olympia. These structures were built as _________ to honor gods, goddesses, deceased spouses, or to serve as a beacon (light) for __________. New Seven Wonders of the World Chichen Itza (Yucatán, Mexico), Great Wall of China (China), Christ the Redeemer (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), Machu Picchu (Cuzco Region, Peru), Taj Mahal (Agra, India), Colosseum (Rome, Italy), Petra (Ma'an Governorate, Jordan) Scholars studied in a museum and referenced books from a nearby ___________. The Alexandria library was one of the largest of the time partially due to the practice of searching trader’s ships for _________ and making __________ of the books from all over the known world. The Greeks used a simple ____ letter alphabet to simplify learning to _______ and __________. Greek mathematicians learned from the _________________ mathematicians and created the basic principles now used in ________________ and _____________.