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1
芽胞杆菌研究文献学
(第二卷)
刘 波、王阶平、朱育菁、唐建阳 主编
福建省农业科学院农业生物资源研究所
1
芽胞杆菌研究文献学(第二卷)
主编:刘 波、王阶平、朱育菁、唐建阳
编委:
1
目
录
第一章 芽胞杆菌分类学(Bacillus taxonomy) ............................................................................................... 1
第一节 Alicyclobacillus ........................................................................................................................ 1
第二节 Amphibacillus .......................................................................................................................... 3
第三节 Aneurinibacillus ....................................................................................................................... 3
第四节 Anoxybacillus ........................................................................................................................... 4
第五节 Bacillus..................................................................................................................................... 5
第六节 Brevibacillus........................................................................................................................... 56
第七节 Caldalkalibacillus ................................................................................................................... 56
第八节 Caldibacillus ........................................................................................................................... 56
第九节 Cerasibacillus ......................................................................................................................... 57
第十节 Domibacillus .......................................................................................................................... 57
第十一节 Edaphobacillus................................................................................................................... 58
第十二节 Fictibacillus ........................................................................................................................ 58
第十三节 Filobacillus ......................................................................................................................... 59
第十四节 Geobacillus ........................................................................................................................ 59
第十五节 Gracilibacillus..................................................................................................................... 61
第十六节 Halobacillus ....................................................................................................................... 61
第十七节 Jeotgalibacillus................................................................................................................... 62
第十八节 Lentibacillus ....................................................................................................................... 63
第十九节 Lysinibacillus ...................................................................................................................... 63
第二十节 Natronobacillus ................................................................................................................. 64
第二十一节 Oceanobacillus .............................................................................................................. 65
第二十二节 Ornithinibacillus ............................................................................................................ 65
第二十三节 Paenibacillus .................................................................................................................. 66
第二十四节 Paraliobacillus ................................................................................................................ 71
第二十五节 Pelagibacillus ................................................................................................................. 72
第二十六节 Pontibacillus .................................................................................................................. 72
第二十七节 Psychrobacillus .............................................................................................................. 72
第二十八节 Rummeliibacillus ........................................................................................................... 73
第二十九节 Salinibacillus .................................................................................................................. 74
第三十节 Salsuginibacillus ................................................................................................................. 74
第三十一节 Sulfobacillus ................................................................................................................... 74
第三十二节 Tenuibacillus .................................................................................................................. 75
第三十三节 Texcoconibacillus ........................................................................................................... 75
第三十四节 Thermobacillus .............................................................................................................. 76
第三十五节 Tuberibacillus................................................................................................................. 76
第三十六节 Ureibacillus .................................................................................................................... 77
第三十七节 Virgibacillus ................................................................................................................... 77
第二章 芽胞杆菌基因组学(Bacillus genomics) .......................................................................................... 79
第三章 芽胞杆菌物资组学(Bacillus chemomics) ................................................................................... 229
2
第一节 芽胞杆菌物资组学--GC-MS 分析 ...................................................................................... 229
第二节 芽胞杆菌物资组学--LC-MS 分析 ....................................................................................... 331
第三节 芽胞杆菌物质组学--LC-MS-MS 分析 ................................................................................. 370
第四节 芽胞杆菌物资组学--TLC 分析 ............................................................................................ 383
第四章 芽胞杆菌代谢组学(Bacillus metabolomics)................................................................................. 421
第五章 芽胞杆菌酶学(Bacillus enzymology) ............................................................................................ 437
第一节 2014 年芽胞杆菌酶学研究 ................................................................................................ 437
第二节 2013 年芽胞杆菌酶学研究 ................................................................................................ 474
第三节 2012 年芽胞杆菌酶学研究 ................................................................................................ 612
第四节 2011 年芽胞杆菌酶学研究 ................................................................................................ 735
第五节 2010 年芽胞杆菌酶学研究 ................................................................................................ 857
第六章 芽胞杆菌发酵技术(Bacillus fermentation) .................................................................................. 906
第一节 2014 年芽胞杆菌发酵技术研究 ........................................................................................ 906
第二节 2013 年芽胞杆菌发酵技术研究 ........................................................................................ 923
第三节 2012 年芽胞杆菌发酵技术研究 ...................................................................................... 1000
第四节 2011 年芽胞杆菌发酵技术研究 ...................................................................................... 1039
第五节 2010 年芽胞杆菌发酵技术研究 ...................................................................................... 1064
第六节 2009 年芽胞杆菌发酵技术研究 ...................................................................................... 1071
第七节 2008 年芽胞杆菌发酵技术研究 ...................................................................................... 1077
第八节 2007 年芽胞杆菌发酵技术研究 ...................................................................................... 1091
第九节 2006 年芽胞杆菌发酵技术研究 ...................................................................................... 1139
第十节 2005 年芽胞杆菌发酵技术研究 ...................................................................................... 1151
第十一节 2004 年芽胞杆菌发酵技术研究 .................................................................................. 1170
第七章 芽胞杆菌益生菌(Bacillus probiotic) ........................................................................................... 1173
第一节 2014 年芽胞杆菌益生菌研究 .......................................................................................... 1173
第二节 2013 年芽胞杆菌益生菌研究 .......................................................................................... 1188
第三节 2012 年芽胞杆菌益生菌研究 .......................................................................................... 1215
第四节 2011 年芽胞杆菌益生菌研究 .......................................................................................... 1233
第五节 2010 年芽胞杆菌益生菌研究 .......................................................................................... 1248
第六节 2009 年芽胞杆菌益生菌研究 .......................................................................................... 1264
第七节 2008 年芽胞杆菌益生菌研究 .......................................................................................... 1274
第八节 2007 年芽胞杆菌益生菌研究 .......................................................................................... 1285
第九节 2006 年芽胞杆菌益生菌研究 .......................................................................................... 1289
第十节 2006 年芽胞杆菌益生菌研究 .......................................................................................... 1293
第十一节 2005 年芽胞杆菌益生菌研究 ...................................................................................... 1299
第十二节 2004 年芽胞杆菌益生菌研究 ...................................................................................... 1305
第十三节 2003 年芽胞杆菌益生菌研究 ...................................................................................... 1309
第十四节 2002 年芽胞杆菌益生菌研究 ...................................................................................... 1314
第十五节 2001 年芽胞杆菌益生菌研究 ...................................................................................... 1316
第十六节 2000 年芽胞杆菌益生菌研究 ...................................................................................... 1320
第十七节 1999 年芽胞杆菌益生菌研究 ...................................................................................... 1322
第十八节 1998 年芽胞杆菌益生菌研究 ...................................................................................... 1325
第十九节 1997 年芽胞杆菌益生菌研究 ...................................................................................... 1327
第二十节 1996 年芽胞杆菌益生菌研究 ...................................................................................... 1328
3
第二十一节 1995 年芽胞杆菌益生菌研究 .................................................................................. 1329
索 引 ....................................................................................................................................................... 1332
1
第一章 芽胞杆菌分类学(Bacillus taxonomy)
第一节
1.
2.
3.
Alicyclobacillus
Alicyclobacillus pomorum Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2003 Sep;53(Pt 5):1537-44. Alicyclobacillus pomorum sp. nov., a novel thermo-acidophilic, endospore-forming bacterium that does not possess omega-alicyclic fatty acids, and emended description of the genus Alicyclobacillus. Goto K(1), Mochida K, Asahara M, Suzuki M, Kasai H, Yokota A. Author information: (1)Microbiological and Analytical Group, Food Research Laboratories, Mitsui Norin Co. Ltd, 223-1, Miyahara, Fujieda, Shizuoka 426-0133, Japan.
[email protected] A thermo-acidophilic endospore-forming bacterium was isolated from a mixed fruit juice. The organism, strain 3A(T),
was rod-shaped, grew aerobically at 30-60 degrees C (optimum 45-50 degrees C), pH 3.0-6.0 (optimum pH 4.0-4.5) and produced
acid from various sugars. It contained menaquinone-7 as the major isoprenoid quinone. The G+C content of the DNA was 53.1 mol%.
The predominant cellular fatty acids of the strain were iso-C(15 : 0), anteiso-C(15 : 0), iso-C(16 : 0), iso-C(17 : 0) and anteiso-C(17 :
0), but omega-alicyclic fatty acids, which are characteristic of the genus Alicyclobacillus, were not found in the strain. Phylogenetic
analyses based on both 16S rRNA and gyrB (DNA gyrase B subunit gene) gene sequences showed that strain 3A(T) falls into the Alicyclobacillus cluster, validated by significant bootstrap values. However, strain 3A(T) did not show a close relationship to the other
species of the cluster. The level of 16S rDNA similarity between strain 3A(T) and other strains of the cluster was between 92.5 and
95.5 %. The level of gyrB sequence similarity between strain 3A(T) and other strains of the cluster was between 68.5 and 74.4 %.
DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain 3A(T) and phylogenetically related strains of the genera Alicyclobacillus, Bacillus and
Sulfobacillus were under 13 %, indicating that strain 3A(T) represents a distinct species. On the basis of these results, strain 3A(T)
should be classified as a novel Alicyclobacillus species. The name Alicyclobacillus pomorum is proposed for this organism. The type
strain of Alicyclobacillus pomorum is strain 3A(T) (=DSM 14955(T)=IAM 14988(T)). PMID: 13130044 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Alicyclobacillus sendaiensis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2003 Jul;53(Pt 4):1081-4. Alicyclobacillus sendaiensis sp. nov., a novel acidophilic, slightly thermophilic species isolated from soil in Sendai, Japan. Tsuruoka N(1), Isono Y, Shida O, Hemmi H, Nakayama T,
Nishino T. Author information: (1)Department of Biomolecular Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University,
Aoba-yama 07, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579, Japan. An acidophilic, slightly thermophilic bacterium, designated strain NTAP-1T, that
produces a thermostable extracellular acid collagenase activity with potential industrial applications was isolated from soil of
Aoba-yama Park, Sendai, Japan. The temperature range for growth was 40-65 degrees C, with an optimum at 55 degrees C, and the
pH range for growth was 2.5-6.5, with an optimum at pH 5.5. Analysis of the 16S rDNA sequence of strain NTAP-1T showed that it is
most closely related to strains of the genus Alicyclobacillus. Consistently, the major constituents of the cell-membrane lipid of strain
NTAP-1T were omega-alicyclic fatty acids. However, DNA-DNA reassociation studies showed only low similarities (less than 33%) to
any type strain of Alicyclobacillus. On the basis of the phenotypic and genotypic properties, a novel species is proposed, Alicyclobacillus sendaiensis sp. nov., represented by strain NTAP-1T (=JCM 11817T=ATCC BAA-609T). PMID: 12892130 [PubMed - indexed
for MEDLINE]
Alkalibacillus haloalkaliphilus Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2005 Sep;55(Pt 5):1891-6. Reclassification of Bacillus haloalkaliphilus
Fritze 1996 as Alkalibacillus haloalkaliphilus gen. nov., comb. nov. and the description of Alkalibacillus salilacus sp. nov., a novel halophilic bacterium isolated from a salt lake in China. Jeon CO(1), Lim JM, Lee JM, Xu LH, Jiang CL, Kim CJ. Author information:
(1)Environmental Biotechnology National Core Research Center, Gyeongsang National University, Korea. A spore-forming, halophilic
bacterium, designated strain BH163(T), was isolated from a salt lake in China. Cells were motile, strictly aerobic rods that contained
type A1gamma peptidoglycan with meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. The isolate showed Gram- and catalase-positive reactions and formed a terminal endospore with a swollen sporangium. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C(15:0), iso-C(15:0), anteiso-C(17:0) and iso-C(16:0). The genomic DNA G+C content of the strain was 41.0 mol%. Comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain BH163(T) formed a distinct line within the phyletic group classically defined as the genus Bacillus and was most closely related to the taxa [Bacillus] haloalkaliphilus DSM 5271(T) and Filobacillus milosensis DSM 13259(T), with 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 95.9 and 94.5%, respectively. On the basis of physiological and mo-
2
4.
5.
6.
lecular properties, it is proposed that [Bacillus] haloalkaliphilus DSM 5271(T) is reclassified in the new genus Alkalibacillus as Alkalibacillus haloalkaliphilus gen. nov., comb. nov. Strain BH163(T) (=KCTC 3916(T)=DSM 16460(T)) was assigned as the type strain of
the novel species Alkalibacillus salilacus. PMID: 16166684 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Alkalibacillus halophilus Syst Appl Microbiol. 2007 Jun;30(4):268-72. Epub 2006 Oct 4. Alkalibacillus halophilus sp. nov., a new
halophilic species isolated from hypersaline soil in Xin-Jiang province, China. Tian XP(1), Dastager SG, Lee JC, Tang SK, Zhang YQ,
Park DJ, Kim CJ, Li WJ. Author information: (1)Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Bio-Resources, Yunnan Institute of Microbiology, Yunnan University, Kunming, Yunnan 650091, PR China. A halophilic, Gram-positive, spore-forming motile Bacillus-like
strain YIM 012(T), was isolated from one of the hypersaline soil samples collected in Xin-jiang province, China. Its optimum growth
occurred at 10-20% of NaCl concentration (w/v), pH 7.0-8.0. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed
that strain YIM 012(T) is a member of the genus of Alkalibacillus, which is well supported by its chemotaxonomic and molecular
characteristics. Based on its phenotypic evidence and genotypic data, Alkalibacillus halophilus sp. nov. was proposed and strain YIM
012(T) (=DSM 17369(T)=KCTC 3990(T)) was assigned as the type strain of the novel species. PMID: 17027220 [PubMed - indexed
for MEDLINE]
Alkalilactibacillus ikkensis Extremophiles. 2012 Feb 2. [Epub ahead of print] Alkalilactibacillus ikkensis, gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel
enzyme-producing bacterium from a cold and alkaline environment in Greenland. Schmidt M(1), Priemé A, Johansen A, Stougaard P.
Author information: (1)Department of Agriculture and Ecology, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, 1871, Frederiksberg C,
Denmark. Three novel Gram-positive, endospore-forming bacteria were isolated from a cold and alkaline environment. Phylogenetic
analysis showed that the strains were almost identical, and that they were related to Natronobacillus azotifigens 24KS-1(T) (95.8%
identity), Paraliobacillus quinghaiensis YIM-C158(T) (95.1%), Paraliobacillus ryukyuensis O15-7(T) (94.5%), and Halolactibacillus
miurensis M23-1(T) (93.9%). The isolates produced amylase, α-galactosidase, β-galactosidase, and β-glucuronidase, and showed
optimal growth at pH 10, at 20°C, and at 2-8% (w/v) NaCl. Major fatty acids were C(14:0) (10.6-11.6%), anteiso-C(15:0) (25.7-32.7%),
C(16:1) ω11c (12.2-16.0%), and C(16:0) (14.0-20.4%). The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol,
and meso-diaminopimelic acid was found in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. The G+C content was 38.4%. DNA-DNA hybridization between strain GCM68(T) and H. miurensis M23-1(T) was 32.4%, while hybridization to N. azotifigens 24KS-1(T), Amphibacillus tropicus Z-7792(T), and Paraliobacillus ryukyuensis O15-7(T) was below 30%. The phylogenetic analysis and G+C content place strain
GCM68(T) in relation to species belonging to Bacillus rRNA group 1, but phylogenetic and physiologic data combined with chemotaxonomic analyses support our proposal for a new genus, Alkalilactibacillus, gen. nov., with the novel species Alkalilactibacillus
ikkensis, sp. nov. (type strain is GCM68(T) = DSM 19937 = LMG 24405). PMID: 22297696 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Alteribacillus bidgolensis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2012 Nov;62(Pt 11):2691-7. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.034173-0. Epub 2012 Jan 6. Alteribacillus bidgolensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a moderately halophilic bacterium from a hypersaline lake, and reclassification of Bacillus
persepolensis as Alteribacillus persepolensis comb. nov. Didari M(1), Amoozegar MA, Bagheri M, Schumann P, Spröer C,
Sánchez-Porro C, Ventosa A. Author information: (1)Extremophiles Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biology, College of Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran. A novel Gram-stain-positive, moderately halophilic bacterium, designated strain
P4B(T), was isolated from water of the hypersaline Aran-Bidgol lake in Iran and characterized taxonomically by using a polyphasic
approach. Cells of strain P4B(T) were non-motile rods producing ellipsoidal endospores at a central position in non-swollen sporangia.
Strain P4B(T) was strictly aerobic and catalase- and oxidase-positive. It was able to grow at NaCl concentrations of 0.5-12.5% (w/v),
with optimum growth occurring at 5-7.5% (w/v) NaCl. The optimum temperature and pH for growth were 35 °C and pH 7.0. On the
basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain P4B(T) was shown to belong to the phylum Firmicutes and shared highest similarity with Bacillus persepolensis HS136(T) (97.1%) and Bacillus salarius BH169(T) (95.1%). However, it shared only 91.3% 16S rRNA
gene sequence similarity with Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis DSM 10(T), indicating that strain P4B(T) might not be a member of the
genus Bacillus. The DNA G+C content of this new isolate was 38.9 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments revealed a low level
of relatedness between strain P4B(T) and B. persepolensis HS136(T) (6%). The major cellular fatty acids of strain P4B(T) were
iso-C(15:0) and anteiso-C(15:0), as for B. persepolensis HS136(T) but in contrast to B. salarius DSM 16461(T) and B. subtilis subsp.
subtilis DSM 10(T). Its polar lipid pattern consisted of phosphatidylglycerol, an aminoglycolipid and an unknown phospholipid. This
polar lipid profile was similar to that obtained for B. persepolensis DSM 21632(T) but different from those of B. salarius DSM 16461(T)
and B. subtilis subsp. subtilis DSM 10(T). The isoprenoid quinones were MK-7 (88%) and MK-8 (2%). The peptidoglycan contained
meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. All these features indicate placement of strain P4B(T) within the Firmicutes,
closely related to B. persepolensis but with features clearly distinct from those of the genus Bacillus and other related genera. On the
basis of these data, strain P4B(T) is considered to represent a novel species of a new genus, for which the name Alteribacillus bidgolensis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Alteribacillus bidgolensis is P4B(T) (=CCM 7963(T)=CECT 7998(T)=DSM
25260(T)=IBRC-M 10614(T)=KCTC 13821(T)). It is also suggested to transfer B. persepolensis to this new genus, as Alteribacillus
persepolensis comb. nov. The type strain of Alteribacillus persepolensis is HS136(T) (=CCM 7595(T)=DSM 21632(T)=JCM
15720(T)=LMG 25222(T)). PMID: 22228653 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
3
第二节
7.
8.
Amphibacillus
Amphibacillus fermentum Mikrobiologiia. 2001 Nov-Dec;70(6):825-37. [Amphibacillus fermentum sp. nov., Amphibacillus tropicus
sp. nov.--new alkaliphilic, facultatively anaerobic, saccharolytic Bacilli from Lake Magadi]. [Article in Russian] Zhilina TN(1), Garnova
ES, Turova TP, Kostrikina NA, Zavarzin GA. Author information: (1)Institute of Microbiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, pr.
60-letiya Oktyabrya 7, k. 2, Moscow, 117312 Russia. New alkaliphilic, saccharolytic, rod-shaped, gram-positive bacteria resistant to
heating and drying and phylogenetically affiliated to the Bacillus lineage were isolated under strictly anaerobic conditions from sediments of the alkaline and highly mineralized Lake Magadi. Strain Z-7792 forms endospores; in strain Z-7984, endospore formation
was not revealed. The strains are capable of both anaerobic growth (at the expense of fermentation of glucose and certain monoand disaccharides with the formation of formate, ethanol, and acetate) and aerobic growth. Among polysaccharides, the strains hydrolyze starch, glycogen, and xylan. Yeast extract or methionine are required for growth. The strains are strict alkaliphiles exhibiting
obligate requirement for Na+ and carbonate ions but not for Cl- ion. Growth occurs at a total mineralization as high as 3.3-3.6 M Na+,
with an optimum at 1-1.7 M Na+. Strain Z-7792 is an obligate alkaliphile with a pH growth range of 8.5-11.5 and an optimum of
9.5-9.7. Strain Z-7984 grows in a pH range of 7.0-10.5 with an optimum at 8.0-9.5. Both strains are mesophiles having a growth optimum at 37-38 degrees C. They belong to bacilli with a low G + C content. The G + C contents of the DNA of strains Z-7792 and
Z-7984 are 39.2 and 41.5 mol%, respectively. These isolates of facultatively anaerobic, strictly alkaliphilic, Na(+)-dependent bacilli
can be considered representatives of the ecological group adapted to the life at drying-up shoars of soda lakes. Because of their independence of NaCl and lack of obligate dependence on sodium carbonates, the isolates are to be assigned to athalassophilic organisms. According to their physiological and phylogenetic characteristics, they taxonomically belong to group 1 of the species of bacilli, occupying a position intermediate between the genera Amphibacillus and Gracilibacillus. The isolates are described as new species of Amphibacillus: A. fermentum (type strain, Z-7984T) and A. tropicus (type strain, Z-7792T). PMID: 11785140 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Amphibacillus jilinensis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2010 Nov;60(Pt 11):2540-3. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.018259-0. Epub 2009 Dec 4. Amphibacillus jilinensis sp. nov., a facultatively anaerobic, alkaliphilic bacillus from a soda lake. Wu XY(1), Zheng G, Zhang WW, Xu XW,
Wu M, Zhu XF. Author information: (1)College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, PR China. A facultatively anaerobic,
alkaliphilic, spore-forming, Gram-positive-staining rod, designated Y1(T), was isolated under strictly anaerobic conditions from sediment of a soda lake in Jilin province, China. The strain was not dependent on Na(+) but was highly halotolerant and grew optimally in
medium JY with 0.5 M Na(+) (0.06 M NaHCO(3) and 0.44 M NaCl). The optimum pH for growth was 9.0, with a range of pH 7.5-10.5.
No growth occurred at pH 7.0 or 11.0. The strain was mesophilic, with a temperature range of 15-45 °C and optimum growth at 32 °C.
Strain Y1(T) was able to use certain mono- and oligosaccharides. Soluble starch and casein were hydrolysed. The methyl red test,
Voges-Proskauer test and tests for catalase and oxidase activities were negative. The predominant fatty acids were anteiso-C(15 : 0)
and iso-C(15 : 0). Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed 93.4-96.8 % sequence similarity to members of the genus
Amphibacillus. The DNA G+C content was 37.7 mol% (T(m) method). The DNA-DNA relatedness of strain Y1(T) with respect to Amphibacillus tropicus DSM 13870(T) and Amphibacillus sediminis DSM 21624(T) was 48 and 37 %, respectively. On the basis of its
phylogenetic position and the DNA-DNA relatedness data as well as its physiological and biochemical properties, strain Y1(T) represents a novel species of the genus Amphibacillus, for which the name Amphibacillus jilinensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is
Y1(T) (=CGMCC 1.5123(T) =JCM 16149(T)). PMID: 19965990 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
第三节
9.
Aneurinibacillus
Aneurinibacillus danicus Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2004 Mar;54(Pt 2):419-27. Reclassification of Brevibacillus brevis strains NCIMB
13288 and DSM 6472 (=NRRL NRS-887) as Aneurinibacillus danicus sp. nov. and Brevibacillus limnophilus sp. nov. Goto K(1), Fujita
4
R, Kato Y, Asahara M, Yokota A. Author information: (1)Microbiological and Analytical Group, Food Research Laboratories, Mitsui
Norin Co. Ltd, 223-1, Miyahara, Fujieda, Shizuoka 426-0133, Japan. [email protected] Comparison of the hypervariable region
(269-279 bases in length) at the 5' end of the 16S rDNA sequences of 29 bacterial strains that were identified previously as Brevibacillus brevis showed that 13 strains clustered with Aneurinibacillus species, eight strains clustered with Bacillus species and eight
strains clustered with Brevibacillus species. Based on DNA-DNA hybridization results, 27 strains, not including [Brevibacillus brevis]
NCIMB 13288 and [Brevibacillus brevis] DSM 6472, were reidentified as Aneurinibacillus migulanus, Aneurinibacillus thermoaerophilus, Bacillus methanolicus, Bacillus oleronius, Brevibacillus agri, Brevibacillus brevis and Brevibacillus parabrevis. [Brevibacillus
brevis] NCIMB 13288, which was located in the Aneurinibacillus cluster, showed low DNA-DNA relatedness (<14 %) and low 16S
rDNA sequence similarity (96.8-97.9 %) to other Aneurinibacillus species. [Brevibacillus brevis] DSM 6472, which was located in the
Brevibacillus cluster, also showed low DNA-DNA relatedness (<12 %) and low 16S rDNA sequence similarity (95.4-98.8 %) to other
Brevibacillus species. These genotypic and phylogenetic data, plus phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, suggest that
[Brevibacillus brevis] NCIMB 13288 (=IAM 15048) and [Brevibacillus brevis] DSM 6472 (=NRRL NRS-887) represent novel species of
the genera Aneurinibacillus and Brevibacillus, respectively, for which the names Aneurinibacillus danicus sp. nov. and Brevibacillus
limnophilus sp. nov. are proposed. PMID: 15023954 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
第四节
Anoxybacillus
10. Anoxybacillus contaminans Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2004 May;54(Pt 3):941-6. Anoxybacillus contaminans sp. nov. and Bacillus
gelatini sp. nov., isolated from contaminated gelatin batches. De Clerck E(1), Rodríguez-Díaz M, Vanhoutte T, Heyrman J, Logan NA,
De Vos P. Author information: (1)Laboratory of Microbiology, Department of Biochemistry, Physiology and Microbiology, Ghent University, K.L. Ledeganckstraat 35, B-9000 Gent, Belgium. [email protected] Aerobic, endospore-forming bacteria that are attributed to the genus Bacillus or related genera constitute a hazard to the quality of gelatin. During repetitive extragenic palindromic
DNA (rep)-PCR screening of gelatin isolates, a group of five isolates (group 1) and a group of 66 isolates (group 2) that did not match
any pattern in our database were found. On the basis of 16S rDNA sequence analysis, representative strains of the different rep-PCR
fingerprint types of group 1 were shown to be related most closely to Anoxybacillus species, but with sequence similarity of <97 %.
Likewise, representative strains of group 2 were shown to be related most closely to Bacillus species, with 16S rDNA sequence similarity of <97 %. DNA-DNA reassociation values of isolates that displayed the most divergent rep-PCR profiles revealed that strains
within each group belonged to a single species, according to recommendations for species delineation. A mean fatty acid profile
could be calculated for each group. Isolates within a single group had similar patterns of results in API and other phenotypic tests; no
correlation of patterns of results with rep-PCR groups was seen. Physiological characterization of group 1 isolates allows their distinction from other Anoxybacillus species. Despite the weak reaction of group 2 isolates in API tests, physiological characterization allows
distinction between Bacillus species that react weakly in API tests. Two novel species are therefore proposed, with the names Anoxybacillus contaminans sp. nov. (type strain, LMG 21881(T)=DSM 15866(T)) and Bacillus gelatini sp. nov. (type strain, LMG
21880(T)=DSM 15865(T)). PMID: 15143046 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
11. Anoxybacillus pushchinensis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2000 Nov;50 Pt 6:2109-17. Anoxybacillus pushchinensis gen. nov., sp. nov.,
a novel anaerobic, alkaliphilic, moderately thermophilic bacterium from manure, and description of Anoxybacillus flavitherms comb.
nov. Pikuta E(1), Lysenko A, Chuvilskaya N, Mendrock U, Hippe H, Suzina N, Nikitin D, Osipov G, Laurinavichius K. Author information: (1)Institute of Microbiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow. [email protected] A new strictly anaerobic, alkaliphilic, moderately thermophilic, fermentative, spore-forming bacterium, strain K1T, was isolated from manure samples (pH 6-8).
Cells were Gram-positive, straight, non-motile rods that grew at temperatures of 37-66 degrees C (optimum at 62 degrees C) and in a
pH range of 8.0-10.5 (optimum at 9.5-9.7). The bacterium fermented D-glucose, sucrose, D-fructose, D-trehalose and starch as carbon and energy sources. It required vitamins and its growth is stimulated by yeast extract. The major metabolic products were H2
and acetate. Cells were catalase-negative and could reduce nitrate to nitrite. The G+C content of the DNA was 42.2 mol%. Based on
the phenotypic properties and 16S rDNA sequencing and DNA-DNA hybridization data, strain K1T (= DSM 12423T = ATCC 700785T
= VKM B-2193T) was assigned to the new genus Anoxybacillus gen. nov., as a representative of a new species, Anoxybacillus
pushchinensis sp. nov. 'Bacillus flavothermus' strain d.y., which was found to be closely related to strain K1T, is described as Anoxybacillus flavithermus comb. nov. (type strain = d.y.T = DSM 2641T). PMID: 11155986 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
5
第五节
Bacillus
12. Bacillus abyssalis Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2013 May;103(5):963-9. doi: 10.1007/s10482-013-9875-7. Epub 2013 Jan 12. Bacillus abyssalis sp. nov., isolated from a sediment of the South China Sea. You ZQ(1), Li J, Qin S, Tian XP, Wang FZ, Zhang S, Li WJ.
Author information: (1)Key Laboratory of Marine Bio-resources Sustainable Utilization CAS, RNAM Center for Marine Microbiology,
Guangdong Key Laboratory of Marine Materia Medica, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 164
West Xingang Road, Guangzhou, 510301, People's Republic of China. A Gram-positive bacterium, designated SCSIO 15042(T), was
isolated from a sediment of the South China Sea and was subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. The isolate grew at 20-60 °C,
pH 6.0-10.0 and it could grow with up to 10 % (w/v) NaCl. The cell-wall diamino acid was found to be meso-diaminopimelic acid. Polar lipids were found to be diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine and an unknown polar lipid.
The only menaquinone was determined to be MK-7. The major fatty acids were identified as C16:1 ω7c/C16:1 ω6c, C16:0, iso-C15:0,
anteiso-C15:0, and iso-C16:0. The DNA G+C content of strain SCSIO 15042(T) was determined to be 43.1 mol%. Phylogenetic
analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences affiliated strain SCSIO 15042(T) to the genus Bacillus. Levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities between strain SCSIO 15042(T) and Bacillus herbersteinensis D-1-5a(T), Bacillus infantis SMC 4352-1(T), Bacillus novalis LMG 21837(T) and Bacillus drentensis LMG 21831(T) were 96.2, 96.2, 96.1 and 96.1 %, respectively. Based on the evidence of the present polyphasic study, strain SCSIO 15042(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for
which the name Bacillus abyssalis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SCSIO 15042(T) (=DSM 25875(T) = CCTCC AB
2012074(T) = NBRC 109102(T)). PMID: 23314911 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
13. Bacillus acidiceler Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2007 Sep;57(Pt 9):2031-6. Bacillus acidiceler sp. nov., isolated from a forensic specimen, containing Bacillus anthracis pX02 genes. Peak KK(1), Duncan KE, Veguilla W, Luna VA, King DS, Heller L, Heberlein-Larson L,
Reeves F, Cannons AC, Amuso P, Cattani J. Author information: (1)USF Center for Biological Defense, College of Public Health,
University of South Florida, 3602 Spectrum Blvd, Tampa, FL 33612-9401, USA. [email protected] Research at the Center for
Biological Defense identified plasmid-borne forms of Bacillus anthracis pXO2 genes in a Gram-positive, endospore-forming rod, isolated from a forensic specimen considered a credible threat of harbouring anthrax. Conventional, commercial and molecular-based
methods indicated that the isolate (CBD 119(T)) was not B. anthracis and considered not to be a member of the Bacillus cereus
group. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, strain CBD 119(T) was most closely related to Bacillus luciferensis LMG
18422(T) (99.3 %). Phenotyping and fatty acid methyl ester analysis of the isolate were conducted alongside B. luciferensis JCM
12212(T). The major cellular fatty acids (anteiso-C(15 : 0), iso-C(15 : 0), and >7 iso or anteiso forms) supported inclusion of the isolate in the genus Bacillus. Strain CBD 119(T) was inconsistent with B. luciferensis JCM 12212(T) for 18 of 96 traits evaluated including motility, degree of endospore-driven swelling and pH optimum; the two were linked by fatty acid methyl ester analysis as separate
but closely related species. DNA-DNA relatedness between strain CBD 119(T) and B. luciferensis JCM 12212(T) resulted in less than
20 % hybridization. The results of biochemical and physiological characterization, chemotaxonomic analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization differentiated strain CBD 119(T) both phenotypically and genotypically from the only species with validly published name with
greater than 97 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. The isolate has an accelerated doubling time when grown in aerated broth at
pH 5.9 relative to that at pH 7.1. Therefore, it is proposed that strain CBD 119(T) represents a novel species, Bacillus acidiceler sp.
nov. The type strain is strain CBD 119(T) (=NRRL B-41736(T)=DSM 18954(T)). PMID: 17766868 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
14. Bacillus acidicola Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2005 Sep;55(Pt 5):2125-30. Bacillus acidicola sp. nov., a novel mesophilic, acidophilic
species isolated from acidic Sphagnum peat bogs in Wisconsin. Albert RA(1), Archambault J, Rosselló-Mora R, Tindall BJ, Matheny
M. Author information: (1)Semco BioScience, 630 East Keefe, Milwaukee, WI 53212, USA. [email protected] A mesophilic, acidophilic, spore-forming bacterium, strain 105-2(T), was isolated from an acidic Sphagnum peat bog in Wisconsin, USA.
Strain 105-2(T) has 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Bacillus sporothermodurans DSM 10599(T) and Bacillus oleronius DSM
9356(T) of 97.4 and 97.8%, respectively. The primary lipoquinone is MK-7 and the major fatty acids are 15:0 iso, 15:0 anteiso and
17:0 anteiso. The predominant polar lipids were found to be diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine
and a glycolipid. The DNA G+C content was found to be 43.2 mol%. The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and molecular analyses identified strain 105-2(T) as a novel Bacillus species, for which the name Bacillus acidicola is proposed. The type strain is 105-2(T)
(=DSM 14745(T)=ATCC BAA-366(T)=NRRL B-23453(T)). PMID: 16166720 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
15. Bacillus acidiproducens Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2009 Sep;59(Pt 9):2226-31. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.003913-0. Epub 2009 Jul 15. Bacillus acidiproducens sp. nov., vineyard soil isolates that produce lactic acid. Jung MY(1), Kim JS, Chang YH. Author information:
(1)Korean Collection for Type Cultures, Biological Resource Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, 52
Oeundong, Daejeon 305-806, Republic of Korea. Two novel spore-forming lactic acid bacteria, strains SL213T and SL1213, were
isolated from vineyard soils in Korea. Cells of both isolates were rod-shaped bacilli and contained subterminal, ellipsoidal spores.
Strains were facultatively anaerobic, catalase-positive, oxidase-negative and motile with single flagella. meso-Diaminopimelic acid,
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17.
18.
19.
glucose and galactose were detected in whole-cell hydrolysates. Major fatty acids found in the strains were anteiso-C15:0, iso-C15:0,
iso-C16:0, C16:0 and anteiso-C17:0. The G+C contents of the DNA were 46.1 and 46.3 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequences from the
two strains were almost identical (99.9%) and placed them in the genus Bacillus, according to phylogenetic analysis. The type strains
most closely related to SL213T were Bacillus coagulans ATCC 7050T and Bacillus badius ATCC 14574T, with 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 96.9 and 95.9%, respectively. Levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain SL213T and strain SL1213, B.
coagulans ATCC 7050T and B. badius ATCC 14574T were 92.5, 49.0 and 27.5%, respectively. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences and chemotaxonomic and phenotypic evidence given in this study, we report that SL213T represents a novel species, for
which the name Bacillus acidiproducens sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SL213T (=KCTC 13078T=JCM 14638T). PMID:
19605722 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus aeolius Syst Appl Microbiol. 2003 Jun;26(2):172-6. Bacillus aeolius sp. nov. a novel thermophilic, halophilic marine Bacillus
species from Eolian Islands (Italy). Gugliandolo C(1), Maugeri TL, Caccamo D, Stackebrandt E. Author information: (1)Dipartimento
di Biologia Animale ed Ecologia Marina, Sez. Ecologia Microbica e Biotecnologie, Messina, Italy. Phylogenetic relationships of a
thermophilic, halophilic, aerobic spore-forming strain 4-1(T), isolated from the water of a shallow sea hot spring at Vulcano Island (Italy), revealed its relatedness to members of the genus Bacillus. Chemotaxonomic and phenotypic properties of strain 4-1(T) are sufficiently different from related moderately thermophilic species, e.g., B. smithii, B. fumarioli, B. oleronius, B. sporothermodurans and B.
infernus to describe strain 4-1(T) as a new Bacillus species, for which the name Bacillus aeolius sp. nov. is proposed. Strain 4-1(T) is
characterised by the potential biotechnological important properties such as exopolysaccharide production, surfactant activity, and
utilisation of hydrocarbons. PMID: 12866842 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus aequororis Singh NK(1), Kaur C, Kumar N, Velmurugan S, Citarasu T, Mayilraj S. Bacillus aequororis sp. nov., Isolated
From Marine Sediment. Curr Microbiol. 2014 Jul 10. [Epub ahead of print] Author information: (1)MTCC- Microbial Type Culture Collection and Gene Bank, Chandigarh, 160 036, India. The taxonomic position of a bacterium isolated from a marine sediment sample
collected from the Bay of Bengal, Kanyakumari coast, India, was analyzed by using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. The isolated
strain, designated as M-8(T), had phenotypic characteristics that matched those of the genus Bacillus and it represents a novel species. The diagnostic cell wall amino acid is meso-DAP. The major menaquinone is MK-7, and the strain has a phospholipid pattern of
diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, and unknown glycolipid. The almost-complete 16S rRNA
gene sequence (1,450 bases) of the novel strain was compared with those of closely related species and confirmed that the strain
belongs to the genus Bacillus. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain M-8(T) differs from the closely related species
Bacillus horikoshi 99.5 %, Bacillus halmapalus 98.3 %, and Bacillus cohni 97.4 %. However, the DNA-DNA hybridization showed that
it had genomic relatedness value of 60.7 % with B. horikoshi, B. halmapalus (37.6 %), and B. cohnii (29.9 %). The DNA G+C content
of strain M-8(T) is 40.6 mol%. Based on the polyphasic data, strain M-8(T) should be recognized as a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus aequororis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is M-8(T) (=MTCC 11626(T) = JCM 19304(T)).
PMID: 25008778 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Bacillus aerius Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2006 Jul;56(Pt 7):1465-73. Bacillus aerius sp. nov., Bacillus aerophilus sp. nov., Bacillus
stratosphericus sp. nov. and Bacillus altitudinis sp. nov., isolated from cryogenic tubes used for collecting air samples from high altitudes. Shivaji S(1), Chaturvedi P, Suresh K, Reddy GS, Dutt CB, Wainwright M, Narlikar JV, Bhargava PM. Author information:
(1)Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Uppal Road, Hyderabad 500 007, India. [email protected] Four novel bacterial
strains were isolated from cryogenic tubes used to collect air samples at altitudes of 24, 28 and 41 km. The four strains, 24K(T),
28K(T), 41KF2a(T) and 41KF2b(T), were identified as members of the genus Bacillus. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA
gene sequences indicated that three of the strains, 24K(T), 28K(T) and 41KF2a(T), are very similar to one another (>98 % sequence
similarity) and show a similarity of 98-99 % with Bacillus licheniformis and 98 % with Bacillus sonorensis. DNA-DNA hybridization
studies showed that strains 24K(T), 28K(T) and 41KF2a(T) exhibit <70 % similarity with each other and with B. licheniformis and B.
sonorensis. Differences in phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics between the novel strains and B. licheniformis and B.
sonorensis further confirmed that these three isolates are representatives of three separate novel species. Strain 41KF2b(T) showed
100 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Bacillus pumilus, but differed from its nearest phylogenetic neighbour in a number of
phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics and showed only 55 % DNA-DNA relatedness. Therefore, the four isolates represent
four novel species for which the names Bacillus aerius sp. nov. (type strain, 24K(T)=MTCC 7303(T)=JCM 13348(T)), Bacillus aerophilus sp. nov. (type strain, 28K(T)=MTCC 7304(T)=JCM 13347(T)), Bacillus stratosphericus sp. nov. (type strain, 41KF2a(T)=MTCC
7305(T)=JCM 13349(T)) and Bacillus altitudinis sp. nov. (type strain, 41KF2b(T)=MTCC 7306(T)=JCM 13350(T)) are proposed. PMID:
16825614 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus aidingensis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2008 Dec;58(Pt 12):2828-32. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.2008/000471-0. Bacillus aidingensis
sp. nov., a moderately halophilic bacterium isolated from Ai-Ding salt lake in China. Xue Y(1), Ventosa A, Wang X, Ren P, Zhou P, Ma
Y. Author information: (1)State Key Laboratory of Microbial Resources, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, PR China. A Gram-positive, halophilic bacterium was isolated from a sediment sample from Ai-Ding salt lake in China.
The isolate, designated strain 17-5(T), grew at salinities of 8-33 % (w/v) NaCl (optimally at 12 %, w/v). The genomic DNA G+C con-
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21.
22.
23.
tent of strain 17-5(T) was 48.1 mol%. The predominant isoprenoid quinone was MK-7(H(2)) and the cell-wall peptidoglycan contained
meso-diaminopimelic acid. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol and an unidentified glycolipid. The major cellular fatty
acids were anteiso-C(15 : 0), anteiso-C(17 : 0), iso-C(16 : 0) and C(16 : 0). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain 17-5(T) was a member of the genus Bacillus, being most closely related to Bacillus qingdaonensis JCM
14087(T) (96.0 % sequence similarity) and Bacillus salarius DSM 16461(T) (95.6 %). The levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with respect to other Bacillus species were less than 91.7 %. Comparative analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence data, chemotaxonomy and phenotypic features of the novel isolate and related species of Bacillus indicated that strain 17-5(T) represents a
novel species within the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus aidingensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 17-5(T)
(=CGMCC 1.3227(T)=DSM 18341(T)). PMID: 19060067 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus algicola Syst Appl Microbiol. 2004 May;27(3):301-7. Bacillus algicola sp. nov., a novel filamentous organism isolated from
brown alga Fucus evanescens. Ivanova EP(1), Alexeeva YA, Zhukova NV, Gorshkova NM, Buljan V, Nicolau DV, Mikhailov VV,
Christen R. Author information: (1)Industrial Research Institute, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Vic, Australia. [email protected] A slightly yellowish, Gram-positive, filamentous with 'cross-like' branching, aerobic, spore-forming bacterium was
isolated from enrichment culture during degradation of the thallus of the brown alga Fucus evanescens. The bacterium studied was
chemoorganotrophic, tolerant to 3% NaCl, alkalitolerant, and alginolytic. The predominant cellular fatty acid was ai15:0 which accounted more than 65% of total fatty acids, while i14:0, il5:0 i16:0, and ai17:0 made up 25%. DNA base composition was 37 mol%
GC. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA gene revealed that this isolate was a member of the genus Bacillus, with no close relatives at
the species level (16S rRNA gene sequence similarity less 97%). On the basis of the significant differences demonstrated in the
phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, it is suggested that the bacterium be classified as a novel species; the name Bacillus algicola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KMM 3737T (= CIP 107850T). PMID: 15214635 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus alkalicola Curr Microbiol. 2014 Sep;69(3):311-6. doi: 10.1007/s00284-014-0576-x. Epub 2014 Apr 23. Bacillus alkalicola sp.
nov., An Alkaliphilic, Gram-Positive Bacterium Isolated from Zhabuye Lake in Tibet, China. Zhai L(1), Ma Y, Xue Y, Ma Y. Author information: (1)State Key Laboratory of Microbial Resources, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101,
People's Republic of China, [email protected] A Gram-positive, alkaliphilic bacterium, designated strain Zby6(T), was isolated
from Zhabuye Lake in Tibet, China. The strain was able to grow at pH 8.0-11.0 (optimum at pH 10.0), in 0-8 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum
at 3 %, w/v) and at 10-45 °C (optimum at 37 °C). Cells of the isolate were facultatively anaerobic and spore-forming rods with polar
flagellum. The predominant isoprenoid quinone was MK-7, and its cell wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. The
major cellular fatty acids were iso-C15:0, C16:0 and anteiso-C15:0. The major polar lipids consisted of phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, and phosphatidylethanolamine. The genomic DNA G+C content of the isolate was 38.9 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis
based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain Zby6(T) was a member of the genus Bacillus and most closely related to
Bacillus cellulosilyticus DSM 2522(T) (97.7 % similarity). The DNA-DNA relatedness value between strain Zby6(T) and B. cellulosilyticus DSM 2522(T) was 59.2 ± 1.8 %. Comparative analysis of genotypic and phenotypic features indicated that strain Zby6(T)
represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus alkalicola sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is Zby6(T)
(=CGMCC 1.10368(T) = JCM 17098(T) = NBRC 107743(T)). PMID: 24756808 [PubMed - in process]$$
Bacillus alkalidiazotrophicus Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2008 Oct;58(Pt 10):2459-64. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.65655-0. Bacillus alkalidiazotrophicus sp. nov., a diazotrophic, low salt-tolerant alkaliphile isolated from Mongolian soda soil. Sorokin ID(1), Kravchenko IK,
Tourova TP, Kolganova TV, Boulygina ES, Sorokin DY. Author information: (1)Winogradsky Institute of Microbiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Prospect 60-let Octyabrya 7/2, 117811 Moscow, Russia. Strain MS 6(T) was obtained from a microoxic enrichment
with a soda soil sample from north-eastern Mongolia in nitrogen-free alkaline medium at pH 10. The isolate had clostridia-like motile
cells and formed ellipsoid endospores. It was able to fix dinitrogen gas growing on nitrogen-free alkaline medium. Strain MS 6(T) was
a strictly fermentative bacterium without a respiratory chain, although it had a high catalase activity and tolerated aerobic conditions.
It was an obligate alkaliphile with a pH range for growth between 7.5 and 10.6 (optimum at 9.0-9.5). Growth and nitrogen fixation at
pH 10 were possible at a total salt content of up to 1.2 M Na(+) (optimum at 0.2-0.3 M). The dominant cellular fatty acids included
C(16 : 0), C(16 : 1)omega7, anteiso-C(15 : 0) and C(14 : 0). The dominant isoprenoid quinone was MK-7. The cell-wall peptidoglycan
contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. 16S rRNA gene sequencing identified strain MS 6(T) as a
member of the genus Bacillus. Its closest relative was Bacillus arseniciselenatis E1H(T). The key functional nitrogenase gene nifH
was detected in both strain MS 6(T) and its close relative and these strains formed a novel lineage in the nifH gene family. On the basis of these phenotypic and genetic comparisons, strain MS 6(T) is proposed to represent a novel species of the genus Bacillus, Bacillus alkalidiazotrophicus sp. nov. with the type strain MS 6(T) (=NCCB 100213(T)=UNIQEM U377(T)). PMID: 18842875 [PubMed indexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus alkalinitrilicus FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2008 Nov;288(2):235-40. doi: 10.1111/j. 1574- 6968. 2008.01353.x. Epub 2008 Sep 16.
Utilization of aliphatic nitriles under haloalkaline conditions by Bacillus alkalinitrilicus sp. nov. isolated from soda solonchak soil. Sorokin DY(1), van Pelt S, Tourova TP. Author information: (1)Winogradsky Institute of Microbiology, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Moscow, Russia. [email protected] Enrichment with isobutyronitrile as the sole carbon, energy and nitrogen source at pH 10, using
8
soda solonchak soils as an inoculum, resulted in the selection of a binary culture consisting of two different spore-forming phenotypes.
One of them, strain ANL-iso4, was capable of growth with isobutyronitrile as a single substrate, while the other phenotype only utilized products of isobutyronitrile hydrolysis, such as isobutyroamide and isobutyrate. Strain ANL-iso4 is an obligate alkaliphile and a
moderately salt-tolerant bacterium. Apart from isobutyronitrile, it grew on other (C3-C6) aliphatic nitriles at pH 10. Resting cells of
ANL-iso4 actively hydrolyzed a number of aliphatic and arylaliphatic nitriles and their corresponding amides. The latter, together with
the intermediate formation of amides during nitrile hydrolysis, indicated the presence of a nitrile hydratase/amidase system in the
novel bacterium. Although present in an alkaliphilic bacterium, both nitrile- and amide-hydrolyzing activities had a pH optimum within
the neutral range, probably due to their intracellular localization. On the basis of phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses, strain
ANL-iso4 is proposed as a new species Bacillus alkalinitrilicus sp. nov. PMID: 18801047 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
24. Bacillus alkalisediminis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2011 Aug;61(Pt 8):1880-6. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.019489-0. Epub 2010 Sep 10. Bacillus alkalisediminis sp. nov., an alkaliphilic and moderately halophilic bacterium isolated from sediment of extremely shallow soda
ponds. Borsodi AK(1), Pollák B, Kéki Z, Rusznyák A, Kovács AL, Spröer C, Schumann P, Márialigeti K, Tóth EM. Author information:
(1)Department of Microbiology, Eötvös Loránd University, Pázmány P. sétány 1/C, H-1117 Budapest, Hungary.
[email protected] Alkaliphilic strains characterized by optimal growth at pH 9.0 and 5 % (w/v) NaCl designated K1-25(T) and
H3-93 were isolated from extremely shallow soda ponds located in Hungary. Cells of both strains were Gram-stain-positive,
non-motile, straight rods and formed central, ellipsoidal endospores with swollen sporangia. The isolates were aerobic, catalase-positive, oxidase-negative and contained a peptidoglycan of type A1γ based on meso-diaminopimelic acid. In both strains,
menaquinone-7 (MK-7) was the predominant isoprenoid quinone and the major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C(15 : 0) and
iso-C(15 : 0). The DNA G+C contents of strains K1-25(T) and H3-93 were 39.0 and 36.3 mol%, respectively. 16S rRNA gene sequence-based phylogenetic analysis revealed 99.2 % similarity between strains K1-25(T) and H3-93 and the novel isolates had the
highest similarities to Bacillus akibai 1139(T) (97.8 and 98.3 %, respectively), Bacillus wakoensis N-1(T) (97.0 and 97.4 %), Bacillus
okhensis Kh10-101(T) (97.1 and 97.4 %) and Bacillus krulwichiae AM31D(T) (96.9 and 97.1 %). DNA-DNA hybridization between our
strains and the type strains of closely related Bacillus species was lower than 70 %. Although DNA-DNA hybridization between
strains K1-25(T) and H3-93 was 27 %, the phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data did not support the differentiation of these two
strains into separate species. Therefore, they represent genomovars of a novel species, for which the name Bacillus alkalisediminis
sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is K1-25(T) ( = DSM 21670(T) = NCAIM B02301(T)). PMID: 20833886 [PubMed - indexed for
MEDLINE]
25. Bacillus alkalitelluris Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2008 Nov;58(Pt 11):2629-34. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.65733-0. Bacillus alkalitelluris sp.
nov., an alkaliphilic bacterium isolated from sandy soil. Lee JC(1), Lee GS, Park DJ, Kim CJ. Author information: (1)Functional
Metabolomics Research Center, Korean Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), Daejeon 305-806, Republic of
Korea. A Gram-positive, alkaliphilic bacterium, designated strain BA288(T), was isolated from sandy soil. Cells were facultatively anaerobic, endospore-forming rods that were motile by means of peritrichous flagella. The strain grew at 15-40 degrees C and pH
7.0-11.0 (optimally at 30 degrees C and pH 9.0-9.5) and at salinities of 0-4 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA
gene sequences showed that strain BA288(T) belonged to the genus Bacillus and that Bacillus herbersteinensis D-1,5a(T), Bacillus
humi LMG 22167(T), Bacillus cohnii DSM 6307(T) and Bacillus litoralis SW-211(T) were the closest neighbours (96.2, 96.0, 96.0 and
95.9 % sequence similarity, respectively). The genomic DNA G+C content was 37.9 mol% and the predominant menaquinone was
MK-7. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C(15 : 0), iso-C(15 : 0), C(16 : 0) and iso-C(14 : 0). The peptidoglycan type was
A1gamma (meso-diaminopimelic acid). Therefore, on the basis of phylogenetic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic properties, strain
BA288(T) represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus alkalitelluris sp. nov. is proposed. The type
strain is BA288(T) (=KCTC 3947(T) =DSM 16976(T)). PMID: 18984705 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
26. Bacillus alveayuensis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2005 May;55(Pt 3):1211-5. Bacillus alveayuensis sp. nov., a thermophilic bacterium
isolated from deep-sea sediments of the Ayu Trough. Bae SS(1), Lee JH, Kim SJ. Author information: (1)Microbiology Laboratory,
Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute, Republic of Korea. Two thermophilic, spore-forming strains, TM1(T) and TM5,
were isolated from deep-sea sediment (4000 m below sea level) of the Ayu Trough in the western Pacific Ocean. Cells of the two
strains were Gram-positive, motile and rod-shaped. Their spores were ellipsoidal, subterminal to terminal and occurred in swollen
sporangia. The two strains grew at temperatures up to 65 degrees C and in the pH range 6.5-9.0. The NaCl concentration for optimal
growth was 3.0 % (w/v) and growth was inhibited by 5 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strains TM1(T) and TM5 belonged to the genus Bacillus, and that strain TM1(T) was most closely related to Bacillus aeolius DSM 15084(T) (96.7 %), Bacillus smithii DSM 4216(T) (96.1 %), Bacillus methanolicus NCIMB 13113(T) (95.8 %) and Bacillus
pallidus DSM 3670(T) (95.7 %). Between the 16S rRNA gene sequences of strains TM1(T) and TM5 there were only three nucleotide
differences, implying that the two strains were of the same species. The cellular fatty acid profiles of the two strains were also very
similar, with iso-C(15 : 0), iso-C(16 : 0), C(16 : 0), iso-C(17 : 0) and anteiso-C(17 : 0) as the major components. The G + C content of
strain TM1(T) was 38.7 %. On the basis of phenotypic and molecular data, strains TM1(T) and TM5 represent a novel species of the
genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus alveayuensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is TM1(T) (= KCTC 10634(T) = JCM
9
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12523(T)). PMID: 15879257 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus arenosi Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2005 Jan;55(Pt 1):111-7. Bacillus arenosi sp. nov., Bacillus arvi sp. nov. and Bacillus humi
sp. nov., isolated from soil. Heyrman J(1), Rodríguez-Díaz M, Devos J, Felske A, Logan NA, De Vos P. Author information:
(1)Vakgroep BFM WE10V, Laboratorium voor Microbiologie, Universiteit Gent, K. L. Ledeganckstraat 35, B-9000 Gent, Belgium.
[email protected] A group of nine Gram-positive endospore-forming bacteria was isolated from soil of the Drentse A agricultural research area in The Netherlands. Using (GTG)5-PCR genomic fingerprinting and fatty acid analysis, the nine isolates were
divided into three consistent groups. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of representative strains, the nine isolates
were shown to belong to the genus Bacillus. The first group of four isolates was most closely related to Bacillus carboniphilus (95.5 %)
and Bacillus sporothermodurans (95.5 %). The second and third groups of three and two isolates, respectively, showed highest sequence similarity to Bacillus neidei (97.0 and 97.1 %, respectively) and Bacillus pycnus (both 96.7 %). A DNA-DNA relatedness study
confirmed the consistency of the three groups delineated by (GTG)5-PCR and fatty acid analysis. A small number of phenotypic
characters allowed differentiation of the three groups of isolates. The three groups therefore represent novel species, for which the
names Bacillus humi, Bacillus arenosi and Bacillus arvi are proposed, with LMG 22167T (=DSM 16318T), LMG 22166T (=DSM
16319T) and LMG 22165T (=DSM 16317T) as the respective type strains. PMID: 15653863 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus arsenicoselenatis Arch Microbiol. 1998 Dec;171(1):19-30. Bacillus arsenicoselenatis, sp. nov., and Bacillus selenitireducens, sp. nov.: two haloalkaliphiles from Mono Lake, California that respire oxyanions of selenium and arsenic. Switzer Blum J(1),
Burns Bindi A, Buzzelli J, Stolz JF, Oremland RS. Author information: (1)US Geological Survey, ms 480, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo
Park, CA 94025, USA. Two gram-positive anaerobic bacteria (strains E1H and MLS10) were isolated from the anoxic muds of Mono
Lake, California, an alkaline, hypersaline, arsenic-rich water body. Both grew by dissimilatory reduction of As(V) to As(III) with the
concomitant oxidation of lactate to acetate plus CO2. Bacillus arsenicoselenatis (strain E1H) is a spore-forming rod that also grew by
dissimilatory reduction of Se(VI) to Se(IV). Bacillus selenitireducens (strain MLS10) is a short, non-spore-forming rod that grew by
dissimilatory reduction of Se(IV) to Se(0). When the two isolates were cocultured, a complete reduction of Se(VI) to Se(0) was
achieved. Both isolates are alkaliphiles and had optimal specific growth rates in the pH range of 8.5-10. Strain E1H had a salinity optimum at 60 g l-1 NaCl, while strain MLS10 had optimal growth at lower salinities (24-60 g l-1 NaCl). Both strains have limited abilities
to grow with electron donors and acceptors other than those given above. Strain MLS10 demonstrated weak growth as a microaerophile and was also capable of fermentative growth on glucose, while strain E1H is a strict anaerobe. Comparative 16S rRNA gene
sequence analysis placed the two isolates with other Bacillus spp. in the low G+C gram-positive group of bacteria. PMID: 9871015
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus arsenicus Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2005 May;55(Pt 3):1123-7. Bacillus arsenicus sp. nov., an arsenic-resistant bacterium
isolated from a siderite concretion in West Bengal, India. Shivaji S(1), Suresh K, Chaturvedi P, Dube S, Sengupta S. Author information: (1)Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Hyderabad, India. [email protected] Strain Con a/3(T) is a Gram-positive,
motile, endospore-forming, rod-shaped and arsenic-resistant bacterium, which was isolated from a concretion of arsenic ore obtained
from a bore-hole. The bacterium grew in the presence of 20 mM arsenate and 0.5 mM arsenite. Diaminopimelic acid was present in
the cell wall peptidoglycan, MK-7 was the major menaquinone, and iso-C(15 : 0), anteiso-C(15 : 0), iso-C(16 : 0) and C(16 :
1)(delta7cis) were the major fatty acids. Based on its phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic characteristics, strain Con a/3(T)
was identified as a member of the genus Bacillus. It exhibited maximum similarity (97 %) at the 16S rRNA gene level with Bacillus
barbaricus (DSM 14730(T)); however, the DNA-DNA relatedness value with B. barbaricus was 60 %. Strain Con a/3(T) also exhibited
a number of phenotypic differences from B. barbaricus (DSM 14730(T)). Strain Con a/3(T) was therefore identified as representing a
novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus arsenicus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Con a/3(T) (=
MTCC 4380(T) = DSM 15822(T) = JCM 12167(T)). PMID: 15879243 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus asahii Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2004 Nov;54(Pt 6):1997-2001. Bacillus asahii sp. nov., a novel bacterium isolated from soil
with the ability to deodorize the bad smell generated from short-chain fatty acids. Yumoto I(1), Hirota K, Yamaga S, Nodasaka Y, Kawasaki T, Matsuyama H, Nakajima K. Author information: (1)Research Institute of Genome-based Biofactory, National Institute of
Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukisamu-Higashi, Toyohira-ku, Sapporo 062-8517, Japan.
[email protected] In a screening campaign to isolate strains with the ability to remove the bad smell associated with animal faeces,
strain MA001(T) was isolated from a soil sample obtained from Shizuoka prefecture, Japan. The isolate grew at pH 6-9 but not at pH
10. Cells were Gram-positive, straight rods with peritrichous flagella and produced ellipsoidal spores. The isolate was positive for catalase and oxidase tests but negative for indole production, deamination of phenylalanine and H(2)S production. The isolate did not
produce acid from any carbohydrates tested and could not grow in more than 2 % NaCl. The DNA G+C content was 39.4 mol%. The
cellular fatty acids profile consisted of significant amount of C(15) branched-chain fatty acids, iso-C(15 : 0) and anteiso-C(15 : 0).
Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing indicated that strain MA001(T) was closely related to Bacillus simplex
and Bacillus psychrosaccharolyticus. DNA-DNA hybridization revealed a low relatedness of the isolate to several phylogenetically
close neighbours (less than 9 %). On the basis of the phenotypic characteristics observed, phylogenetic data based on 16S rRNA
gene sequencing and DNA-DNA relatedness data, it is concluded that the isolate should be classified as representing a novel spe-
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cies, for which the name Bacillus asahii is proposed. The type strain is MA001(T) (=JCM 12112(T)=NCIMB 13969(T)). PMID:
15545424 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus aurantiacus Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2008 Apr;58(Pt 4):845-51. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.65325-0. Bacillus aurantiacus sp. nov.,
an alkaliphilic and moderately halophilic bacterium isolated from Hungarian soda lakes. Borsodi AK(1), Márialigeti K, Szabó G,
Palatinszky M, Pollák B, Kéki Z, Kovács AL, Schumann P, Tóth EM. Author information: (1)Department of Microbiology, Eötvös Loránd University, Pázmány P. sétány 1/C, H-1117 Budapest, Hungary. [email protected] Three alkaliphilic and moderately halophilic strains designated K1-5T, K1-10 and B1-1, characterized by optimal growth at pH 9.0-10.0 and at 3-7 % (w/v) NaCl, were isolated from extremely shallow, alkaline soda lakes located in Hungary. Cells of the strains are Gram-positive, straight rods and form a
central to subterminal, ellipsoidal endospore. The isolates are strictly aerobic, catalase-positive, oxidase-negative and contain a peptidoglycan of type A1 gamma based on meso-diaminopimelic acid. In strain K1-5T, menaquinone-7 (MK-7) is the predominant isoprenoid quinone and anteiso-C15 : 0 is the major cellular fatty acid. The DNA G+C content of strain K1-5T is 42.9 mol%. 16S rRNA
gene-based phylogenetic analysis revealed that the strains exhibit levels of sequence similarity of less than 95.8 % to known Bacillus
species. According to the polyphasic characterization, the strains represent a novel species, for which the name Bacillus aurantiacus
sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is K1-5T (=DSM 18675T =CCM 7447T =NCAIM B002265T). PMID: 18398180 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus axarquiensis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2005 May;55(Pt 3):1279-85. Bacillus axarquiensis sp. nov. and Bacillus malacitensis
sp. nov., isolated from river-mouth sediments in southern Spain. Ruiz-García C(1), Quesada E, Martínez-Checa F, Llamas I, Urdaci
MC, Béjar V. Author information: (1)Microbial Exopolysaccharide Research Group, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy,
University of Granada, Spain. Two Gram-positive, rod-shaped, endospore-forming bacteria (strains CR-119(T) and CR-95(T)) were
isolated from brackish sediments in the mouth of the river Velez in Malaga, southern Spain, and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic
study. Phenotypic tests showed that these strains were related to other Bacillus species at a similarity level of less than 87.6 %. Both
strains are halotolerant, aerobic, chemoheterotrophic, motile with peritrichous flagella and biosurfactant producers. Their endospores
are oval, subterminal and non-deforming structures. The predominant menaquinone in both strains is MK-7. The fatty-acid profiles of
both strains contain large quantities of branched and saturated fatty acids. The major fatty acids (%) are 15 : 0 anteiso (32.4), 15 : 0
iso (16.8), 17 : 0 iso (13.4), 16 : 0 (11.5) and 17 : 0 anteiso (10.2) in strain CR-119(T) and 15 : 0 anteiso (37.5), 17 : 0 iso (16.0) and
17 : 0 anteiso (15.8) in strain CR-95(T). The G + C contents of strains CR-119(T) and CR-95(T) are 41.0 and 42.5 mol%, respectively.
RAPD analysis confirmed the low degree of similarity between the two strains and also amongst other Bacillus species. 16S rRNA
gene analysis of strain CR-119(T) showed the highest sequence similarity to be 97.4 %, with Bacillus mojavensis and Bacillus subtilis
subsp. spizizenii. In the case of strain CR-95(T), the maximum similarity value was 99.5 %, with B. mojavensis. DNA-DNA hybridization of strains CR-119(T) and CR-95(T) with the above species produced values lower than 46.9 %. Therefore, on the basis of phenotypic characteristics, phylogenetic data and genomic distinctiveness, we conclude that these Bacillus strains merit classification as
novel species, for which we propose the names Bacillus axarquiensis sp. nov. (type strain CR-119(T) = CECT 5688(T) = LMG
22476(T)) and Bacillus malacitensis sp. nov. (type strain CR-95(T) = CECT 5687(T) = LMG 22477(T)). PMID: 15879268 [PubMed indexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus barbaricus Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2003 May;53(Pt 3):725-30. Bacillus barbaricus sp. nov., isolated from an experimental
wall painting. Täubel M(1), Kämpfer P, Buczolits S, Lubitz W, Busse HJ. Author information: (1)Institut für Mikrobiologie und Genetik,
Universität Wien, A-1030 Wien, Austria. In a project concerning bacterial colonization of experimental wall paintings, a large number
of isolates have been acquired with high similarities in their whole-cell protein patterns obtained after SDS-PAGE. Of this group, four
strains, designated V2-BIII-A2(T), V2-BI-A9, V2-BI-04 and V2-BII-A8, were chosen for further characterization. Banding patterns obtained after ERIC-PCR were barely distinguishable among these four strains, indicating their affiliation within a single species. The
isolates also displayed nearly identical biochemical and physiological features. The chemotaxonomic characteristics, including polar
lipids, quinone systems, cell-wall diamino acid composition and fatty acid profiles, were in good agreement with those of numerous
previously described Bacillus species. 16S rDNA analysis of strain V2-BIII-A2(T) showed that this bacterium belongs to the genus
Bacillus, with highest sequence similarities to Bacillus megaterium (94.6%), Bacillus flexus (94.4%) and the alkaliphilic Bacillus cohnii
(94.2%). Based on almost identical biochemical, physiological and chemotaxonomic traits, ERIC-PCR-generated genomic fingerprints and comparative 16S rDNA sequence analysis, it is demonstrated that the four isolates represent a novel species of the genus
Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus barbaricus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is V2-BIII-A2(T) (= CCM 4982(T) = DSM
14730(T)). PMID: 12807193 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus beijingensis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2009 Apr;59(Pt 4):729-34. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.65861-0. Bacillus beijingensis sp. nov.
and Bacillus ginsengi sp. nov., isolated from ginseng root. Qiu F(1), Zhang X, Liu L, Sun L, Schumann P, Song W. Author information:
(1)College of Life Sciences, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048, PR China. Four alkaligenous, moderately halotolerant strains,
designated ge09, ge10(T), ge14(T) and ge15, were isolated from the internal tissue of ginseng root and their taxonomic positions
were investigated by using a polyphasic approach. Cells of the four strains were Gram-positive-staining, non-motile, short rods. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strains ge09 and ge10(T) formed one cluster and strains ge14(T)
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and ge15 formed another separate cluster within the genus Bacillus. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities with type strains of other
Bacillus species were less than 97 %. Levels of DNA-DNA relatedness among the four strains showed that strains ge09 and ge10(T)
and strains ge14(T) and ge15 belonged to two separate species; the mean level of DNA-DNA relatedness between ge10(T) and
ge14(T) was only 28.7 %. Their phenotypic and physiological properties supported the view that the two strains represent two different novel species of the genus Bacillus. The DNA G+C contents of strains ge10(T) and ge14(T) were 49.9 and 49.6 mol%, respectively. Strains ge10(T) and ge14(T) showed the peptidoglycan type A4alpha l-Lys-d-Glu. The lipids present in strains ge10(T) and
ge14(T) were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, a minor amount of phosphatidylcholine and two unknown phospholipids.
Their predominant respiratory quinone was MK-7. The fatty acid profiles of the four novel strains contained large quantities of
branched and saturated fatty acids. The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C(15 : 0) (42.5 %), anteiso-C(15 : 0) (22.2 %), anteiso-C(17 : 0) (7.3 %) and C(16 : 1)omega7c alcohol (5.7 %) in ge10(T) and iso-C(15 : 0) (50.7 %) and anteiso-C(15 : 0) (20.1 %) in
ge14(T). On the basis of their phenotypic properties and phylogenetic distinctiveness, two novel species of the genus Bacillus are
proposed, Bacillus beijingensis sp. nov. (type strain ge10(T) =DSM 19037(T) =CGMCC 1.6762(T)) and Bacillus ginsengi sp. nov.
(type strain ge14(T) =DSM 19038(T) =CGMCC 1.6763(T)). PMID: 19329597 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus benzoevorans Ann Microbiol (Paris). 1984 Sep-Oct;135B(2):209-17. [Biochemical characterization of Bacillus benzoevorans sp. nov., a new filamentous, sheathed mesophilic species, degrading various aromatic acids and phenols]. [Article in French]
Pichinoty F, Asselineau J, Mandel M. The eleven strains studied were prototrophic and did not grow in media containing only 1%
Bacto-peptone or Bacto-tryptone; they grew rapidly in media containing 0.4% yeast extract and 0.2% sodium acetate or benzoate.
The maximal growth temperature ranged from 39 to 45 degrees C. Six aliphatic acids, four aromatic acids and five phenols were
used as sole carbon and energy sources by the 11 strains. Carbohydrates and amino acids (except for glycine) were not used as
carbon and energy sources. Nitrate (but not nitrite) was used anaerobically as a respiratory electron acceptor. Nitrous oxide was used
and reduced to N2 by only 3 strains. The mean guanine-plus-cytosine content of the DNA was 41.3 +/- 1.1 mol %. Morphologically
and nutritionally, the bacteria described are clearly different from the 5 known species of the first morphological group whose cells
have a diameter greater than 1 micrometer: Bacillus megaterium, B. cereus, B. cereus var. mycoides, B. macroides, B. badius, and B.
fastidiosus. Strain B1 (=CCM 3364) is the holotype of Bacillus benzoevorans sp. nov. PMID: 6508078 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus beringensis Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2011 Mar;99(3):551-7. doi: 10.1007/s10482-010-9523-4. Epub 2010 Oct 21. Bacillus beringensis sp. nov., a psychrotolerant bacterium isolated from the Bering Sea. Yu Y(1), Li HR, Zeng YX, Chen B. Author information: (1)SOA Key Laboratory for Polar Science, Polar Research Institute of China, Shanghai 200136, People's Republic of China.
[email protected] Psychrotolerant Bacillus-like strains BR035(T) and BR011 were isolated from seawater of the Bering Sea and
were characterized by means of a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that
these strains were related to the members of the genus Bacillus and had the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Bacillus korlensis ZLC-26(T). DNA-DNA hybridization experiments confirmed that strains BR035(T) and BR011 belonged to the same
species and were distinct from their closest relatives. The cells were Gram-positive, rods, motile, spore-forming and psychrotolerant.
The temperature range for growth was 4-42°C. The main respiratory quinone was MK-7. The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol,
phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, an unknown aminolipid and two unknown phospholipids. The major cellular fatty
acids were iso-C15:0, anteiso-C15:0, iso-C14:0 and C16:1ω7c alcohol. The diagnostic diamino acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan
was meso-diaminopimelic acid. The genomic DNA G + C content was 37.6-37.8 mol%. On the basis of the phenotypic characteristics,
phylogenetic analysis and DNA-DNA relatedness data, a novel species Bacillus beringensis is proposed and the type strain is
BR035(T) (=CGMCC 1.9126(T)=DSM 22571(T)). PMID: 20963491 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus berkeleyi Arch Microbiol. 2012 Mar;194(3):215-21. doi: 10.1007/s00203-011-0771-0. Epub 2011 Nov 20. Bacillus berkeleyi
sp. nov., isolated from the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius. Nedashkovskaya OI(1), Van Trappen S, Frolova GM, De Vos P.
Author information: (1)Pacific Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry of the Far-Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok, Russia. [email protected] A bacterial strain, designated KMM 6244(T), was isolated from the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic investigation. The bacterium was found to be heterotrophic, aerobic,
non-motile and spore-forming. Comparative phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing placed the marine isolate in
the genus Bacillus. The nearest neighbor of strain KMM 6244(T) was Bacillus decolorationis LMG 19507(T) with a 16S rRNA gene
sequence similarity of 98.0%. Sequence similarities with the other recognized Bacillus species were less than 96.0%. The results of
the DNA-DNA hybridization experiments revealed a low relatedness (37%) of the novel isolate with the type strain of B. decolorationis
LMG 19507(T). Strain KMM 6244(T) grew at 4-45°C and with 0-12% NaCl. It produced catalase and oxidase and hydrolyzed aesculin, casein, gelatin and DNA. The predominant fatty acids were anteiso-C(15:0), iso-C(15:0), anteiso-C(17:0), C(15:0), iso-C(16:0)
and iso-C(14:0). The DNA G + C content was 39.4 mol%. A combination of phylogenetic, genotypic and phenotypic data clearly indicated that strain KMM 6244(T) represents a novel species in the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus berkeleyi sp. nov. is
proposed. The type strain is KMM 6244(T) (KCTC 12718(T) = LMG 26357(T)). PMID: 22102083 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus bingmayongensis Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2014 Mar;105(3):501-10. doi: 10.1007/s10482-013-0102-3. Epub 2013 Dec
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27. Bacillus bingmayongensis sp. nov., isolated from the pit soil of Emperor Qin's Terra-cotta warriors in China. Liu B(1), Liu GH, Hu
GP, Sengonca C, Lin NQ, Tang JY, Tang WQ, Lin YZ. Author information: (1)Agricultural Bio-Resource Institute, Fujian Academy of
Agricultural Sciences, Fuzhou, 350003, Fujian, People's Republic of China, [email protected] Erratum in Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek.
2014 May;105(5):995. Cetin, Sengonca [corrected to Sengonca, Cetin]. A Bacillus-like isolate, strain FJAT-13831(T), isolated from the
No. 1 pit soil of Emperor Qin's Terra-cotta Warriors in Xi'an City, China, was studied to determine its taxonomic status. Dominant fatty
acids of this organism included iso-C15:0, iso-C17:0, C16:0, iso-C13:0, anteiso-C15:0, and iso-C17:1ω5c. Comparative 16S rRNA
gene sequence analysis confirmed the affiliation of this isolate to the genus Bacillus and indicated that it was closely related to Bacillus pseudomycoides DSM 12442(T) (99.72 % similarity). A phylogenetic analysis of the gyrB gene sequence similarities exhibited independent clustering of the isolate FJAT-13831(T) and showed 93.8 % (<95 %) sequence similarity with its closest phylogenetic
neighbour B. pseudomycoides DSM 12442(T). Separate standing of the strain FJAT-13831(T) was supported by a whole genome-based phylogenetic analysis with an average nucleotide identity value of 91.47 (<95 %) between isolate FJAT-13831(T) and B.
pseudomycoides DSM 12442(T) and was consistent with the results of DNA-DNA hybridization (69.1 % relatedness). These findings
support the conclusion that the isolate FJAT-13831(T) represents a novel species, for which the name Bacillus bingmayongensis sp.
nov. is proposed. The type strain is FJAT-13831(T) (= CGMCC 1.12043(T) = DSM 25427(T)). PMID: 24370979 [PubMed - in process]$$
Bacillus bogoriensis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2005 Mar;55(Pt 2):899-902. Bacillus bogoriensis sp. nov., a novel alkaliphilic, halotolerant bacterium isolated from a Kenyan soda lake. Vargas VA(1), Delgado OD, Hatti-Kaul R, Mattiasson B. Author information:
(1)Department of Biotechnology, Center for Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lund University, PO Box 124, SE-22 100 Lund,
Sweden. Strain LBB3(T) isolated from Bogoria soda lake in Kenya is an alkaliphilic, Gram-positive, strictly aerobic, non-motile,
spore-forming bacterium. It was identified as a member of the genus Bacillus on the basis of phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses.
The organism grows optimally at 37 degrees C and pH 10. The G+C content of the genomic DNA is 37.5 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed 95 and 96 % sequence similarity with Bacillus pseudofirmus (DSM 8715(T)) and Bacillus alcalophilus (DSM
485(T)), respectively. Furthermore, DNA-DNA hybridization against these two Bacillus species showed 39.0 and 55.5 % similarity,
respectively. Based on our observations, strain LBB3(T) is proposed to represent a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the
name Bacillus bogoriensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of B. bogoriensis is LBB3(T) (=ATCC BAA-922(T)=LMG 22234(T)).
PMID: 15774682 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus borbori Curr Microbiol. 2013 Dec;67(6):718-24. doi: 10.1007/s00284-013-0426-2. Epub 2013 Jul 30. Bacillus borbori sp.
Nov., isolated from an electrochemically active biofilm. Wang YQ(1), Yuan Y, Yu Z, Yang GQ, Zhou SG. Author information:
(1)Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou, 510650, People's Republic of China. A Gram-positive,
facultative anaerobic, motile, endospore-forming rod strain, designated DX-4(T), was isolated from an electrochemically active biofilm.
Growth occurred at 30-65 °C (optimum 55 °C), at pH 6.0-8.5 (optimum pH 7.0-7.5) and with <6 % (w/v) NaCl. Cells were catalaseand oxidase-positive. The main respiratory quinone was MK-7, the predominant polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol mannoside, and unidentified aminophospholipid, the DNA G+C content
was 38.6 mol% and the major fatty acids (>5 %) were iso-C15:0 (38.9 %), iso-C17:0 (30.5 %), iso-C16:0 (5.6 %), and anteiso-C17:0
(5.2 %). The phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons revealed that strain DX-4(T) is a member of the
genus Bacillus. The results of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, and genotypic analyses clearly indicated that strain DX-4(T) represents
a novel species, for which the name Bacillus borbori sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is DX-4(T) (= CCTCC AB2012196(T) =
KCTC 33103(T)). PMID: 23896693 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]$$
Bacillus boroniphilus Extremophiles. 2007 Mar;11(2):217-24. Epub 2006 Oct 27. A novel highly boron tolerant bacterium, Bacillus
boroniphilus sp. nov., isolated from soil, that requires boron for its growth. Ahmed I(1), Yokota A, Fujiwara T. Author information:
(1)Biotechnology Research Centre, University of Tokyo, Yayoi 1-1-1, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo, 113-8657, Japan.
[email protected] Three strains of gram-positive, motile, rod-shaped and boron (B)-tolerant bacterium were isolated
from naturally B containing soil of Hisarcik area in the Kutahya Province, Turkey. The strains, designated as T-14A, T-15Z(T) and
T-17s, produced spherical or ellipsoidal endospores in a terminal bulging sporangium. The strains required B for the growth and can
tolerate more than 450 mM B. These also tolerated up to 7.0% (w/v) NaCl in the presence of 50 mM B in agar medium but grew optimally without NaCl. The temperature range for growth was 16-37 degrees C (optimal of 30 degrees C), whereas the pH range was
6.5-9.0 (optimal of 7.5-8.5). The DNA G + C content was 41.1-42.2 mol% and the predominant cellular fatty acid was iso-C(15:0). The
major respiratory quinone system was detected as MK-7 and the diamino acid of the peptidoglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid.
Based on phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences data and DNA-DNA
re-association values, we concluded that the three strains belong to a novel species of the genus Bacillus, the type strain of which is
T-15Z(T) and for which we proposed the name, B. boroniphilus sp. nov. (DSM 17376(T) = IAM 15287(T) = ATCC BAA-1204(T)).
PMID: 17072687 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus butanolivorans Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2008 Feb;58(Pt 2):505-9. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.65332-0. Bacillus butanolivorans sp.
nov., a species with industrial application for the remediation of n-butanol. Kuisiene N(1), Raugalas J, Spröer C, Kroppenstedt RM,
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Chitavichius D. Author information: (1)Department of Plant Physiology and Microbiology, Vilnius University, Chiurlionio 21/27, Vilnius
LT-03101, Lithuania. [email protected] Four bacterial strains, designated K9(T), K105, K1012A and K101, were isolated from
soil in Lithuania. All these strains could use n-butanol as a sole carbon source. The strains grew in a medium containing 12-120 mM
n-butanol. The strains were strictly aerobic, Gram-positive endospore-formers. The best growth was achieved at 25 degrees C and
pH 7.0 in medium containing 1 % (w/v) NaCl. The strains showed identical profiles of 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer PCR
and nearly identical 16S rRNA gene PCR-RFLP electrophoretic patterns and physiological characteristics, demonstrating their relationship at the species level. The cellular fatty acid profile of K9(T) consisted of significant amounts of the C(15) branched-chain fatty
acids iso-C(15 : 0) (16.78 %) and anteiso-C(15 : 0) (45.80 %). The diagnostic cell-wall diamino acid was meso-diaminopimelic acid.
The 16S rRNA gene sequence of K9(T) showed the highest similarity to the sequences of Bacillus simplex DSM 1321(T) and Bacillus
muralis LMG 20238(T) (98.3 and 97.7 %, respectively). The DNA G+C content was 37.4 mol%. Studies of DNA-DNA relatedness,
morphological, physiological and chemotaxonomic analyses and phylogenetic data based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing allowed
strains K9(T), K105, K1012A and K101 to be described as members of a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus butanolivorans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is K9(T) (=DSM 18926(T) =LMG 23974(T)). PMID: 18218958 [PubMed indexed for MEDLINE]
43. Bacillus canaveralius Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2009 Aug;59(Pt 8):2015-9. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.009167-0. Epub 2009 Jun 30. Bacillus
canaveralius sp. nov., an alkali-tolerant bacterium isolated from a spacecraft assembly facility. Newcombe D(1), Dekas A, Mayilraj S,
Venkateswaran K. Author information: (1)Biotechnology and Planetary Protection Group, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA. Two Gram-positive, rod-shaped, alkali-tolerant (pH 10.5), endospore-forming bacteria
(strains KSC SF8bT and KSC SF10a) were isolated from surfaces within the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility, where robotic
spacecraft are assembled and tested before launch, at the Kennedy Space Center at Cape Canaveral. Based on 16S rRNA gene
sequence similarities, these strains were shown to belong to the family Bacillaceae and the genus Bacillus. The highest 16S rRNA
gene sequence similarity was approximately 97.5%, observed between the novel strains and Bacillus selenatarsenatis SF-1T. Several phenotypic characteristics, such as growth with 10% NaCl and assimilation of melibiose and lactose, were useful in the discrimination of this novel species from the closely related alkali-tolerant species Bacillus firmus and B. selenatarsenatis. DNA-DNA hybridization studies revealed reassociation values of less than 45% between strain KSC SF8bT and its closest genotypic neighbours. The
combination of unique phenotypic and genotypic characteristics allowed the differentiation of these alkali- and halotolerant
spore-forming strains from related Bacillus species, and a novel species, Bacillus canaveralius sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain
is KSC SF8bT (=ATCC BAA-1493T=MTCC 8908T). PMID: 19567559 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
44. Bacillus cecembensis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2008 Oct;58(Pt 10):2330-5. doi: 10.1099/ijs. 0.65515-0. Bacillus cecembensis sp.
nov., isolated from the Pindari glacier of the Indian Himalayas. Reddy GS(1), Uttam A, Shivaji S. Author information: (1)Centre for
Cellular and Molecular Biology, Uppal Road, Hyderabad 500 007, India. Strain PN5(T) is a Gram-positive, aerobic, motile,
rod-shaped, peritrichously flagellated bacterium that was isolated from the Pindari glacier using nutrient agar medium. Cells of PN5(T)
are catalase-positive and oxidase-negative and contain lysine, glutamic acid and alanine in the peptidoglycan (peptidoglycan type
A4alpha). Further, the cells are characterized by the presence of iso-C(15 : 0) and iso-C(16 : 1) as the predominant fatty acids and
MK-7 as the isoprenoid quinone. Based on the above characteristics, strain PN5(T) was assigned to the genus Bacillus. Phylogenetic
analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain PN5(T) clustered with the type strain of Bacillus silvestris with a
sequence similarity of 97.2 %. DNA-DNA hybridization between PN5(T) and B. silvestris DSM 12223(T) resulted in a relatedness of
only 15 %, clearly indicating that strain PN5(T) represents a novel species. Further, PN5(T) was different from B. silvestris with respect to various phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics. Therefore, strain PN5(T) is identified as a representative of a novel
species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus cecembensis sp. nov. is proposed. Bacillus cecembensis is unique among
psychrotolerant Bacillus species in containing l-Lys-d-Glu in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. The type strain is PN5(T) (=LMG 23935(T)
=MTCC9127(T) =JCM 15113(T)). PMID: 18842851 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
45. Bacillus chagannorensis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2007 Sep;57(Pt 9):2084-8. Bacillus chagannorensis sp. nov., a moderate halophile from a soda lake in Inner Mongolia, China. Carrasco IJ(1), Márquez MC, Xue Y, Ma Y, Cowan DA, Jones BE, Grant WD, Ventosa A. Author information: (1)Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Sevilla, 41012 Sevilla,
Spain. A Gram-positive, moderately halophilic, spore-forming bacterium, designated strain CG-15(T), was isolated from a soda lake,
Lake Chagannor, in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China. The cells were found to be motile short rods with ellipsoidal, terminal and deforming endospores. Strain CG-15(T), a facultatively anaerobic bacterium, grew at pH 5.8-11.0 (optimally at pH 8.5), at
6-40 degrees C (optimally at 37 degrees C) and at salinities of 3-20 % (w/v) total salts (optimally at 7 % w/v). On the basis of the results of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain CG-15(T) was shown to belong to the genus Bacillus (phylum Firmicutes), showing
the greatest phylogenetic similarity with respect to Bacillus saliphilus (96.0 %). The DNA G+C content of the novel isolate was found
to be 53.8 mol%. The major cellular fatty acids of strain CG-15(T) were anteiso-C(15 : 0), iso-C(15 : 0) and anteiso-C(17 : 0), and its
polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidy- lethanolamine and three different unidentified
phospholipids. The analysis of the quinones showed that MK-7 was the major menaquinone. The peptidoglycan type was A1gamma,
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with meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. On the basis of the data from this polyphasic study, strain CG-15(T)
represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus chagannorensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is
CG-15(T) (=CCM 7371(T)=CECT 7153(T)=CGMCC 1.6292(T)=DSM 18086(T)). PMID: 17766876 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus cheonanensis Kim HJ(1), Park CS, Lee S, Ahn TY. Erratum to: Bacillus cheonanensis sp. nov. isolated from near poultry
farm soil. J Microbiol. 2014 Aug;52(8):720. doi: 10.1007/s12275-014-0702-2. Author information: (1)Department of Microbiology, College of Natural Sciences, Dankook University, Cheonan, 330-714, Republic of Korea. PMID: 25056919 [PubMed - in process]
Bacillus chungangensis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2010 Jun;60(Pt 6):1349-52. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.013607-0. Epub 2009 Aug 10. Bacillus chungangensis sp. nov., a halophilic species isolated from sea sand. Cho SL(1), Jung MY, Park MH, Kim W. Author information:
(1)Department of Microbiology and Research Institute for Translational System Biomics, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine,
221 Heukseok-dong, Dongjak-gu, Seoul 156-756, Republic of Korea. The taxonomic position of a Gram-stain-positive, endospore-forming, halophilic strain, designated CAU 348(T), isolated from sea sand was investigated using a polyphasic approach. Colony morphology, biochemical tests and chemotaxonomic investigations revealed that strain CAU 348(T) had the characteristics of the
genus Bacillus. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the organism formed a hitherto unknown subline within
the genus Bacillus. Sequence divergence values of more than 4.3 % from other described Bacillus species, together with phenotypic
differences, showed that the unidentified bacterium represents a previously unrecognized member of this genus. The genotypic and
phenotypic data indicated that strain CAU 348(T) represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus
chungangensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CAU 348(T) (=KCTC 13566(T) =CCUG 57835(T)). PMID: 19667364 [PubMed
- indexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus cibi Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2005 Mar;55(Pt 2):733-6. Bacillus cibi sp. nov., isolated from jeotgal, a traditional Korean fermented seafood. Yoon JH(1), Lee CH, Oh TK. Author information: (1)Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology
(KRIBB), PO Box 115, Yusong, Taejon, Korea. [email protected] A Gram-variable, motile, endospore-forming, halotolerant bacillus,
strain JG-30(T), was isolated from the traditional Korean fermented seafood jeotgal, and was subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic
study. This organism grew optimally at 37 degrees C and in the presence of 0-1 % (w/v) NaCl. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis
showed that strain JG-30(T) forms a distinct phylogenetic lineage within the evolutionary radiation encompassed by the genus Bacillus. Strain JG-30(T) was characterized chemotaxonomically as having cell-wall peptidoglycan based on meso-diaminopimelic acid,
MK-7 as the predominant menaquinone and iso-C(15 : 0) and iso-C(14 : 0) as the major fatty acids. The DNA G+C content was 45
mol%. Strain JG-30(T) exhibited levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of less than 95.7 % to Bacillus species with validly published names. On the basis of its phenotypic properties and phylogenetic distinctiveness, strain JG-30(T) (=KCTC 3880(T)=DSM
16189(T)) was classified within the genus Bacillus as a novel species, for which the name Bacillus cibi sp. nov. is proposed. PMID:
15774653 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus coahuilensis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2008 Apr;58(Pt 4):919-23. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.64959-0. Bacillus coahuilensis sp. nov.,
a moderately halophilic species from a desiccation lagoon in the Cuatro Ciénegas Valley in Coahuila, Mexico. Cerritos R(1), Vinuesa
P, Eguiarte LE, Herrera-Estrella L, Alcaraz-Peraza LD, Arvizu-Gómez JL, Olmedo G, Ramirez E, Siefert JL, Souza V. Author information: (1)Departamento de Ecología Evolutiva, Instituto de Ecología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal
70-275, México DF 04510, Mexico. A moderately halophilic, Gram-positive and rod-shaped bacterium, strain m4-4T, was isolated
from a Chihuahuan desert lagoon in Cuatro Ciénegas, Coahuila, Mexico. Strain m4-4T was found to grow optimally at 30-37 degrees
C, pH 7.0-8.0 and 5 % NaCl and to tolerate from 0.5 % to 10 % NaCl. It was shown to be aerobic. The genomic DNA G+C content
was about 37 mol%. Strain m4-4T exhibited minimal or no growth on most sugars tested. Its major cellular fatty acids were C14 : 0,
C16 : 0 and C18 : 1. Based on phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA and recA gene sequences, we observed that the closest relatives
of the isolate are moderately halophilic Bacillus species, with 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity ranging from 96.6 to 97.4 % (Bacillus marisflavi, Bacillus aquimaris and Bacillus vietnamensis). Additionally, using genomic data it was determined that the type strain
contains a total of nine rRNA operons with three slightly different sequences. On the basis of phenotypic and molecular properties,
strain m4-4T represents a novel species within the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus coahuilensis sp. nov. is proposed, with
the type strain m4-4T (=NRRL B-41737T =CECT 7197T). PMID: 18398195 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus cohnii Int J Syst Bacteriol. 1993 Jan;43(1):150-6. Bacillus cohnii sp. nov., a new, obligately alkaliphilic, oval-spore-forming
Bacillus species with ornithine and aspartic acid instead of diaminopimelic acid in the cell wall. Spanka R(1), Fritze D. Author information: (1)DSM-Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen GmbH, Mascheroder Weg 1b, D-3300 Braunschweig,
Germany. A group of 20 alkaliphilic Bacillus strains in which all strains revealed the same unique comination of properties--obligate
alkaliphily, oval spores distending the sporangium, and ornithine and aspartic acid instead of diaminopimelic acid in the cell wall--was
examined. Most of the strains had been isolated by a five-step enrichment and isolation procedure. The G+C content was determined
to span a range from 33.5 to 35.0 mol%. Unsaturated fatty acids amounted to 17 to 28% of the total cellular fatty acids. Through
DNA-DNA hybridization experiments 11 strains could be grouped in one species. Low homology values with the type strains of validly
published Bacillus species with similar G+C contents suggest that these strains belong to a hitherto undescribed species for which
the name Bacillus cohnii is proposed. The type strain of the new species is strain RSH (= DSM 6307). PMID: 8323866 [PubMed - in-
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dexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus composti Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2013 Aug;63(Pt 8):3030-6. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.049106-0. Epub 2013 Feb 8. Bacillus
composti sp. nov. and Bacillus thermophilus sp. nov., two thermophilic, Fe(III)-reducing bacteria isolated from compost. Yang G(1),
Chen M, Yu Z, Lu Q, Zhou S. Author information: (1)Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou
510650, PR China. Two novel thermophilic bacteria, designated SgZ-9(T) and SgZ-10(T), were isolated from compost. Cells of the
two strains were catalase-positive, endospore-forming and Gram-staining-positive rods. Strain SgZ-9(T) was oxidase-positive and
non-motile, and strain SgZ-10(T) was oxidase-negative and motile. The highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity for both strains
SgZ-9(T) and SgZ-10(T) was observed with Bacillus fortis (97.5 % and 96.9 %, respectively). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S
rRNA gene sequences showed that strain SgZ-9(T) formed a cluster with B. fortis R-6514(T) and Bacillus fordii R-7190(T), and
SgZ-10(T) formed a cluster with Bacillus farraginis R-6540(T). The DNA-DNA pairing studies showed that SgZ-9(T) displayed 41.6 %
and 30.7 % relatedness to the type strains of B. fortis and B. fordii, respectively. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between
strains SgZ-9(T) and SgZ-10(T) was 97.2 %, and the level of DNA-DNA relatedness between them was 39.2 %. The DNA G+C content of SgZ-9(T) and SgZ-10(T) was 45.3 and 47.9 mol%, respectively. Chemotaxonomic analysis revealed that both strains contained the menaquinone 7 (MK-7) as the predominant respiratory quinone. The major cellular fatty acids (>5 %) were iso-C15 : 0,
anteiso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0, iso-C16 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0 in SgZ-9(T) and iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 0, anteiso-C17 :
0 and iso-C16 : 0 in SgZ-10(T). Based on the phenotypic characteristics, chemotaxonomic features, DNA-DNA hybridization with the
nearest phylogenetic neighbours and phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences, the two strains were determined to be two distinct novel species in the genus Bacillus, and the names proposed are Bacillus composti sp. nov. SgZ-9(T) ( =
CCTCC AB2012109(T) = KACC 16872(T)) and Bacillus thermophilus sp. nov. SgZ-10(T) (CCTCC AB2012110(T) = KACC 16873(T)).
PMID: 23396719 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus curdlanolyticus Int J Syst Bacteriol. 1995 Jul;45(3):515-21. Bacillus curdlanolyticus sp. nov. and Bacillus kobensis sp. nov.,
which hydrolyze resistant curdlan. Kanzawa Y(1), Harada A, Takeuchi M, Yokota A, Harada T. Author information: (1)Kobe Women's
University, Suma, Japan. Taxonomic characteristics of seven bacterial strains which were isolated from soil and hydrolyze resistant
curdlan were studied. These bacteria were aerobic, spore-forming rods, contained menaquinone 7 as a major quinone, contained
anteiso-C15:0 and iso-C16:0 as major cellular fatty acids, had guanine-plus-cytosine contents of 50 to 52 mol%, and could be divided
into two groups on the basis of physiological and chemotaxonomic characteristics and DNA-DNA hybridization data. We propose the
following two new species: Bacillus curdlanolyticus for strains YK9, YK121, YK161, YK201, and YK203, with type strain YK9 (= IFO
15724); and Bacillus kobensis for strains YK205 and YK207, with type strain YK205 (= IFO 15729). PMID: 8590679 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus cytotoxicus Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2013 Jan;63(Pt 1):31-40. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.030627-0. Epub 2012 Feb 10. Bacillus
cytotoxicus sp. nov. is a novel thermotolerant species of the Bacillus cereus Group occasionally associated with food poisoning.
Guinebretière MH(1), Auger S, Galleron N, Contzen M, De Sarrau B, De Buyser ML, Lamberet G, Fagerlund A, Granum PE, Lereclus
D, De Vos P, Nguyen-The C, Sorokin A. Author information: (1)INRA, UMR408 Sécurité et Qualité des produits d'Origine Végétale,
F-84000 Avignon, France. [email protected] An aerobic endospore-forming bacillus (NVH 391-98(T)) was
isolated during a severe food poisoning outbreak in France in 1998, and four other similar strains have since been isolated, also
mostly from food poisoning cases. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, these strains were shown to belong to the Bacillus
cereus Group (over 97% similarity with the current Group species) and phylogenetic distance from other validly described species of
the genus Bacillus was less than 95%. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity and MLST data, these novel strains were
shown to form a robust and well-separated cluster in the B. cereus Group, and constituted the most distant cluster from species of
this Group. Major fatty acids (iso-C(15:0), C(16:0), iso-C(17:0), anteiso-C(15 : 0), iso-C(16:0), iso-C(13:0)) supported the affiliation of
these strains to the genus Bacillus, and more specifically to the B. cereus Group. NVH 391-98(T) taxon was more specifically characterized by an abundance of iso-C(15:0) and low amounts of iso-C(13:0) compared with other members of the B. cereus Group.
Genome similarity together with DNA-DNA hybridization values and physiological and biochemical tests made it possible to genotypically and phenotypically differentiate NVH 391-98(T) taxon from the six current B. cereus Group species. NVH 391-98(T) therefore
represents a novel species, for which the name Bacillus cytotoxicus sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain NVH 391-98(T) (= DSM
22905(T) = CIP 110041(T)). PMID: 22328607 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus daliensis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2012 Apr;62(Pt 4):949-53. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.031575-0. Epub 2011 Jun 13. Bacillus daliensis sp. nov., an alkaliphilic, Gram-positive bacterium isolated from a soda lake. Zhai L(1), Liao T, Xue Y, Ma Y. Author information:
(1)State Key Laboratory of Microbial Resources, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, PR China.
A Gram-positive, alkaliphilic bacterium, designated strain DLS13T, was isolated from Dali Lake in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region,
China. The isolate was able to grow at pH 7.5-11.0 (optimum at pH 9), in 0-8 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum at 2 %, w/v) and at 10-45 °C (optimum at 30 °C). Cells of the isolate were facultatively anaerobic, spore-forming rods with peritrichous flagella. The predominant isoprenoid quinone was MK-7 and its cell wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. The major polar lipids consisted of
phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15:0, an-
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teiso-C17:0 and iso-C15:0. The genomic DNA G+C content of the isolate was 43.9 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA
gene sequences revealed that strain DLS13T was a member of the genus Bacillus and most closely related to Bacillus saliphilus
DSM 15402T (96.9 % similarity). The DNA-DNA relatedness value between strain DLS13T and B. saliphilus DSM 15402T was
38.7±1.9 %. Comparative analysis of genotypic and phenotypic features indicated that strain DLS13T represents a novel species of
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the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus daliensis sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is DLS13T (=CGMCC 1.10369T=JCM
17097T=NBRC 107572T). PMID: 21669916 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus daqingensis Kim HJ(1), Park CS, Lee S, Ahn TY. J Microbiol. 2014 Jul;52(7):554-8. doi: 10.1007/s 12275- 014-3458-9.
Epub 2014 May 30. Bacillus daqingensis sp. nov. isolated from near poultry farm soil. Author information: (1)Department of Microbiology, College of Natural Sciences, Dankook University, Cheonan, 330-714, Republic of Korea. A novel bacterial strain, designated
PFS-5(T), was isolated from the soil environment with feces of a live poultry farm located in Cheonan, Republic of Korea. Strain
PFS-5(T) was Gram-staining-positive, motile, strictly aerobic bacterium, rod-shaped, and endospore-forming. The strain contained
meso-diaminopimelic acid in their peptidoglycan and MK-7 menaquinone. The major fatty acids were anteiso-C15:0 (44.2%), C16:0
(22.2%), and iso-C15:0 (16.7%). The DNA G+C content was 40.1 mol%. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis identified
strain PFS-5(T) in the genus Bacillus, exhibiting the highest level of sequence similarity with type strain of B. herbersteinensis
D-1,5a(T) (96.9%), B. humi LMG 22167(T) (96.7%), B. alkalitelluris BA288(T) (96.1%), B. litoralis SW-211(T) (96.0%), and B. luteolus
YIM93174(T) (95.5%). The major polar lipids of PFS-5(T) were diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol. On the basis of result from poly-phasic data, strain PFS-5(T) represents a novel species, for which the name Bacillus cheonanensis sp. nov. is proposed (Type strai PFS-5(T) = KACC 17469(T) = JCM19333(T)). PMID: 24879346 [PubMed - in process]
Bacillus daqingensis Wang S(1), Sun L, Wei D, Zhou B, Zhang J, Gu X, Zhang L, Liu Y, Li Y, Guo W, Jiang S, Pan Y, Wang Y. Bacillus daqingensis sp. nov., a halophilic, alkaliphilic bacterium isolated from saline-sodic soil in Daqing, China. J Microbiol. 2014
Jul;52(7):548-53. doi: 10.1007/s12275-014-3376-x. Epub 2014 May 30. Author information: (1)Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural
Sciences Postdoctoral Programme, Harbin, 150086, P. R. China. An alkaliphilic, moderately halophilic, bacterium, designated strain
X10-1(T), was isolated from saline-alkaline soil in Daqing, Heilongjiang Province, China. Strain X10-1(T) was determined to be a
Gram-positive aerobe with rod-shaped cells. The isolate was catalase-positive, oxidase-negative, non-motile, and capable of growth
at salinities of 0-16% (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 3%). The pH range for growth was 7.5-11.0 (optimum, pH 10.0). The genomic DNA G+C
content was 47.7 mol%. Its major isoprenoid quinone was MK-7 and its cellular fatty acid profile mainly consisted of anteiso-C15:0,
anteiso-C17:0, iso-C15:0, C16:0, and iso-C16:0. The peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino
acid. The predominant polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylglycerol. Phylogenetic
analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that X10-1(T) is a member of the genus Bacillus, being most closely related to
B. saliphilus DSM15402(T) (97.8% similarity) and B. agaradhaerens DSM 8721(T) (96.2%). DNA-DNA relatedness to the type strains
of these species was less than 40%. On the basis of the phylogenetic, physiological, and biochemical data, strain X10-1(T) represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus daqingensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is X10-1(T)
(=NBRC 109404(T) = CGMCC 1.12295(T)). PMID: 24879344 [PubMed - in process]
Bacillus decisifrondis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2007 May;57(Pt 5):974-8. Bacillus decisifrondis sp. nov., isolated from soil underlying decaying leaf foliage. Zhang L(1), Xu Z, Patel BK. Author information: (1)Microbial Gene Research and Resources Facility, School
of Biomolecular and Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Griffith University, Brisbane, QLD 4111, Australia. An aerobic bacterium,
designated strain E5HC-32(T), was isolated from soil underlying the decaying leaf litter of a slash pine forest located in south east
Queensland, Australia. The strictly aerobic, motile rod-shaped cells (0.8-1.6 x 2.6-4.8 microm) produced subterminal spherical spores
which distended the cells. Strain E5HC-32(T) grew optimally in 1 % trypticase soy broth (TSB) at 30 degrees C (temperature range
for growth, 25-40 degrees C) and a pH of 8.4 (pH growth range, pH 7.1-9.1). Electron microscopic examination of negatively stained
cells revealed the presence of peritrichous flagella and thin sections showed the presence of a typical Gram-positive type cell-wall ultrastructure. The strain was catalase-positive and oxidase-negative and metabolized pyruvic acid methyl ester, D-galactonic acid lactone, alpha-ketobutyric acid, alpha-ketovaleric acid, L-proline, L-alanine, urocanic acid, inosine, uridine, thymidine, glycerol, alpha-cyclodextrin, alpha-D-lactose, D-psicose, D-raffinose, L-rhamnose, D-sorbitol, turanose, cis-aconitic acid, alpha-hydroxybutyric
acid, L-alaninamide and 2-aminoethanol. The G+C content of DNA was 41+/-1 mol% as determined by the thermal denaturation
method. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain E5HC-32(T) was placed equidistantly as a member of the class Bacilli, phylum Firmicutes, with Bacillus sphaericus DSM 28(T) and Bacillus odysseyi ATCC PTA-4993(T) (similarity of 93 %). In addition
to its significant phylogenetic separation from its nearest relatives, strain E5HC-32(T) possessed phenotypic traits that also suggested that it represented a novel species, for which the name Bacillus decisifrondis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is E5HC-32(T)
(=JCM 13601(T)=DSM 17725(T)). PMID: 17473244 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus decolorationis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2003 Mar;53(Pt 2):459-63. Bacillus decolorationis sp. nov., isolated from biodeteriorated parts of the mural paintings at the Servilia tomb (Roman necropolis of Carmona, Spain) and the Saint-Catherine chapel (Castle Herberstein, Austria). Heyrman J(1), Balcaen A, Rodriguez-Diaz M, Logan NA, Swings J, De Vos P. Author information:
(1)Vakgroep BFM WE10V, Laboratorium voor Microbiologie, Universiteit Gent, Belgium. [email protected] Microbial
17
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60.
61.
62.
growths causing discoloration on the Roman wall paintings of the Servilia tomb at the necropolis of Carmona (Spain) and the medieval wall paintings of the Saint-Catherine chapel at Castle Herberstein (Austria) were investigated and from four different samples, a
group of ten strains with similar characteristics was isolated. The isolates were characterized in a polyphasic taxonomic study, including 16S rDNA sequence analysis, (GTG)5-PCR genomic fingerprinting, DNA-DNA hybridization, DNA base ratio, fatty acid analysis, morphological and biochemical characterization. The data obtained attribute the isolates to a novel species of the genus Bacillus,
for which the name Bacillus decolorationis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is strain LMG 19507T (=DSM 14890T). PMID:
12710613 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus deserti Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2011 Feb;99(2):221-9. doi: 10.1007/s10482-010-9479-4. Epub 2010 Jun 26. Bacillus
deserti sp. nov., a novel bacterium isolated from the desert of Xinjiang, China. Zhang L(1), Wu GL, Wang Y, Dai J, Fang CX. Author
information: (1)College of Life Sciences, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, People's Republic of China. A Gram-positive,
rod-shaped, motile and spore-forming bacterium, designated ZLD-8(T), was isolated from a desert soil sample collected from Xinjiang
Province in north-west China, and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic analysis. This isolate grew optimally at 30°C and pH 7.0. It
grew with 0-4% NaCl (optimum, 0-1%). Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain ZLD-8(T) was closely related to members of the genus Bacillus, exhibiting the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Bacillus kribbensis DSM
17871(T) (98.0%). The levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with respect to other Bacillus species with validly published
names were less than 96.3%. The DNA G + C content of strain ZLD-8(T) was 40.1 mol%. The strain contained MK-7 as the predominant menaquinone. The diagnostic diamino acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid. The major polar lipids
were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. The major fatty acids (>5% of total fatty acids)
were anteiso-C15:0 (39.56%), iso-C14:0 (25.69%), C16:1 ω7c alcohol (10.13%) and iso-C15:0 (5.27%). These chemotaxonomic results supported the affiliation of strain ZLD-8(T) to the genus Bacillus. However, low DNA-DNA relatedness values and distinguishing
phenotypic characteristics allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain ZLD-8(T) from recognized Bacillus species. On
the basis of the polyphasic evidence presented, strain ZLD-8(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for
which the name Bacillus deserti sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is ZLD-8(T) (=CCTCC AB 207173(T) = KCTC 13246(T)). PMID:
20582469 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus dipsosauri J Appl Bacteriol. 1996 Jul;81(1):109-12. Phylogenetic characterization of a novel salt-tolerant Bacillus species:
description of Bacillus dipsosauri sp. nov. Lawson PA(1), Deutch CE, Collins MD. Author information: (1)BBSRC Institute of Food
Research, Reading Laboratory, UK. The taxonomic position of a novel halophilic endospore-forming bacterium previously isolated
from a desert iguana was investigated by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Comparative sequence analyses showed the unidentified
bacterium to be phylogenetically loosely associated with some other spore-forming (Bacillus pantothenticus, Sporosarcina halophila)
and non-spore-forming (Marinococcus albus) halotolerant bacteria. Based on the phenotypic and phylogenetic distinctiveness of the
unidentified bacterium, it is proposed that it is classified in the genus Bacillus as a new species, Bacillus dipsosauri. PMID: 8675481
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus eiseniae Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2012 Sep;62(Pt 9):2077-83. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.034892-0. Epub 2011 Oct 21. Bacillus eiseniae sp. nov., a swarming, moderately halotolerant bacterium isolated from the intestinal tract of an earthworm (Eisenia fetida L.).
Hong SW(1), Park JM, Kim SJ, Chung KS. Author information: (1)Division of Biological Science and Technology, Yonsei University,
Wonju 220-710, Republic of Korea. A swarming and moderately halotolerant bacterium, designated strain A1-2(T), was isolated from
the intestinal tract of the earthworm Eisenia fetida L. Cells were endospore-forming rods that were facultatively anaerobic, catalase-positive, oxidase-negative and motile by peritrichous flagella. The isolate grew optimally at 30 °C and pH 7.0, and could grow
with up to 9 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain A1-2(T) belonged to the genus
Bacillus and exhibited 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 96.8, 96.0, 96.0, 96.4 and 96.7 % with Bacillus drentensis LMG
21831(T), B. horneckiae PT-45(T), B. niacini BAC 1015, B. infantis SMC 4352-1(T) and B. shackletonii LMG 18435(T), respectively.
DNA-DNA relatedness values between the isolate and the reference strains were ≤ 38.3 %. The DNA G+C content of strain A1-2(T)
was 38.5 mol%. The predominant menaquinone was MK-7 and the major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C(15 : 0) (51.5 %) and anteiso-C(15 : 0) (29.6 %) and the cell-wall diamino acid
was meso-diaminopimelic acid. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and chemotaxonomic and phenotypic characteristics, it is concluded that strain A1-2(T) represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which we propose the name Bacillus eiseniae sp. nov. The type strain is A1-2(T) (= KCCM 90092(T) = JCM 16993(T)). PMID: 22021583 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus enclensis Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2014 Jan;105(1):199-206. doi: 10.1007 /s10482- 013-0066-3. Epub 2013 Oct 31.
Bacillus enclensis sp. nov., isolated from sediment sample. Dastager SG(1), Mawlankar R, Tang SK, Srinivasan K, Ramana VV,
Shouche YS. Author information: (1)NCIM-Resource Center, CSIR-National Chemical Laboratory, Pune, 411008, Maharashtra, India,
[email protected] A novel bacterial strain, designated SGD-1123(T) was isolated from Chorao Island, in Goa Province, India. The strain was found to be able to grow at 15-42 °C, pH 5-12 and 0-12 % (w/v) NaCl. The whole cell hydrolysates were found to
contain meso-diaminopimelic acid, galactose and arabinose. The major fatty acids were identified as iso-C15:0 and anteiso-C15:0,
MK-7 was identified as the predominant menaquinone and the predominant polar lipids were identified as diphosphatidylglycerol,
18
phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and an unidentified aminolipid. The genomic DNA G+C content was determined to
be 44.6 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences placed the isolate within the genus Bacillus and further
revealed that strain SGD-1123(T) had highest sequence similarity with Bacillus aquimaris, and forms a separate clade with its closest
relatives i.e. B. aquimaris, Bacillus vietnamensis and Bacillus marisflavi, with which it shares 94.5, 94.1 and 94.1 % similarity respectively. The phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic analyses indicated that strain SGD-1123(T) represents a novel species
within the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus enclensis is proposed. The type strain is SGD-1123(T) (NCIM 5450(T)=CCTCC
AB 2011125(T)). PMID: 24174310 [PubMed - in process]$$
63. Bacillus endophyticus Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2002 Jan;52(Pt 1):101-7. Bacillus endophyticus sp. nov., isolated from the inner
tissues of cotton plants (Gossypium sp.). Reva ON(1), Smirnov VV, Pettersson B, Priest FG. Author information: (1)Department of
Antibiotics, Institute of Microbiology and Virology, Kiev, Ukraine. Four strains of aerobic, endospore-forming bacteria were isolated
from the inner tissues of healthy cotton plants (Gossypium sp., Dushanbe, Tajikistan). The organisms had identical randomly amplified polymorphic DNA patterns that distinguished them from other bacilli that are commonly isolated from plant tissues, e.g. Bacillus
amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus subtilis. PCR amplification of 16S-23S rRNA spacer regions
suggested that the four strains could be assigned to two highly related taxa, which correlated with differences in cell morphology.
However, the cloned spacer region provided a simple and specific hybridization probe for all four strains. The virtually complete 16S
rDNA sequences were prepared for representatives of the two groups (strains 2DT(T) and 12DX) and differed by only two bases,
thus supporting classification of the four strains in a single taxon at the species level. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that strain
2DT(T) belonged to the genus Bacillus and was most closely related to Bacillus sporothermodurans DSM 10599T with a sequence
similarity of 94.8%. It is concluded that the four strains belong to a novel species of Bacillus for which the name Bacillus endophyticus
sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 2DT(T) (= UCM B-5715T = CIP 106778T). PMID: 11837291 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
64. Bacillus endoradicis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2012 Feb;62(Pt 2):359-63. doi: 10.1099/ijs. 0.028936-0. Epub 2011 Mar 25. Bacillus
endoradicis sp. nov., an endophytic bacterium isolated from soybean root. Zhang YZ(1), Chen WF, Li M, Sui XH, Liu HC, Zhang XX,
Chen WX. Author information: (1)State Key Laboratory of Agrobiotechnology and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, PR China. A gram-positive, aerobic, motile rod, designated
strain CCBAU 05776(T), was isolated from the inner tissues of a healthy soybean (Glycine max L.) root collected from an agricultural
field in the countryside of Shijiazhuang city, Hebei Province, China. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene indicated that this
strain was most closely related to Bacillus muralis LMG 20238(T) and Bacillus simplex NBRC 15720(T) with similarity of 96.5 % and
96.3 %, respectively, lower than the suggested threshold (97.0 %) for separating bacterial species. In phenotypic characterization, the
novel strain differed from the two most related species in that it did not hydrolyse casein or starch but could grow on MacConkey agar.
It grew between 15 and 45 °C and tolerated up to 7 % NaCl (w/v). Strain CCBAU 05776(T) grew in media with pH 5.5 to 10 (optimal
growth at pH 7.0-8.0). The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C(15 : 0) (40.81 %) and C(16 : 1)ω7c alcohol (10.61 %). The predominant isoprenoid quinone was menaquinone 7 (MK-7). The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol. The DNA G+C was 40.8 mol% (T(m)). DNA-DNA relatedness of
the novel isolate with B. muralis and B. simplex was 42.4 % and 32.7 %, respectively. Based upon the consensus of phylogenetic and
phenotypic analyses, strain CCBAU 05776(T) represents a novel species within the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus endoradicis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CCBAU 05776(T) ( = LMG 25492(T) = HAMBI 3097(T)). PMID: 21441377 [PubMed indexed for MEDLINE]
65. Bacillus farraginis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2004 Jul;54(Pt 4):1355-64. Bacillus farraginis sp. nov., Bacillus fortis sp. nov. and Bacillus fordii sp. nov., isolated at dairy farms. Scheldeman P(1), Rodríguez-Díaz M, Goris J, Pil A, De Clerck E, Herman L, De Vos P, Logan NA, Heyndrickx M. Author information: (1)Ministry of the Flemish Community, Centre for Agricultural Research, Department of
Animal Product Quality, Brusselsesteenweg 370, 9090 Melle, Belgium. [email protected] Forty-eight bacterial strains were
isolated at dairy farms from raw milk, the milking apparatus, green fodder or feed concentrate after a heat treatment of 30 min at 100
degrees C. In this way, spore-forming bacteria with a very high intrinsic heat resistance were selected for. The aerobic spore-forming
isolates were subjected to a polyphasic taxonomical study, including repetitive element sequence-based PCR typing, whole-cell protein profiling, 16S rDNA sequence analysis, DNA-DNA hybridizations, DNA base composition, fatty acid analysis, and morphological
and biochemical characteristics. A comparison of the REP- and (GTG)5-PCR and whole-cell protein SDS-PAGE profiles resulted in
three clusters of similar strains. Analysis of the 16S rDNA sequences and DNA-DNA relatedness data showed that these clusters
represented three novel species. The highest 16S rDNA similarity to a recognized species found for the three groups was around 94%
with Bacillus lentus and Bacillus sporothermodurans. Further phenotypic characterization supported the proposal of three novel species in the genus Bacillus, Bacillus farraginis, Bacillus fortis and Bacillus fordii. The respective type strains are R-6540T (=LMG
22081T=DSM 16013T), R-6514T (=LMG 22079T=DSM 16012T) and R-7190T (=LMG 22080T=DSM 16014T); their G+C DNA base
contents are 43.7, 44.3 and 41.9 mol%, respectively. Although in variable amounts, a predominance of the branched fatty acids
iso-C(15 : 0) and anteiso-C(15 : 0) was observed in all three novel species. PMID: 15280314 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
66. Bacillus fengqiuensis Zhao F(1), Feng YZ(1), Chen RR(1), Zhang HY(1), Wang JH(1), Lin XG(2). Bacillus fengqiuensis sp. nov.,
19
67.
68.
69.
70.
isolated from a typical sandy loam soil under long-term NPK fertilization in the North China. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2014 May 28. pii:
ijs.0.063081-0. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.063081-0. [Epub ahead of print] Author information: (1)Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy
of Sciences. (2)Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences [email protected] A Gram-positive, endospore forming,
moderately alkaliphilic bacterium, strain NPK15T, was isolated from a typical sandy loam soil under long-term NPK fertilization in the
North China and was subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. The cell-wall peptidoglycan of strain NPK15T was found to be meso-diaminopimelic acid and the cell-wall sugars were xylose, glucose and traces of mannose. The only respiratory quinone found in
strain NPK15T was menaquinone 7 (MK-7). The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C15:0, anteiso-C15:0, C16:0, and C16:1 ω6c
/C16:1 ω7c. The major polar lipids were found to be diphosphatidylglyerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylglycerol.
Phylogenetic analysis of this strain based on 16S rRNA gene sequence was most closely to Bacillus thaonhiensis NHI-38T (99.59%),
Bacillus songklensis CAU 1033T (99.52%) and Bacillus abyssalis SCSIO 15042T (99.00 %). The DNA-DNA hybridization results indicated that this strain was distinct from other Bacillus species, the degree of similarity being 35.4% with B. abyssalis, 39.7% with B.
songklensis and 51.2% with B. thaonhiensis. The DNA G+C content of strain NPK15T was 45.5%. The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic
and molecular analyses identified strain NPK15T as a novel Bacillus species, for which the name Bacillus fengqiuensis is proposed.
The type strain is NPK15T (=DSM 26745T =CCTCC AB 2013156T). Copyright © 2014, the Society for General Microbiology. PMID:
24871777 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Bacillus fumarioli Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2000 Sep;50 Pt 5:1741-53. Aerobic endospore-forming bacteria from geothermal environments in northern Victoria Land, Antarctica, and Candlemas Island, South Sandwich archipelago, with the proposal of Bacillus
fumarioli sp. nov. Logan NA(1), Lebbe L, Hoste B, Goris J, Forsyth G, Heyndrickx M, Murray BL, Syme N, Wynn-Williams DD, De Vos
P. Author information: (1)School of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Glasgow Galedonian University, UK. [email protected]
Aerobic endospore-forming bacteria were isolated from soils taken from active fumaroles on Mount Rittmann and Mount Melbourne in
northern Victoria Land, Antarctica, and from active and inactive fumaroles on Candlemas Island, South Sandwich archipelago. The Mt
Rittmann and Mt Melbourne soils yielded a dominant, moderately thermophilic and acidophilic, aerobic endospore-former growing at
pH 5.5 and 50 degrees C, and further strains of the same organism were isolated from a cold, dead fumarole at Clinker Gulch, Candlemas Island. Amplified rDNA restriction analysis, SDS-PAGE and routine phenotypic tests show that the Candlemas Island isolates
are not distinguishable from the Mt Rittmann strains, although the two sites are 5600 km apart, and 16S rDNA sequence comparisons
and DNA relatedness data support the proposal of a new species, Bacillus fumarioli, the type strain of which is LMG 17489T. PMID:
11034482 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus funiculus Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2002 Jul;52(Pt 4):1141-4. Bacillus funiculus sp. nov., novel filamentous isolates from activated sludge. Ajithkumar VP(1), Ajithkumar B, Iriye R, Sakai T. Author information: (1)Laboratory of Ecological and Toxicological
Chemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Shinshu University, Kamiina, Nagano, Japan. A novel filamentous Bacillus strain, NAF001T, was
reported previously that produces endospores and spore-like resting cells; the latter outgrow by budding. Phylogenetic analysis
based on 16S rDNA gene sequences reported in the same paper speculated on the proposal of a novel species for this isolate. This
communication describes the DNA-DNA relatedness of strain NAF001T to various members of the genus Bacillus and its whole-cell
fatty acid and quinone profiles, in order to authenticate the creation of a novel species, for which the name Bacillus funiculus sp. nov.
is proposed. The type strain is NAF001T (= JCM 11201T = CIP 107128T). Further, features of the binding points between filaments of
strain NAF001T that enable it to form extremely long filaments are captured by electron microscopy. PMID: 12148618 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus gaemokensis J Microbiol. 2010 Dec;48(6):867-71. doi: 10.1007/s12275-010-0148-0. Epub 2011 Jan 9. Bacillus gaemokensis sp. nov., isolated from foreshore tidal flat sediment from the Yellow Sea. Jung MY(1), Paek WK, Park IS, Han JR, Sin Y, Paek J,
Rhee MS, Kim H, Song HS, Chang YH. Author information: (1)Korean Collection for Type Cultures, Biological Resource Center,
KRIBB, Daejeon, 305-806, Republic of Korea. Erratum in J Microbiol. 2011 Feb;49(1):169. Jung, Min-Young [corrected to Jung, Min
Young].J Microbiol. 2012 Jun;50(3):553. A Gram-positive, rod-shaped, endospore-forming organism, strain BL3-6(T), was isolated
from tidal flat sediments of the Yellow Sea in the region of Tae-An. A 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis demonstrated that this isolate belongs to the Bacillus cereus group, and is closely related to Bacillus mycoides (99.0% similarity), Bacillus thuringiensis (99.0%),
Bacillus weihenstephanensis (99.0%), Bacillus cereus (98.9%), Bacillus anthracis (98.8%), and Bacillus pseudomycoides (98.1%).
The phylogenetic distance from any validly described Bacillus species outside the Bacillus cereus group was less than 95.6%. The
DNA G+C content of the strain was 39.4 mol% and the major respiratory quinone was menaquinone-7. The major cellular fatty acids
were iso-C(14:0) (17.8%), iso-C(16:0) (15.8%), and iso-C(12:0) (11.3%). The diagnostic amino acid of the cell wall was meso-diaminopimelic acid and the major cell wall sugar was galactose. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization (<55.6%) and physiological and biochemical tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain BL3-6(T) from the published Bacillus species.
BL3-6(T) therefore represents a new species, for which the name Bacillus gaemokensis sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain
BL3-6(T) (=KCTC 13318(T) =JCM 15801(T)). PMID: 21221948 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus galactosidilyticus Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2004 Mar;54(Pt 2):617-21. Bacillus galactosidilyticus sp. nov., an alkali-tolerant
beta-galactosidase producer. Heyndrickx M(1), Logan NA, Lebbe L, Rodríguez-Díaz M, Forsyth G, Goris J, Scheldeman P, De Vos P.
20
Author information: (1)Department of Animal Product Quality, Center for Agricultural Research-Ghent, Brusselsesteenweg 370,
B-9090 Melle, Belgium. [email protected] A novel Bacillus isolate from raw milk and four strains from diverse origins that
were identified previously as Bacillus lentus, Bacillus firmus and Bacillus circulans showed a high degree of similarity in amplified
rDNA restriction analysis, SDS-PAGE and routine phenotypic tests, whilst 16S rDNA sequence comparisons and DNA relatedness
data showed that this taxon was different from related Bacillus species. On the basis of these data, Bacillus galactosidilyticus sp. nov.
is proposed, with the type strain LMG 17892(T) (=DSM 15595(T)=Logan B2188(T)=MB 800(T)). PMID: 15023985 [PubMed - indexed
for MEDLINE]
71. Bacillus galliciensis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2010 Apr;60(Pt 4):892-5. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.011817-0. Epub 2009 Aug 6. Bacillus galliciensis sp. nov., isolated from faeces of wild seahorses (Hippocampus guttulatus). Balcázar JL(1), Pintado J, Planas M. Author information: (1)Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), c/. Eduardo Cabello 6,
36208 Vigo, Spain. [email protected] A Gram-positive-staining, motile, rod-shaped, endospore-forming bacterium (BFLP-1( T))
was isolated from faeces of wild long-snouted seahorses ( Hippocampus guttulatus) captured in north-west Spain (Toralla, Galicia).
Strain BFLP-1(T) grew at 10-30 degrees C and pH 5.5-9 (optimally at 20 degrees C and pH 7.2) and with 0-7 % (w/v) NaCl (optimally
with 2 % NaCl). The G+C content of the DNA was 48.1 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed
that strain BFLP-1(T) was a member of the genus Bacillus and was most closely related to Bacillus herbersteinensis D-1,5a(T)
(96.6 %), B. shackletonii LMG 18435(T) (96.0 %) and B. isabeliae CVS-8(T) (95.9 %). Chemotaxonomic data (peptidoglycan type,
meso-diaminopimelic acid; major menaquinone, MK-7; predominant fatty acids, anteiso-C(15 : 0 ), anteiso-C(17 : 0) and C(16 :
1 )omega11c; major polar lipids, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and an unknown aminoglycophospholipid) supported the affiliation of strain BFLP-1(T) to the genus Bacillus . Comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences and chemotaxonomic and phenotypic features indicated that strain BFLP-1(T) represents a novel species within the genus
Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus galliciensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is BFLP-1( T) (=DSM 21539(T) =LMG
24668(T)). PMID: 19661512 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
72. Bacillus ginsengisoli Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2013 Mar;63(Pt 3):855-60. doi: 10.1099/ijs. 0.031740-0. Epub 2012 May 18. Bacillus
ginsengisoli sp. nov., isolated from soil of a ginseng field. Nguyen NL(1), Kim YJ, Hoang VA, Min JW, Liang ZQ, Yang DC. Author information: (1)Korean Ginseng Center and Ginseng Genetic Resource Bank, Kyung Hee University, 1 Seocheon-dong, Giheung-gu
Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 449-701, Republic of Korea. A novel bacterial strain DCY53(T) was isolated from a soil sample from a ginseng field and was characterized using a polyphasic approach. Cells were Gram-reaction-positive, rod-shaped, endospore-forming
and motile with flagella. The strain was aerobic, catalase- and oxidase-positive, optimum growth temperature and pH were 30-37 °C
and 6.0-7.5, respectively. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain DCY53(T) was shown to belong to the genus
Bacillus and the closest phylogenetic relatives were Bacillus pocheonensis KCTC 13943(T) (98.3 %), Bacillus bataviensis LMG
21833(T) (98.0 %), Bacillus soli LMG 21838(T) (97.9 %), Bacillus drentensis LMG 21831(T) (97.8 %), Bacillus niacini DSM 2923(T)
(97.8 %), Bacillus novalis LMG 21837(T) (97.7 %), Bacillus vireti LMG 21834(T) (97.6 %) and Bacillus fumarioli LMG 17489(T)
(97.3 %). The DNA G+C content was 43.6 mol% and the predominant respiratory quinone was MK-7. The major fatty acids were
iso-C14 : 0, iso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0. The DNA-DNA relatedness with closest relatives was below 55 %. The results
of the genotypic analysis in combination with chemotaxonomic and physiological data demonstrated that DCY53(T) represented a
novel species within the genus Bacillus, for which we propose the name Bacillus ginsengisoli. The type strain is DCY53(T) ( = KCTC
13945(T) = JCM 17335(T)). PMID: 22611202 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
73. Bacillus gordonae Ann Inst Pasteur Microbiol. 1986 Jan-Feb;137A(1):65-78. [Bacillus gordonae sp. nov., a new species belonging
to the second morphological group, degrading various aromatic compounds]. [Article in French] Pichinoty F(1), Waterbury JB, Mandel
M, Asselineau J. Author information: (1)Département de Biologie, UER Scientifique de Luminy, Marseille, France. Thirty strains were
isolated from pasteurized soil samples by enrichment culture in aerobiosis at 32 degrees C in a minimal medium containing one of
the following compounds as sole source of carbon and energy: quinate, p-hydroxybenzoate, phthalate, isophthalate or trimellitate.
These bacteria were rods (0.8 X 2-7 micron), motile by peritrichous flagella. Endospores were oval (1.4-1.8 X 2 micron) and distinctly
swelled the sporangia. The Gram reaction was variable but the Gram type was positive. Colonies were smaller on peptone (0.4%)
agar than on minimal salts-glucose (0.2%) agar. The following characters were always present: growth in the presence of lysozyme,
cytochrome c oxidase, catalase, nitrate assimilation, urease, amylase and L-glutamate dehydrogenase. The cells contained glycogen.
In anaerobiosis, glucose was not fermented and nitrate was not used as a respiratory acceptor of electrons. Of 215 substrates tested,
31 (including 9 aromatic compounds) were used as sole carbon and energy sources by all 30 strains, and 38 substrates (including 13
aromatic compounds) were used by only some of them; 146 substrates (including 49 aromatic compounds) were not used by any of
the 30 strains. No amino acid could be used as sole carbon and energy source. Numerical analysis of the 30 strains showed an aggregate cluster made of 5 phena. The mean G + C content of the DNA was 55 +/- 0.6 mol %. The described bacteria are clearly different from the 2 known species of the second morphological group which cannot ferment carbohydrates: Bacillus brevis and B. azotoformans. Strain Q1 (ATCC 29948) is the holotype of Bacillus gordonae sp. nov. PMID: 3674781 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
21
74. Bacillus gottheilii Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2013 Mar;63(Pt 3):867-72. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.036277-0. Epub 2012 May 25. Bacillus
gottheilii sp. nov., isolated from a pharmaceutical manufacturing site. Seiler H(1), Wenning M, Schmidt V, Scherer S. Author information: (1)Department of Microbiology (ZIEL), Technische Universität München, Weihenstephaner Berg 3, D-85350 Freising, Germany. [email protected] A novel Gram-staining-positive, rod-shaped, motile, strictly aerobic, endospore-forming bacterium,
designated WCC 4585(T), was isolated from a pharmaceutical production line. The organism grew optimally at 30 °C, at pH 8 and in
the presence of 0.5 % (w/v) NaCl. Oval endospores were formed subterminally and terminally in swollen sporangia. The cell-wall diamino acid was meso-diaminopimelic acid (type A1γ) and the genomic DNA G+C content was 38.7 mol%. The major menaquinone
was MK-7. The cellular fatty acid profile contained major amounts of iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0, and the cellular
phospholipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and aminophospholipid. The isolate was
most closely related to Bacillus oceanisediminis H2(T), Bacillus infantis SMC 4352-1(T), Bacillus firmus NCIMB 9366(T), Bacillus circulans ATCC 4513(T) and Bacillus horneckiae DSM 23495(T) with which it shared less than 98.0 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain WCC 4585(T) and five type strains of related species were ≤27 % and sequence
similarity values based on groEL sequences were ≤88.7 %. On the basis of the characteristics presented, strain WCC 4585(T) is
proposed to represent a novel species, Bacillus gottheilii sp. nov. The type strain is WCC 4585(T)( = DSM 23668(T) = CCUG
59876(T) = LMG 25856(T)). PMID: 22634699 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
75. Bacillus graminis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2011 Jul;61(Pt 7):1567-71. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.023820-0. Epub 2010 Jul 23. Bacillus
graminis sp. nov., an endophyte isolated from a coastal dune plant. Bibi F(1), Chung EJ, Jeon CO, Chung YR. Author information:
(1)Division of Applied Life Science (BK 21), Plant Molecular Biology and Biotechnology Research Center, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701, Republic of Korea. A Gram-stain-positive endophytic bacterium, designated strain YC6957(T), was isolated
from surface-sterilized roots of a halophyte (Elymus mollis Trin.) inhabiting coastal tidal flats of Namhae Island, located on the southern coast of Korea, and was subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. Cells were facultatively anaerobic, endospore-forming rods
to coccoid rods, motile by a single flagellum. Strain YC6957(T) was catalase-positive, oxidase-negative and able to grow in the presence of 0-8 % (w/v) NaCl, with optimum growth at 4-5 % (w/v) NaCl. Growth occurred at 15-45 °C (optimal growth at 30-35 °C) and
pH 6.0-8.5 (optimal growth at pH 7.0-8.0). The predominant isoprenoid quinone was menaquinone 7 (MK-7). The major cellular fatty
acids were C(16 : 0) (11.3 %), iso-C(15 : 0) (19.2 %) and anteiso-C(15 : 0) (36.4 %). The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. The
DNA G+C content was 41.6 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that the isolate belonged
to the genus Bacillus. Strain YC6957(T) exhibited high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to its closest neighbours, Bacillus ruris
LMG 22866(T) (96.14 %), Bacillus lentus NCIMB 8773(T) (95.97 %) and Bacillus galactosidilyticus LMG 17892(T) (95.91 %), and less
than 95.84 % similarity to all other type strains in the genus Bacillus. On the basis of the phylogenetic, physiological and biochemical
data, it is suggested that strain YC6957(T) represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus graminis sp.
nov. is proposed. The type strain is YC6957(T) ( = KACC 13779(T) = DSM 22162(T)). PMID: 20656804 [PubMed - in process]
76. Bacillus hackensackii Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2003 Feb;45(2):143-7. "Bacillus hackensackii" sp. nov., a novel carbon dioxide
sensitive bacterium isolated from blood culture. Hong T(1), Heibler N, Tang Yi. Author information: (1)Department of Pathology, Microbiology Laboratory, Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack, NJ, USA. [email protected] An endospore-forming,
gram-positive bacillus was isolated from a patient's blood culture. This bacillus did not grow in the presence of 5% carbon dioxide
although it grew well in ambient air at 37 degrees C. Although the organism thus is an aerobic bacterium, its sensitivity to increased
carbon dioxide concentration places it in a distinct category of gaseous atmospheric requirement: capnophobic. Based on its morphology, growth characteristics, biochemical reactions and a complete 16S rRNA gene nucleotide sequence analysis, this microorganism represents a novel Bacillus species. The clinical significance of this isolate is unknown. It is proposed that the bacterium be
classified in the genus Bacillus as "Bacillus hackensackii". PMID: 12614987 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
77. Bacillus haikouensis Li J(1), Yang G, Lu Q, Zhao Y, Zhou S. Bacillus haikouensis sp. nov., a facultatively anaerobic halotolerant
bacterium isolated from a paddy soil. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2014 Aug 7. [Epub ahead of print]. Author information: (1)College of
Food Science and Technology, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai, 201306, China. A Gram-stain positive, rod-shaped, endospore-forming and facultatively anaerobic halotolerant bacterium, designated as C-89(T), was isolated from a paddy field soil in Haikou, Hainan Province, People's Republic of China. Optimal growth was observed at 37 °C and pH 7.0 in the presence of 4 % NaCl
(w/v). The predominant menaquinone was identified as MK-7, the major cellular fatty acids were identified as anteiso-C15:0 and
iso-C15:0, and the major cellular polar lipids were identified as phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and two unknown phospholipids. The peptidoglycan type was determined to be based on meso-DAP. Based on 16S rRNA gene
sequence similarity, the closest phylogenetic relatives were identified as Bacillus vietnamensis JCM 11124(T) (98.8 % sequence similarity), Bacillus aquimaris JCM 11545(T) (98.6 %) and Bacillus marisflavi JCM 11544(T) (98.5 %). The DNA G+C content of strain
C-89(T) was determined to be 45.4 mol%. The DNA-DNA relatedness values of strain C-89(T) with its closest relatives were below
18 %. Therefore, on the basis of phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic, and phenotypic results, strain C-89(T) can be considered to repre-
22
78.
79.
80.
81.
sent a novel species within the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus haikouensis sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is
C-89(T) (=KCTC 33545(T) = CCTCC AB 2014076(T)). PMID: 25100188 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Bacillus halochares Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2010 Jun;60(Pt 6):1432-6. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.014233-0. Epub 2009 Aug 11. Bacillus
halochares sp. nov., a halophilic bacterium isolated from a solar saltern. Pappa A(1), Sánchez-Porro C, Lazoura P, Kallimanis A,
Perisynakis A, Ventosa A, Drainas C, Koukkou AI. Author information: (1)Sector of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Department
of Chemistry, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina, Greece. A novel halophilic bacterium, designated strain MSS4(T), was isolated
from the solar salterns of Mesolongi, Greece. The micro-organism, a motile, Gram-stain-positive, aerobic rod, proliferated at salinities
of 1.0-4.0 M NaCl, with optimal growth at 2.5 M NaCl. Endospores were not observed. Strain MSS4(T) showed optimal growth at 37
degrees C and pH 8.0. The G+C content of its DNA was 47.2 mol%. The polar lipid pattern of strain MSS4(T) consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylethanolamine. It possessed anteiso-C(15 : 0), C(18 : 0), C(16 :
0) and anteiso-C(17 : 0) as the major fatty acids (altogether representing 84.7 % of the total). The predominant isoprenoid quinone
was MK-7. The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the new
isolate has 96.1 % similarity to Bacillus qingdaonensis CM1(T) and Bacillus aidingensis 17-5(T), 95.5 % to Bacillus salarius BH169(T)
and lower similarity to other Bacillus species. These results justify the assignment of strain MSS4(T) to a novel species within the
genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus halochares sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MSS4(T) (=LMG 24571(T) =DSM
21373(T)). PMID: 19671720 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus halosaccharovorans Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2013 Aug;63(Pt 8):2776-81. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.046961-0. Epub 2013 Jan 4.
Bacillus halosaccharovorans sp. nov., a moderately halophilic bacterium from a hypersaline lake. Mehrshad M(1), Amoozegar MA,
Didari M, Bagheri M, Fazeli SA, Schumann P, Spröer C, Sánchez-Porro C, Ventosa A. Author information: (1)Extremophiles Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biology and Center of Excellence in Phylogeny of living organisms, College of Science,
University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran. A novel Gram-stain-positive, moderately halophilic bacterium, designated strain E33(T), was isolated from water of the hypersaline lake Aran-Bidgol in Iran and characterized taxonomically using a polyphasic approach. Cells of
strain E33(T) were motile rods and produced ellipsoidal endospores at a central or subterminal position in swollen sporangia. Strain
E33(T) was a strictly aerobic bacterium, catalase- and oxidase-positive. The strain was able to grow at NaCl concentrations of 0.5-25 %
(w/v), with optimum growth occurring at 5-15 % (w/v) NaCl. The optimum temperature and pH for growth were 40 °C and pH 7.5-8.0,
respectively. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain E33(T) was shown to belong to the genus Bacillus within the
phylum Firmicutes and showed the closest phylogenetic similarity with the species Bacillus niabensis 4T19(T) (99.2 %), Bacillus herbersteinensis D-1-5a(T) (97.3 %) and Bacillus litoralis SW-211(T) (97.2 %). The DNA G+C content of the type strain of the novel species was 42.6 mol%. The major cellular fatty acids of strain E33(T) were anteiso-C15 : 0 and iso-C15 : 0, and the polar lipid pattern
consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, two unknown glycolipids, an unknown lipid and an unknown phospholipid.
The isoprenoid quinones were MK-7 (97 %), MK-6 (2 %) and MK-8 (0.5 %). The peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid
as the diagnostic diamino acid. All these features confirm the placement of isolate E33(T) within the genus Bacillus. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments revealed low levels of relatedness between strain E33(T) and Bacillus niabensis IBRC-M 10590(T) (22 %),
Bacillus herbersteinensis CCM 7228(T) (38 %) and Bacillus litoralis DSM 16303(T) (19 %). On the basis of polyphasic evidence from
this study, a novel species of the genus Bacillus, Bacillus halosaccharovorans sp. nov. is proposed, with strain E33(T) (= IBRC-M
10095(T) = DSM 25387(T)) as the type strain. PMID: 23291894 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus hemicentroti Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2011 Dec;61(Pt 12):2950-5. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.026732-0. Epub 2011 Jan 29. Bacillus
hemicentroti sp. nov., a moderate halophile isolated from a sea urchin. Chen YG(1), Zhang YQ, He JW, Klenk HP, Xiao JQ, Zhu HY,
Tang SK, Li WJ. Author information: (1)College of Biology and Environmental Sciences, Jishou University, Jishou, PR China. [email protected] A novel Gram-staining-positive, moderately halophilic, facultatively alkaliphilic, non-motile, catalase-positive, oxidase-negative, endospore-forming, facultatively anaerobic rod, designated JSM 076093(T), was isolated from a sea urchin (Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus) collected from Naozhou Island in the South China Sea. Growth occurred with 0.5-25% (w/v) NaCl (optimum
5-8%) and at pH 6.0-10.5 (optimum pH 8.0) and 5-40 °C (optimum 30-35 °C). meso-Diaminopimelic acid was present in the cell-wall
peptidoglycan. The predominant respiratory quinone was menaquinone 7 and the polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol,
phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and one unidentified phospholipid. The major cellular fatty acids (>10% of the total)
were anteiso-C(15:0), anteiso-C(17:0), iso-C(16:0) and iso-C(14:0). The genomic DNA G+C content was 38.8 mol%. Phylogenetic
analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain JSM 076093(T) belonged to the genus Bacillus and was related
most closely to Bacillus hwajinpoensis SW-72(T) (99.1% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Bacillus algicola KMM 3737(T)
(97.3%). The combination of results from the phylogenetic analysis, DNA-DNA hybridization and phenotypic and chemotaxonomic
characterization supported the conclusion that strain JSM 076093(T) represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the
name Bacillus hemicentroti sp. nov. is proposed, with JSM 076093(T) (=DSM 23007(T)=KCTC 13710(T)) as the type strain. PMID:
21278416 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus herbersteinensis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2005 Sep;55(Pt 5):2119-23. Bacillus herbersteinensis sp. nov. Wieser M(1),
Worliczek H, Kämpfer P, Busse HJ. Author information: (1)Institut für Bakteriologie, Mykologie und Hygiene, Veterinärmedizinische
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Universität Wien, A-1210 Wien, Austria. Two bacterial strains, designated D-1,5a(T) and D-1,5b, were isolated from a medieval wall
painting in the chapel of Castle Herberstein, Styria (Austria). The Gram-positive, heterotrophic, aerobic, spore-forming rods showed
nearly identical whole-cell protein patterns, identical genomic fingerprints and identical physiological profiles, demonstrating their relationship at the species level. Both strains contained meso-diaminopimelic acid in their peptidoglycan, possessed a quinone system
comprising menaquinone MK-7 and had fatty acid profiles in which C(15:0) iso and C(15:0) anteiso were predominant. The 16S rRNA
gene sequence of D-1,5a(T) showed the highest similarity (99.5%) to the sequence of Bacillus sp. LMG 20243, and Bacillus flexus
IFO 15715(T) was the next most closely related established species (96.5%). Other type strains, such as Bacillus fastidiosus DSM
91(T), Bacillus indicus SD/3(T), Bacillus cibi JG-30(T), Bacillus megaterium IAM 13418(T), Bacillus cohnii DSM 6308(T), Bacillus bataviensis LMG 21833(T) and Bacillus soli LMG 21838(T), shared 96.0-96.1% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with D-1,5a(T). The
combination of physiological and chemotaxonomic traits distinguishes the two strains from those species sharing the highest sequence similarities (96.0-96.5%). On the basis of these characteristics and the phylogenetic position of strain D-1,5a(T) (=DSM
16534(T)=CCM 7228(T)), this strain is assigned as the type strain of a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus herbersteinensis sp. nov. is proposed. PMID: 16166719 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
82. Bacillus horneckiae Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2010 May;60(Pt 5):1031-7. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.008979-0. Epub 2009 Aug 7. Bacillus
horneckiae sp. nov., isolated from a spacecraft-assembly clean room. Vaishampayan P(1), Probst A, Krishnamurthi S, Ghosh S, Osman S, McDowall A, Ruckmani A, Mayilraj S, Venkateswaran K. Author information: (1)Biotechnology and Planetary Protection Group,
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA. Five Gram-stain-positive, motile, aerobic
strains were isolated from a clean room of the Kennedy Space Center where the Phoenix spacecraft was assembled. All strains are
rod-shaped, spore-forming bacteria, whose spores were resistant to UV radiation up to 1000 J m(-2). The spores were subterminally
positioned and produced an external layer. A polyphasic taxonomic study including traditional biochemical tests, fatty acid analysis,
cell-wall typing, lipid analyses, 16S rRNA gene sequencing and DNA-DNA hybridization studies was performed to characterize these
novel strains. 16S rRNA gene sequencing and lipid analyses convincingly grouped these novel strains within the genus Bacillus as a
cluster separate from already described species. The similarity of 16S rRNA gene sequences among the novel strains was >99 %,
but the similarity was only about 97 % with their nearest neighbours Bacillus pocheonensis, Bacillus firmus and Bacillus bataviensis.
DNA-DNA hybridization dissociation values were <24 % to the closest related type strains. The novel strains had a G+C content
35.6+/-0.5 mol% and could liquefy gelatin but did not utilize or produce acids from any of the carbon substrates tested. The major
fatty acids were iso-C(15 : 0) and anteiso-C(15 : 0) and the cell-wall diamino acid was meso-diaminopimelic acid. Based on phylogenetic and phenotypic results, it is concluded that these strains represent a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name
Bacillus horneckiae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 1P01SC(T) (=NRRL B-59162(T) =MTCC 9535(T)). PMID: 19666815
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
83. Bacillus horti Int J Syst Bacteriol. 1998 Apr;48 Pt 2:565-71. Bacillus horti sp. nov., a new gram-negative alkaliphilic bacillus. Yumoto
I(1), Yamazaki K, Sawabe T, Nakano K, Kawasaki K, Ezura Y, Shinano H. Author information: (1)Bioscience and Chemistry Division,
Hokkaido National Industrial Research Institute, Sapporo, Japan. [email protected] Erratum in Int J Syst Bacteriol 1999 Oct;49 Pt
4:1951. Novel Gram-negative alkaliphilic strains were isolated from soil obtained from Atsuma, Hokkaido, Japan. The isolates were
strictly aerobic rods that produced subterminally located ellipsoidal spores. Chemotaxonomic characteristics of the isolates included
the presence of meso-diaminopimelic acid in the cell wall and a DNA G + C content of 40.2-40.9 mol%. The major isoprenoid quinone
was menaquinone-7 and the cellular fatty acid profile consisted of a significant amount of 15-C branched-chain acids, iso-C15:0 and
anteiso-C15:0. The growth rate was higher at pH 8-10 than at pH 7. Comparative sequence analysis of 16S rDNA of 14 alkaliphilic
Bacillus strains indicates that the isolated strain has an equidistant relationship to three already defined rRNA groups of alkaliphilic
Bacillus species. Based on the morphological and physiological characteristics, as well as phylogenetic position as determined by
16S rDNA analysis and DNA-DNA relatedness data, it is concluded that these isolates should be designated as a new species, for
which the name Bacillus horti is proposed. The type strain is K13T (= JCM 9943T). PMID: 9731298 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
84. Bacillus huizhouensis Li J(1), Yang G, Wu M, Zhao Y, Zhou S. Bacillus huizhouensis sp. nov., isolated from a paddy field soil. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2014 Aug;106(2):357-63. doi: 10.1007/s10482-014-0208-2. Epub 2014 Jun 6. Author information:
(1)College of Food Science and Technology, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai, 201306, Peoples's Republic of China. A
Gram-stain positive, facultative aerobic bacterium, designated as strain GSS03(T), was isolated from a paddy field soil. The cells
were observed to be endospore forming, rod-shaped and motile with flagella. The organism was found to grow optimally at 35 °C at
pH 7.0 and in the presence of 1 % NaCl. The strain was classified as a novel taxon within the genus Bacillus on the basis of phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses. The closest phylogenetic relatives were identified as Bacillus psychrosaccharolyticus DSM 6(T)
(97.61 %), Bacillus muralis DSM 16288(T) (97.55 %), Bacillus asahii JCM 12112(T) (97.48 %), Bacillus simplex DSM 1321(T)
(97.48 %) and "Bacillus frigoritolerans" DSM 8801(T) (97.38 %). The menaquinone was identified as MK-7, the major cellular fatty
acid was identified as anteiso-C15:0 and the major cellular polar lipids as phospha- tidylethanolamine, phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phospha- tidylglycerol and three unknown polar lipids. The DNA G+C content was determined to
be 40.2 mol%. The DNA-DNA relatedness with the closest relatives was below 48 %. Therefore, on the basis of all the results, strain
24
85.
86.
87.
88.
GSS03(T) is considered to represent a novel species within the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus huizhouensis sp. nov. is
proposed. The type strain is GSS03(T) (=KCTC 33172(T) =CCTCC AB 2013237(T)). PMID: 24903955 [PubMed - in process]
Bacillus hunanensis Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2011 Mar;99(3):481-8. doi: 10.1007/s10482-010-9512-7. Epub 2010 Sep 26. Bacillus hunanensis sp. nov., a slightly halophilic bacterium isolated from non-saline forest soil. Chen YG(1), Hao DF, Chen QH, Zhang
YQ, Liu JB, He JW, Tang SK, Li WJ. Author information: (1)Key Laboratory of Ecotourism's Application Technology of Hunan Province,
College of Biology and Environmental Sciences, Jishou University, 416000 Jishou, People's Republic of China. [email protected] A novel Gram-stain-positive, slightly halophilic, catalase- and oxidase-positive, endospore-forming, motile, aerobic, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain JSM 081003(T), was isolated from non-saline forest soil in Hunan Province, China.
Growth occurred with 0.5-15% (w/v) NaCl (optimum 2-4%) at pH 6.5-10.5 (optimum pH 7.5-8.5) and at 5-40 °C (optimum 30 °C).
meso-Diaminopimelic acid was present in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C15:0, anteiso-C15:0
and iso-C14:0. Strain JSM 081003(T) contained MK-7 as the predominant respiratory quinone, and diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol as the major polar lipids. The genomic DNA G + C content of strain JSM 081003(T) was
40.9 mol%. A phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons revealed that strain JSM 081003(T) should be
assigned to the genus Bacillus, and was related most closely to the type strains of Bacillus lehensis (sequence similarity 99.6%), Bacillus oshimensis (99.4%) and Bacillus patagoniensis (96.6%); lower than 96.0% sequence similarity was observed with other Bacillus species. The combination of phylogenetic analysis, DNA-DNA relatedness values, phenotypic characteristics and chemotaxonomic data supports the view that strain JSM 081003(T) represents a new species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus
hunanensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JSM 081003(T) (= DSM 23008(T) = KCTC 13711(T)). PMID: 20872176 [PubMed
- indexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus hwajinpoensis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2004 May;54(Pt 3):803-8. Bacillus hwajinpoensis sp. nov. and an unnamed Bacillus genomospecies, novel members of Bacillus rRNA group 6 isolated from sea water of the East Sea and the Yellow Sea in Korea.
Yoon JH(1), Kim IG, Kang KH, Oh TK, Park YH. Author information: (1)Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology
(KRIBB), PO Box 115, Yusong, Taejon, Korea. Two Gram-positive or -variable, endospore-forming, slightly halophilic strains
(SW-72(T) and SW-93) were isolated from sea water of the East Sea and the Yellow Sea in Korea, respectively, and subjected to
polyphasic taxonomic study. Both strains had cell-wall peptidoglycan that was based on meso-diaminopimelic acid and MK-7 as the
predominant menaquinone. The two strains contained large amounts of saturated and branched fatty acids, with anteiso-C(15 : 0) as
the major fatty acid. The DNA G+C contents of strains SW-72(T) and SW-93 were 40.9 and 41.0 mol%, respectively. Phylogenetic
analysis based on 16S rDNA sequences showed that strains SW-72(T) and SW-93 fall within the radiation of the cluster that comprises members of the genus Bacillus, particularly Bacillus rRNA group 6. There were five nucleotide differences between the 16S
rDNA sequences of strains SW-72(T) and SW-93. The mean level of DNA-DNA relatedness between strains SW-72(T) and SW-93
was 21.5 %. Strains SW-72(T) and SW-93 showed 93.1-95.2 % 16S rDNA sequence similarity to the type strains of Bacillus species
that are assigned to rRNA group 6. Strains SW-72(T) and SW-93 could not be differentiated clearly by using their phenotypic properties. On the basis of phenotypic properties, phylogeny and genomic data, it is proposed that strain SW-72(T) (=KCCM 41641(T)=JCM
11807(T)) should be placed in the genus Bacillus as the type strain of a novel species, Bacillus hwajinpoensis sp. nov., and that strain
SW-93 (=KCCM 41640=JCM 11806) should be placed in the genus Bacillus as an unnamed Bacillus genomospecies. PMID:
15143027 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus indicus Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2004 Jul;54(Pt 4):1369-75. Bacillus indicus sp. nov., an arsenic-resistant bacterium isolated from an aquifer in West Bengal, India. Suresh K(1), Prabagaran SR, Sengupta S, Shivaji S. Author information: (1)Centre for
Cellular and Molecular Biology, Uppal Road, Hyderabad-500 007, India. Strain Sd/3T (=MTCC 4374T=DSM 15820T), an arsenic-resistant bacterium, was isolated from a sand sample obtained from an arsenic-contaminated aquifer in Chakdah district in West
Bengal, India (23 degrees 3' N 88 degrees 35' E). The bacterium was Gram-positive, rod-shaped, non-motile, endospore-forming and
yellowish-orange pigmented. It possessed all the characteristics that conform to the genus Bacillus, such as it had A4beta murein
type (L-orn-D-Asp) peptidoglycan variant, MK-7 as the major menaquinone and iso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0 as the major fatty
acids. Based on its chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic characteristics, strain Sd/3T was identified as a species of the genus Bacillus.
It exhibited maximum similarity (95%) at the 16S rRNA gene level with Bacillus cohnii; however, DNA-DNA similarity with B. cohnii
was 60.7%. Strain Sd/3T also exhibited a number of phenotypic differences from B. cohnii (DSM 6307T). These data suggest that
Sd/3T represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus. The name Bacillus indicus sp. nov. is proposed. PMID: 15280316 [PubMed indexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus infantis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2006 Nov;56(Pt 11):2541-4. Bacillus infantis sp. nov. and Bacillus idriensis sp. nov., isolated from a patient with neonatal sepsis. Ko KS(1), Oh WS, Lee MY, Lee JH, Lee H, Peck KR, Lee NY, Song JH. Author information:
(1)Asian-Pacific Research Foundation for Infectious Diseases (ARFID), Seoul 135-710, Korea. Two Gram-positive bacilli, designated
as strains SMC 4352-1T and SMC 4352-2T, were isolated sequentially from the blood of a newborn child with sepsis. They could not
be identified by using conventional clinical microbiological methods. 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis revealed
that both strains belonged to the genus Bacillus but clearly diverged from known Bacillus species. Strain SMC 4352-1T and strain
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SMC 4352-2T were found to be closely related to Bacillus firmus NCIMB 9366T (98.2% sequence similarity) and Bacillus cibi JG-30T
(97.1% sequence similarity), respectively. They also displayed low DNA-DNA reassociation values (less than 40%) with respect to the
most closely related Bacillus species. On the basis of their polyphasic characteristics, strain SMC 4352-1T and strain SMC 4352-2T
represent two novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the names Bacillus infantis sp. nov. (type strain SMC 4352-1T=KCCM
90025T=JCM 13438T) and Bacillus idriensis sp. nov. (type strain SMC 4352-2T=KCCM 90024T=JCM 13437T) are proposed. PMID:
17082387 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
89. Bacillus infernus Int J Syst Bacteriol. 1995 Jul;45(3):441-8. Bacillus infernus sp. nov., an Fe(III)- and Mn(IV)-reducing anaerobe
from the deep terrestrial subsurface. Boone DR(1), Liu Y, Zhao ZJ, Balkwill DL, Drake GR, Stevens TO, Aldrich HC. Author information: (1)Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Oregon Graduate Institute of Science & Technology, Portland
97291-1000, USA. Bacillus infernus sp. nov. was isolated from ca. 2,700 m below the land surface in the Taylorsville Triassic Basin in
Virginia. B. infernus was a strict anaerobe that grew on formate or lactate with Fe(III), MnO2, trimethylamine oxide, or nitrate (reduced to nitrite) as an electron acceptor, and it also grew fermentatively on glucose. Type strain TH-23 and five reference strains
were gram-positive rods that were thermophilic (growth occurred at 61 degrees C), halotolerant (good growth occurred in the presence of Na+ concentrations up to 0.6 M), and very slightly alkaliphilic (good growth occurred at pH 7.3 to 7.8). A phylogenetic analysis of its 16S rRNA indicated that B. infernus should be classified as a new species of the genus Bacillus. B. infernus is the only
strictly anaerobic species in the genus Bacillus. PMID: 8590670 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
90. Bacillus iranensis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2012 Apr;62(Pt 4):811-6. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.030874-0. Epub 2011 May 13. Bacillus
iranensis sp. nov., a moderate halophile from a hypersaline lake. Bagheri M(1), Didari M, Amoozegar MA, Schumann P,
Sánchez-Porro C, Mehrshad M, Ventosa A. Author information: (1)Microorganisms Bank, Iranian Biological Resource Centre (IBRC),
ACECR, Teheran, Iran. A Gram-positive, moderately halophilic rod, designated X5BT, was isolated from saline mud of the hypersaline
lake Aran-Bidgol in Iran. Strain X5BT was a strictly aerobic, motile bacterium that produced ellipsoidal endospores at a central-subterminal position in non-swollen sporangia. The isolate grew at pH 7.0-10.0 (optimum pH 7.5), at 25-45 °C (optimum 35 °C)
and with 2.5-15 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 5-7.5 %). On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, strain X5BT belonged to the genus Bacillus and showed highest similarity with Bacillus persepolensis HS136T (95.6 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Bacillus
salarius BH169T (95.5 %). The DNA G+C content was 42.4 mol%. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15:0 and iso-C15:0
and the polar lipid profile consisted of phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, three phospholipids and two glycolipids. The diamino acid found in the cell-wall peptidoglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid and the isoprenoid quinones were MK-7 (92 %), MK-6
(6 %) and MK-5 (2 %). On the basis of phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic data, a novel species of the genus Bacillus is
proposed, with the name Bacillus iranensis sp. nov. The type strain is X5BT (=IBRC 10446T=DSM 23995T). PMID: 21571930 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
91. Bacillus isabeliae Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2008 Jan;58(Pt 1):226-30. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.65217-0. Bacillus isabeliae sp. nov., a halophilic bacterium isolated from a sea salt evaporation pond. Albuquerque L(1), Tiago I, Taborda M, Nobre MF, Veríssimo A, da Costa
MS. Author information: (1)Centro de Neurociências e Biologia Celular, Department of Zoology, University of Coimbra, 3004-517
Coimbra, Portugal. A low-G+C, Gram-positive isolate, designated strain CVS-8(T), was isolated from a sea salt evaporation pond on
the Island of Sal in the Cape Verde Archipelago. This organism was found to be a catalase- and oxidase-positive, non-motile,
spore-forming, aerobic, curved rod-shaped organism with an optimum growth temperature of about 35-37 degrees C and an optimum
pH between 7.5 and 8.0. Optimal growth occurred in media containing 4-6% (w/v) NaCl and no growth occurred in medium without
NaCl. The cell-wall peptidoglycan was of the A1gamma type with meso-diaminopimelic acid, the major respiratory quinone was MK-7,
the major fatty acids were iso-15:0, 16:0, anteiso-15:0 and iso-16:0 and the major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and an unidentified aminoglycophospholipid. The G+C content of the DNA was 37.9 mol%.
Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain CVS-8(T) represented a novel species of the genus Bacillus, the highest levels of sequence similarity (mean pairwise similarity values of approximately 97.5 %) being found with respect to
the type strains of Bacillus shackletonii and Bacillus acidicola. On the basis of the phylogenetic, physiological and biochemical data,
strain CVS-8(T) represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus isabeliae sp. nov. is proposed. The
type strain is CVS-8(T) (=LMG 22838(T)=CIP 108578(T)). PMID: 18175713 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
92. Bacillus jeotgali Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2001 May;51(Pt 3):1087-92. Bacillus jeotgali sp. nov., isolated from jeotgal, Korean traditional fermented seafood. Yoon JH(1), Kang SS, Lee KC, Kho YH, Choi SH, Kang KH, Park YH. Author information: (1)Korea Research Institute of Biosciences and Biotechnology (KRIBB), Yusong, Taejon. Two Gram-variable, rod-shaped, endospore-forming
bacterial strains, which are motile with peritrichous flagella, were isolated from a Korean traditional fermented seafood, jeotgal. The
two isolates (strains YKJ-1OT and YKJ-11) were proven to be members of the same species on the basis of the results of phenotypic
and phylogenetic analyses and DNA relatedness. Strains YKJ-10T and YKJ-11 were characterized by having cell wall peptidoglycan
based on meso-diaminopimelic acid, MK-7 as the predominant menaquinone, and iso-C15:0 as the major fatty acid. The G+C content of the DNA was 41 mol%. Strains YKJ-10T and YKJ-11 showed only a 1 bp sequence difference in the 16S rDNA sequences.
The two strains formed distinct phylogenetic lineages within the radiation of the cluster comprising Bacillus species. Levels of 16S
26
rDNA similarity between strains YKJ-10T and YKJ-11 and Bacillus species were less than 96.6%. Levels of DNA-DNA relatedness
were found to be low enough to distinguish strains YKJ-10T and YKJ-11 from some phylogenetically related Bacillus species. On the
basis of phenotypic properties, phylogeny and genomic distinctiveness, strains YKJ-10T and YKJ-11 represent a new species of the
genus Bacillus, for which a new name, Bacillusjeotgali sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain of the new species is strain YKJ-10T (=
KCCM 41040T = JCM 10885T). PMID: 11411677 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
93. Bacillus kochii Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2012 May;62(Pt 5):1092-7. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.027771-0. Epub 2011 Jun 24. Bacillus kochii
sp. nov., isolated from foods and a pharmaceuticals manufacturing site. Seiler H(1), Schmidt V, Wenning M, Scherer S. Author information: (1)Department of Microbiology (ZIEL), Technische Universität München, Weihenstephaner Berg 3, D-85350 Freising, Germany. [email protected] Three Gram-staining-positive, strictly aerobic, motile, catalase-positive, endospore-forming rods,
designated WCC 4582(T), WCC 4581 and WCC 4583, were isolated from two different food sources and a pharmaceuticals production site. The three isolates were highly similar in their 16S rRNA gene sequences (100 % similarity) and groEL sequences (99.2-100 %
similarity), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopic fingerprints and other features tested. The isolates were most closely related to
Bacillus horneckiae; the isolates and the type strain of B. horneckiae shared 97.6 % and 89.6 % 16S rRNA gene and groEL sequence
similarities, respectively. The organisms grew optimally at 30 °C, at pH 7 and in the presence of 0.5 % (w/v) NaCl. The cell-wall peptidoglycan of WCC 4582(T) contained meso-diaminopimelic acid (A1γ) and the genomic DNA G+C content was 36.4 mol%.
DNA-DNA relatedness between strain WCC 4582(T) and B. horneckiae NRRL B-59162(T) was 17 %. The three isolates are considered to represent a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus kochii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is
WCC 4582(T) ( = DSM 23667(T) = CCUG 59877(T) = LMG 25855(T)). PMID: 21705449 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
94. Bacillus kokeshiiformis Poudel P(1), Miyamoto H(2), Miyamoto H(3), Okugawa Y(1), Tashiro Y(1), Sakai K(4). Thermotolerant Bacillus kokeshiiformis sp. nov. isolated from marine animal resources compost. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2014 May 16. pii:
ijs.0.059329-0. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.059329-0. [Epub ahead of print] Author information: (1)Laboratory of Soil Microbiology, Kyushu
University, Japan; (2)Japan Eco-science Co. Ltd., Japan; (3)Oita Miroku Co.Ltd., Japan. (4)Laboratory of Soil Microbiology, Kyushu
University, Japan; [email protected] A novel Gram-staining positive, endospore forming rod-shaped, facultatively anaerobic, thermotolerant bacterium, designated strain MO-04(T), was isolated from a marine animal resources (MAR) compost. The 16S
rRNA gene sequence of strain MO-04(T) showed 99.4% similarity with Bacillus thermolactis R-6488(T),94.1% similarity with Bacillus
thermoamylovorans CNCM I-1378(T), 93.3% similarity with B. humi LMG 22167(T), and 93.2% similarity with B. niacini IFO 15566(T)
and others were < 93%. DNA-DNA relatedness between strain MO-04(T) and B. thermolactis DSM 23332(T) was 45%. The DNA
G+C content of strain MO-04(T) was 33.4 mol%, comparatively lower than that of B. thermolactis R-6488(T) (35.0 mol%). Strain
MO-04(T) grew at 35-61°C (optimum 50°C), pH 4.5-9.0 (optimum 7.2), and tolerated up to 8.0% (w/v) NaCl (optimum 2%). The
MO-04(T) cell wall peptidoglycan type was meso 2,6-diaminopimelic acid, and the major fatty acids were C16:1, C14:1, C17:0 and
C17:1. The major polar lipids were represented by diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol, and two unidentified phospholipids. The analyzed polyphasic data presented here clearly indicate that the isolate MO-04(T) is considered to be a novel species within the genus Bacillus for which the name Bacillus kokeshiiformis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of B. kokeshiiformis is MO-04(T)
(= JCM 19325(T) = KCTC 33163(T)). Copyright © 2014, the Society for General Microbiology. PMID: 24835163 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
95. Bacillus koreensis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2006 Jan;56(Pt 1):59-63. Bacillus koreensis sp. nov., a spore-forming bacterium, isolated from the rhizosphere of willow roots in Korea. Lim JM(1), Jeon CO, Lee JC, Ju YJ, Park DJ, Kim CJ. Author information:
(1)Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, 52 Oeundong, Yusong, Daejeon 305-333, Republic of Korea. An endospore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium was isolated from the rhizosphere of willow roots in Korea. The bacterium, designated strain
BR030T, was a strictly aerobic, motile rod. The cell wall contained type A1gamma peptidoglycan with meso-diaminopimelic acid as
the diagnostic diamino acid. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C(15 : 0), iso-C(15 : 0), iso-C(14 : 0) and iso-C(16 : 0). The
major cellular phospholipids were phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and unknown phospholipids (PL1, PL2). The genomic DNA G+C content was 36 mol%. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses showed that strain
BR030T formed a distinct phyletic line within the genus Bacillus and was most closely related to Bacillus flexus DSM 1320T, with 16S
rRNA gene sequence similarity of 96.8 %. Sequence similarities to other type strains were lower than 96.2 %. On the basis of physiological and molecular properties, the isolate represents a novel species within the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus koreensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is BR030T (= KCTC 3914T = DSM 16467T). PMID: 16403867 [PubMed - indexed for
MEDLINE]
96. Bacillus korlensis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2009 Jul;59(Pt 7):1787-92. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.004879-0. Epub 2009 Jun 19. Bacillus
korlensis sp. nov., a moderately halotolerant bacterium isolated from a sand soil sample in China. Zhang L(1), Wang Y, Dai J, Tang Y,
Yang Q, Luo X, Fang C. Author information: (1)College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, PR China. A
Gram-positive-staining, rod-shaped, motile, spore-forming and moderately halotolerant bacterium, designated ZLC-26(T), was isolated from a sand soil sample collected from Xinjiang Province, China, and was characterized by using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. This isolate grew optimally at 30-37 degrees C and pH 7-8. It grew with 0-8% NaCl (optimum, 0-2 %). Comparative 16S
27
rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain ZLC-26(T) was closely related to members of the genus Bacillus, exhibiting the
highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to Bacillus nealsonii DSM 15077(T) (97.1 %), B. shackletonii LMG 18435(T) (97.0 %),
B. siralis 171544(T) (97.0 %), B. circulans IAM 12462(T) (96.7 %) and B. pocheonensis Gsoil 420(T) (96.7 %). Strain ZLC-26(T) contained MK-7 as the predominant menaquinone. The diagnostic diamino acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan was meso-diaminopimelic
acid. The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C(15 : 0), C(16 : 1)omega11c and anteiso-C(15 : 0). The DNA G+C content was 38.2
mol%. These chemotaxonomic results supported the affiliation of strain ZLC-26(T) to the genus Bacillus. However, low DNA-DNA relatedness values and distinguishing phenotypic characteristics allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain ZLC-26(T)
from recognized Bacillus species. On the basis of the evidence presented, strain ZLC-26(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus korlensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is ZLC-26(T) (=CCTCC AB
207172(T)=NRRL B-51302(T)). PMID: 19542113 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 201. Extremophiles. 2009 Jul;13(4):695-705. doi:
10.1007/s00792-009-0257-z. Epub 2009 Jun 18. Enrichment and isolation of Bacillus beveridgei sp. nov., a facultative anaerobic
haloalkaliphile from Mono Lake, California, that respires oxyanions of tellurium, selenium, and arsenic. Baesman SM(1), Stolz JF,
Kulp TR, Oremland RS. Author information: (1)U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA. Mono Lake sediment slurries
incubated with lactate and tellurite [Te(IV)] turned progressively black with time because of the precipitation of elemental tellurium
[Te(0)]. An enrichment culture was established from these slurries that demonstrated Te(IV)-dependent growth. The enrichment was
purified by picking isolated black colonies from lactate/Te(IV) agar plates, followed by repeated streaking and picking. The isolate,
strain MLTeJB, grew in aqueous Te(IV)-medium if provided with a small amount of sterile solid phase material (e.g., agar plug; glass
beads). Strain MLTeJB grew at high concentrations of Te(IV) (~8 mM) by oxidizing lactate to acetate plus formate, while reducing
Te(IV) to Te(0). Other electron acceptors that were found to sustain growth were tellurate, selenate, selenite, arsenate, nitrate, nitrite,
fumarate and oxygen. Notably, growth on arsenate, nitrate, nitrite and fumarate did not result in the accumulation of formate, implying
that in these cases lactate was oxidized to acetate plus CO(2). Strain MLTeJB is a low G + C Gram positive motile rod with pH, sodium, and temperature growth optima at 8.5-9.0, 0.5-1.5 M, and 40 degrees C, respectively. The epithet Bacillus beveridgei strain
MLTeJB(T) is proposed. PMID: 19536453 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
97. Bacillus kribbensis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2007 Dec;57(Pt 12):2912-6. Bacillus kribbensis sp. nov., isolated from a soil sample in
Jeju, Korea. Lim JM(1), Jeon CO, Lee JR, Park DJ, Kim CJ. Author information: (1)Functional Metabolomics Research Center,
KRIBB, Daejeon 305-806, Korea. A Gram-positive, endospore-forming bacterium, designated strain BT080(T), was isolated from a
soil sample in Jeju, Korea. Cells of the isolate were strictly aerobic rods that were motile by means of peritrichous flagella. The strain
grew optimally at 30-33 degrees C and pH 5.5-6.5. Chemotaxonomic data (major isoprenoid quinone, MK-7; DNA G+C content, 43.3
mol%; major fatty acids, anteiso-C(15 : 0), iso-C(14 : 0), iso-C(16 : 0) and iso-C(15 : 0)) supported the affiliation of the isolate to the
genus Bacillus. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses showed that strain BT080(T) formed a distinct phyletic line within
the genus Bacillus. The levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with respect to related Bacillus species were below 96.4 %. On
the basis of physiological, biochemical and phylogenetic properties, strain BT080(T) represents a novel species within the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus kribbensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is BT080(T) (=KCTC 13934(T)=DSM 17871(T)).
PMID: 18048748 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
98. Bacillus krulwichiae Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2003 Sep;53(Pt 5):1531-6. Bacillus krulwichiae sp. nov., a halotolerant obligate alkaliphile that utilizes benzoate and m-hydroxybenzoate. Yumoto I(1), Yamaga S, Sogabe Y, Nodasaka Y, Matsuyama H, Nakajima K,
Suemori A. Author information: (1)Institute of Biological Resources and Function, Hokkaido Center, National Institute of Advanced
Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukisamu-Higashi, Toyohira-ku, Sapporo 062-8517, Japan. [email protected] Obligate alkaliphilic strains, AM31D(T) and AM11D, that utilize benzoate and m-hydroxybenzoate were isolated from soil obtained from Tsukuba,
Ibaraki, Japan. The isolates grew at pH 8-10, but not at neutral pH. They were Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, straight rods
with peritrichous flagella and produced ellipsoidal spores. The isolates reduced nitrate to nitrite and grew in 0-14 % NaCl, but not in
higher concentrations. The major isoprenoid quinones were menaquinone-5, -6 and -7, and the cellular fatty acid profile consisted of
significant amounts of 15-C branched-chain acids, isoC(15 : 0) and anteisoC(15 : 0). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene
sequencing indicated that strain AM31D(T) was a member of group 6 (alkaliphiles) in the genus Bacillus. DNA-DNA hybridization revealed a low relatedness of the isolates with several phylogenetically close neighbours, including Bacillus alcalophilus and Bacillus
pseudalcaliphilus (less than 19.3 %). Based on phenotypic characteristics, phylogenetic data and DNA-DNA relatedness data, it was
concluded that these isolates merited classification as a new species, for which the name Bacillus krulwichiae is proposed. The type
strain of this species is AM31D(T) (=NCIMB 13904(T)=JCM 11691(T)=IAM 15000(T)). PMID: 13130043 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
99. Bacillus kyonggiensis J Microbiol. 2011 Oct;49(5):776-81. doi: 10.1007/s12275-011-1218-7. Epub 2011 Nov 9. Bacillus kyonggiensis sp. nov., isolated from soil of a lettuce field. Dong K(1), Lee S. Author information: (1)Department of Bioengineering, Granduate School of Kyonggi University, Suwon, 443-760, Republic of Korea. A Gram-positive, rod-shaped, motile, endospore-forming bacterial strain, designated NB22(T), was isolated from soil of a lettuce field in Kyonggi province, South Korea, and was characterized by
using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. This novel isolate grew optimally at 30-37°C and pH 8-9. It grew in the presence of 0-4%
28
NaCl (optimum, 1-2%). Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain NB22(T) was closely related to members
of the genus Bacillus and fell within a coherent cluster comprising B. siralis 171544(T) (98.1%) and B. korlensis ZLC-26(T) (97.3%).
The levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with respect to other Bacillus species with validly published names were less than
96.4%. Strain NB22(T) had a genomic DNA G+C content of 36.3 mol% and the predominant respiratory quinone was MK-7. The peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C(15:0), anteiso-C(15:0), C(14:0), and
C(16:0). These chemotaxonomic results supported the affiliation of strain NB22(T) to the genus Bacillus, and the low DNA-DNA relatedness values and distinguishing phenotypic characteristics allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain NB22(T)
from recognized Bacillus species. On the basis of the evidence presented, strain NB22(T) is considered to represent a novel species
of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus kyonggiensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NB22(T) (=KEMB 5401-267(T)
=JCM 17569(T)). PMID: 22068494 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
100. Bacillus lehensis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2007 Feb;57(Pt 2):238-42. Bacillus lehensis sp. nov., an alkalitolerant bacterium isolated
from soil. Ghosh A(1), Bhardwaj M, Satyanarayana T, Khurana M, Mayilraj S, Jain RK. Author information: (1)Microbial Type Culture
Collection and Gene Bank (MTCC), Institute of Microbial Technology, Sector-39A, Chandigarh 160036, India. A Gram-positive, endospore-forming, alkalitolerant bacterial strain, designated MLB2T, was isolated from soil from Leh, India, and was subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. The strain exhibited phenotypic properties that included chemotaxonomic characteristics consistent with its
classification in the genus Bacillus. Growth was observed at pH 7.0-11.0, but not at pH 6.0. The DNA G+C content was 41.4 mol%.
The highest level of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity was with Bacillus oshimensis JCM 12663T (98.8 %). However, DNA-DNA
hybridization experiments indicated low levels of genomic relatedness with the type strains of B. oshimensis (62 %), Bacillus patagoniensis (55 %), Bacillus clausii (51 %) and Bacillus gibsonii (34 %), the species with which strain MLB2T formed a coherent cluster
(based on the results of the phylogenetic analysis). On the basis of the phenotypic characteristics and genotypic distinctiveness of
strain MLB2T, it should be classified within a novel species of Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus lehensis sp. nov. is proposed. The
type strain is MLB2T (=MTCC 7633T=JCM 13820T). PMID: 17267957 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
101. Bacillus ligniniphilus Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2014 May;64(Pt 5):1712-7. doi: 10.1099/ ijs. 0.058610-0. Epub 2014 Feb 19. Bacillus ligniniphilus sp. nov., an alkaliphilic and halotolerant bacterium isolated from sediments of the South China Sea. Zhu D(1), Tanabe
SH, Xie C, Honda D, Sun J, Ai L. Author information: (1)State Key Laboratory of Dairy Biotechnology, Technology Center of Bright
Dairy & Food Co. Ltd, Shanghai 200436, PR China. An alkaliphilic and halotolerant Gram-stain-positive bacterium, which was isolated from sediment samples from the South China Sea, was subjected to a taxonomic study. The isolate, strain L1T, grew well at a
wide range of temperatures and pH values, 10.0-45.0 °C and pH 6-11, with optima at 30 °C and pH 9.0, respectively. The growth of
strain L1T occurred at total salt concentrations of 0-10% (w/v) with an optimum at 2% (w/v). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S
rRNA sequence comparison indicated that the isolate represented a member of the genus Bacillus. The strains most closely related
to strain L1T were Bacillus nanhaiisediminis JCM 16507T, Bacillus halodurans DSM 497T and Bacillus pseudofirmus DSM 8715T,
with 16S rRNA similarities of 96.5%, 95.9% and 95.7%, respectively. DNA-DNA hybridization of strain L1T with the type strains of the
most closely related species, B. nanhaiisediminis JCM 16507T, B. halodurans DSM 497T and B. pseudofirmus DSM 8715T, showed
reassociation values of about 21.7%, 14.3% and 13.9%, respectively. The DNA G+C content of strain L1T was 40.76 mol%. The
predominant isoprenoid quinone was menaquinone 7 (MK-7). The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the
diagnostic diamino acid. The predominant cellular fatty acids of strain L1T were iso-C14 : 0 and anteiso-C15:0. The major polar lipids
were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol. Based on the phenotypic and phylogenetic characteristics, it is proposed that strain L1T (=JCM 18543T=DSM 26145T) should be classified as the type strain of Bacillus ligniniphilus
sp. nov. PMID: 24554634 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]$$
102. Bacillus litoralis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2005 Sep;55(Pt 5):1945-8. Bacillus litoralis sp. nov., isolated from a tidal flat of the Yellow
Sea in Korea. Yoon JH(1), Oh TK. Author information: (1)Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnolog, Yusong, Taejon,
South Korea. [email protected] A Gram-variable, motile, endospore-forming, slightly halophilic bacterial strain, designated
SW-211(T), was isolated from a tidal flat of the Yellow Sea in Korea, and was characterized taxonomically by using a polyphasic approach. The organism grew optimally at 37 degrees C and in the presence of 2-3% NaCl. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence
analysis showed that strain SW-211(T) forms a distinct phylogenetic lineage within the radiation of the cluster comprising Bacillus
species. Strain SW-211(T) had cell-wall peptidoglycan based on meso-diaminopimelic acid. The predominant menaquinone was
MK-7 and the major fatty acids were anteiso-C(15:0) (34.8%), iso-C(15:0) (15.6%), iso-C(16:0) (12.5%) and iso-C(14:0) (10.0%). The
DNA G+C content was 35.2 mol%. Strain SW-211(T) exhibited levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of <96.2% with respect
to the type strains of recognized Bacillus species. On the basis of its phenotypic properties and phylogenetic distinctiveness, strain
SW-211(T) (=KCTC 3898(T)=DSM 16303(T)) was classified in the genus Bacillus as the type strain of a novel species, for which the
name Bacillus litoralis sp. nov. is proposed. PMID: 16166692 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
103. Bacillus locisalis Syst Appl Microbiol. 2011 Sep;34(6):424-8. doi: 10.1016/j.syapm.2011.04.003. Epub 2011 Jul 29. Bacillus locisalis
sp. nov., a new haloalkaliphilic species from hypersaline and alkaline lakes of China, Kenya and Tanzania. Márquez MC(1), Carrasco
IJ, de la Haba RR, Jones BE, Grant WD, Ventosa A. Author information: (1)Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of
29
Pharmacy, University of Sevilla, 41012 Sevilla, Spain. [email protected] A polyphasic taxonomic study was performed on seven Bacillus-like bacteria isolated from three hypersaline and alkaline lakes located in China, Kenya and Tanzania. All strains were moderately halophilic and alkaliphilic, Gram positive, motile rods. The DNA G+C content from the seven isolates ranged from 42.2 to
43.4mol% and their major fatty acid was anteiso-C(15:0). Strain CG1(T), selected as representative strain of the isolates, possesses
meso-diaminopimelic acid in the cell wall peptidoglycan, MK-7 as the predominant menaquinone and diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine as the major polar lipids. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated
that the isolates belonged to the genus Bacillus. The seven isolates shared 97.7-99.9% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, and
formed a branch that was distinct from the type strains of the recognized species of the genus Bacillus. They were most closely related to Bacillus agaradhaerens DSM 8721(T) (92.6-93.8% 16S rRNA sequence similarity). DNA-DNA hybridization values between
the seven isolates were 85-100%. According to the polyphasic characterization, the strains represent a novel species, for which the
name Bacillus locisalis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CG1(T) (CCM 7370(T)=CECT 7152(T)=CGMCC 1.6286(T)=DSM
18085(T)). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved. PMID: 21640538 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
104. Bacillus luciferensis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2002 Nov;52(Pt 6):1985-9. Bacillus luciferensis sp. nov., from volcanic soil on Candlemas Island, South Sandwich archipelago. Logan NA(1), Lebbe L, Verhelst A, Goris J, Forsyth G, Rodriguez-Diaz M, Heyndrickx M,
De Vos P. Author information: (1)School of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Glasgow Caledonian University, Cowcaddens Road,
Glasgow G4 0BA, UK. [email protected] Aerobic, endospore-forming bacteria were found in soil taken from an active fumarole
on Lucifer Hill, Candlemas Island, South Sandwich archipelago. Amplified rDNA restriction analysis, SDS-PAGE, repetitive element
primed-PCR (rep-PCR) and routine phenotypic tests suggested that six of the isolates represent a novel taxon, and 16S rDNA sequence comparisons support the proposal of a novel species, Bacillus luciferensis sp. nov., the type strain of which is strain LMG
18422(T) (= CIP 107105(T)). PMID: 12508857 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
105. Bacillus luteolus Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2011 Jun;61(Pt 6):1344-9. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.021683-0. Epub 2010 Jun 28. Bacillus luteolus sp. nov., a halotolerant bacterium isolated from a salt field. Shi R(1), Yin M, Tang SK, Lee JC, Park DJ, Zhang YJ, Kim CJ, Li WJ.
Author information: (1)The Key Laboratory for Microbial Resources of the Ministry of Education, PR China, and Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Bio-Resources, Yunnan Institute of Microbiology, Yunnan University, Kunming, 650091, PR China. A novel
Gram-stain-positive, motile, strictly aerobic bacterium, designated YIM 93174(T), was isolated from a salt field in Korea. Cells of this
strain were rod-shaped and formed pale tangerine colonies and grew at pH 6.0-8.0 (optimal growth at pH 7.0), at 15-45 °C (optimum
28-37 °C) and at salinities of 0-10 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 0-2 % NaCl). Some phenotypic characters allowed differentiation of strain
YIM 93174(T) from its nearest phylogenetic relatives. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain YIM
93174(T) belongs to the genus Bacillus, exhibiting the highest level of sequence similarity with the type strain of Bacillus humi
(95.7 %), followed by those of Bacillus alkalitelluris (94.9 %) and Bacillus litoralis (94.5 %). The major fatty acids were iso-C(15 : 0),
anteiso-C(15 : 0) and iso-C(16 : 0). The cell-wall peptidoglycan was of the A1γ type, containing meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. The genomic DNA G+C content was 36.9 mol% and the predominant respiratory quinone was MK-7. The major polar lipids of strain YIM 93174(T) were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannoside and two unknown phospholipids. On the basis of the evidence from this polyphasic study, strain
YIM 93174(T) represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus luteolus sp. nov. is proposed, with YIM
93174(T) ( = DSM 22388(T) = KCTC 13210(T) = CCTCC AA 208068(T)) as the type strain. PMID: 20584813 [PubMed - indexed for
MEDLINE]
106. Bacillus luteus Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2014 May;64(Pt 5):1580-6. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.053504-0. Epub 2014 Jan 29. Bacillus luteus
sp. nov., isolated from soil. Subhash Y(1), Sasikala Ch, Ramana ChV. Author information: (1)Department of Plant Sciences, School of
Life Sciences, University of Hyderabad, P.O. Central University, Hyderabad 500 046, India. Two bacterial strains (JC167T and JC168)
were isolated from a soil sample collected from Mandpam, Tamilnadu, India. Colonies of both strains were orange and cells
Gram-stain-positive. Cells were small rods, and formed terminal endospores of ellipsoidal to oval shape. Both strains were positive
for catalase, oxidase and hydrolysis of starch/gelatin, and negative for chitin hydrolysis, H2S production, indole production and nitrate
reduction activity. Major fatty acids of both strains (>5%) were anteiso-C15:0, iso-C16:0, iso-C15:0, anteiso-C17:0, iso-C14:0 and
C16:0 with minor (<5 but >1%) amounts of iso-C17:0, anteiso-C17:0 B/iso-C17:0 I and C16:1ω11c. Diphosphatydilglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol were the major polar lipids of both strains. Cell wall amino acids were L-alanine,
D-alanine, D-glutamic acid and meso-diaminopimelic acid. β-Carotene and five unidentified carotenoids were present in both strains.
Mean genomic DNA G+C content was 53.4±1 mol% and the two strains were closely related (mean DNA-DNA hybridization>90%).
16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons of both strains indicated that they represent species of the genus Bacillus within the family
Bacillaceae of the phylum Firmicutes. Both strains had a sequence similarity of 97.6% with Bacillus saliphilus 6AGT and <96.8% with
other members of the genus Bacillus. Sequence similarity between strain JC167T and 168 was 100%. Strain JC167T showed 25.8±1%
reassociation (based on DNA-DNA hybridization) with B. saliphilus DSM 15402T (=6AGT). Distinct morphological, physiological and
genotypic differences from previously described taxa support the classification of strain JC167T as a representative of a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus luteus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JC167T (=KCTC 33100T=LMG
30
107.
108.
109.
110.
111.
27257T). PMID: 24478212 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]$$
Bacillus macauensis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2006 Feb;56(Pt 2):349-53. Bacillus macauensis sp. nov., a long-chain bacterium isolated from a drinking water supply. Zhang T(1), Fan X, Hanada S, Kamagata Y, Fang HH. Author information: (1)Centre for Environmental Engineering Research, Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong, China. A
novel long-chain, Gram-positive, rod-shaped, endospore-forming strain was isolated from the influent of a drinking water treatment
plant in Macau, China. This facultatively anaerobic isolate (2.0-5.0 microm in length and 0.8-1.2 microm in diameter) formed long
chains over 100 microm in length in both liquid and solid media. It had a growth temperature range of 20-40 degrees C, with an optimum at about 30 degrees C, and a growth pH range of 6.0-10.0, with an optimum at pH 8.5. The G+C content of the DNA extracted
was 40.8 mol%. The main fatty acid components were anteiso-C(15:0) (67.2%) and iso-C(15:0) (21.7%), with small quantities of
iso-C(14:0), C(14:0), iso-C(16:0) and iso-C(17:0). The main quinone component was MK-7. Phylogenetic analyses based on its 16S
rRNA gene sequence revealed that this isolate is a member of the genus Bacillus, with no close relatives at the species level (sequence similarity <96.1%). These phenotypic and genetic properties suggested that this strain represents a novel species, for which
the name Bacillus macauensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is ZFHKF-1T (=JCM 13285T=DSM 17262T). PMID: 16449438
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus macyae Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2004 Nov;54(Pt 6):2241-4. Bacillus macyae sp. nov., an arsenate-respiring bacterium
isolated from an Australian gold mine. Santini JM(1), Streimann IC, vanden Hoven RN. Author information: (1)Department of Microbiology, La Trobe University, 3086, Victoria, Australia. A strictly anaerobic arsenate-respiring bacterium isolated from a gold mine in
Bendigo, Victoria, Australia, belonging to the genus Bacillus is described. Cells are Gram-positive, motile rods capable of respiring
with arsenate and nitrate as terminal electron acceptors using a variety of substrates, including acetate as the electron donor. Reduction of arsenate to arsenite is catalysed by a membrane-bound arsenate reductase that displays activity over a broad pH range. Synthesis of the enzyme is regulated; maximal activity is obtained when the organism is grown with arsenate as the terminal electron
acceptor and no activity is detectable when it is grown with nitrate. Mass of the catalytic subunit was determined to be approximately
87 kDa based on ingel activity stains. The closest phylogenetic relative, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, is Bacillus arseniciselenatis, but DNA-DNA hybridization experiments clearly show that strain JMM-4(T) represents a novel Bacillus species, for
which the name Bacillus macyae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JMM-4(T) (=DSM 16346(T)=JCM 12340(T)). PMID:
15545465 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus manliponensis J Microbiol. 2011 Dec;49(6):1027-32. doi: 10.1007/s12275-011-1049-6. Epub 2011 Dec 28. Bacillus manliponensis sp. nov., a new member of the Bacillus cereus group isolated from foreshore tidal flat sediment. Jung MY(1), Kim JS, Paek
WK, Lim J, Lee H, Kim PI, Ma JY, Kim W, Chang YH. Author information: (1)Korean Collection for Type Cultures, Biological Resource
Center, KRIBB, Daejeon 305-806, Republic of Korea. A Gram-positive, endospore-forming, new Bacillus species, strain BL4-6(T),
was isolated from tidal flat sediment of the Yellow Sea. Strain BL4-6(T) is a straight rod, with motility by peritrichate flagella. The cell
wall contains meso-diaminopimelic acid, and the major respiratory quinone is menaquinone-7. The major fatty acids are iso-C(15:0)
and summed feature 3 (containing C(16:1) ω7c/iso-C(15:0) 2OH, and/or iso-C(15:0) 2OH/C(16:1) ω7c). Cells are catalase-positive
and oxidase-negative. The G+C content of the genomic DNA is 38.0 mol%. Based on a comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolate belongs to the genus Bacillus, forms a clade with the Bacillus cereus group, and is closely related to Bacillus mycoides (98.5%), Bacillus cereus (98.5%), Bacillus anthracis (98.4%), Bacillus thuringiensis (98.4%), Bacillus weihenstephanensis
(98.1%), and Bacillus pseudomycoides (97.5%). The isolate showed less than 85% similarity of the gyrA gene sequence and below
95% similarity of the rpoB gene sequence to the members of this group. DNA-DNA relatedness between strain BL4-6(T) and B. cereus group was found to be in a range of 22.8-42.3%, and thus BL4-6(T) represents a unique species. On the basis of these studies,
strain BL4-6(T) (=KCTC 13319(T) =JCM 15802(T)) is proposed to represent the type strain of a novel species, Bacillus manliponensis sp. nov. PMID: 22203569 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus marcorestinctum Int J Mol Sci. 2010 Feb 3;11(2):507-20. doi: 10.3390/ijms11020507. Bacillus marcorestinctum sp. nov., a
novel soil acylhomoserine lactone quorum-sensing signal quenching bacterium. Han Y(1), Chen F, Li N, Zhu B, Li X. Author information: (1)Department of Bio & Food Engineering, Dalian College of Light Industry, China. [email protected] A
Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, endospore-forming and rod-shaped bacterium was isolated from soil samples and designated
strain LQQ. This organism strongly quenches the acylhomoserine lactone quorum-sensing signal. The LQQ strain exhibits phenotypic
characteristics consistent with its classification in the genus Bacillus. It is positive in catalase and no special growth factor is needed.
It uses glucose as sole carbon source. The DNA G + C content is 39.8 mol %. The closest relatives based on the 16S rRNA gene
sequence are Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus thuringiensis, and Brevibacillus brevis (syn. Bacillus brevis) with the similarity of 96.5%. The
DNA-DNA hybridization data indicates a low level of genomic relatedness with the relative type strains of Bacillus thuringiensis (6.1%),
Bacillus anthracis (10.5%) and Brevibacillus brevis (8.7%). On the basis of the phenotypic and phylogenetic data together with the
genomic distinctiveness, the LQQ strain represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus marcorestinctum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LQQ(T). PMCID: PMC2852851 PMID: 20386651 [PubMed - in process]
Bacillus marisflavi Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2003 Sep;53(Pt 5):1297-303. Bacillus marisflavi sp. nov. and Bacillus aquimaris sp.
31
112.
113.
114.
115.
nov., isolated from sea water of a tidal flat of the Yellow Sea in Korea. Yoon JH(1), Kim IG, Kang KH, Oh TK, Park YH. Author information: (1)Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), PO Box 115, Yusong, Taejon, Korea. Two
Gram-positive or Gram-variable, endospore-forming, moderately halophilic rods (strains TF-11(T) and TF-12(T)) were isolated from a
tidal flat of the Yellow Sea in Korea and were subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. Strains TF-11(T) and TF-12(T) had cell-wall
peptidoglycan based on meso-diaminopimelic acid. The predominant menaquinone found in the two strains was MK-7. The cellular
fatty acid profiles of both strains contained large amounts of branched and saturated fatty acids. The major fatty acids were anteiso-C(15 : 0) and iso-C(15 : 0). The DNA G+C contents of strains TF-11(T) and TF-12(T) were respectively 49 and 38 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA sequences showed that strains TF-11(T) and TF-12(T) fell within the radiation of the cluster
comprising Bacillus species. The level of 16S rDNA sequence similarity between strains TF-11(T) and TF-12(T) was 98.3 %. Strains
TF-11(T) and TF-12(T) exhibited levels of 16S rDNA sequence similarity of less than 96.0 and 96.3 %, respectively, to Bacillus species. The mean level of DNA-DNA relatedness between the two strains was approximately 7 %. On the basis of phenotypic and phylogenetic data and genomic distinctiveness, strains TF-11(T) and TF-12(T) should be placed in the genus Bacillus as two distinct
novel species, for which the names Bacillus marisflavi sp. nov. (type strain TF-11(T)=KCCM 41588(T)=JCM 11544(T)) and Bacillus
aquimaris sp. nov. (type strain TF-12(T)=KCCM 41589(T)=JCM 11545(T)) are proposed. PMID: 13130010 [PubMed - indexed for
MEDLINE]
Bacillus marismortui Int J Syst Bacteriol. 1999 Apr;49 Pt 2:521-30. Bacillus marismortui sp. nov., a new moderately halophilic species from the Dead Sea. Arahal DR(1), Márquez MC, Volcani BE, Schleifer KH, Ventosa A. Author information: (1)Departamento de
Microbiología y Parasitología, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Sevilla, Spain. A group of 91 moderately halophilic,
Gram-positive, rod-shaped strains were isolated from enrichments prepared from Dead Sea water samples collected 57 years ago.
These strains were examined for 117 morphological, physiological, biochemical, nutritional and antibiotic susceptibility characteristics.
All strains formed endospores and were motile, strictly aerobic and positive for catalase and oxidase. They grew in media containing
5-25% (w/v) total salts, showing optimal growth at 10% (w/v). Eighteen strains were chosen as representative isolates and were
studied in more detail. All these strains had mesodiaminopimelic acid in the cell wall and a DNA G + C content of 39.0-42.8 mol%;
they constitute a group with levels of DNA-DNA similarity of 70-100%. The sequences of the 16S rRNA genes of three representative
strains (strains 123T, 557 and 832) were almost identical (99.9%), and placed the strains in the low G + C content Gram-positive
bacteria. On the basis of their features, these isolates should be regarded as members of a new species of the genus Bacillus, for
which the name Bacillus marismortui sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is strain 123T (= DSM 12325T = ATCC 700626T = CIP
105609T = CECT 5066T). PMID: 10319473 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus marmarensis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2010 Jul;60(Pt 7):1590-4. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.012369-0. Epub 2009 Aug 21. Bacillus
marmarensis sp. nov., an alkaliphilic, protease-producing bacterium isolated from mushroom compost. Denizci AA(1), Kazan D,
Erarslan A. Author information: (1)Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey, Marmara Research Center, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Institute, Gebze - Kocaeli, Turkey. [email protected] A Gram-stain-positive, obligately alkaliphilic
bacterium designated strain GMBE 72(T) was isolated from mushroom compost from Yalova, located in the Marmara region of Turkey.
Cells were aerobic, straight rods and they formed subterminal to terminal ellipsoidal endospores. The isolate was catalase-positive,
oxidase-negative and motile and contained a type A1gamma peptidoglycan based on meso-diaminopimelic acid. The strain grew at
pH 8.0-12.5. The major cellular fatty acid was anteiso-C(15 : 0). The genomic DNA G+C content was 40.2 mol%. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that strain GMBE 72(T) belonged to the genus Bacillus and exhibited 98.2 %
sequence similarity to Bacillus pseudofirmus DSM 8715(T). DNA-DNA reassociation was 56 % between GMBE 72(T) and B.
pseudofirmus DSM 8715(T). According to our polyphasic characterization, strain GMBE 72(T) represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus marmarensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is GMBE 72(T) (=DSM 21297(T) =JCM
15719(T)). PMID: 19700450 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus massiliensis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2006 Jul;56(Pt 7):1485-8. Bacillus massiliensis sp. nov., isolated from cerebrospinal
fluid. Glazunova OO(1), Raoult D, Roux V. Author information: (1)Laboratoire de Bactériologie-Virologie, Hôpital de la Timone, CNRS
UMR 6020, IFR48, 264 rue Saint-Pierre, 13385 Marseille Cedex 05, France. An unidentified Gram-negative-staining, aerobic,
rod-shaped, spore-forming bacterium was isolated from a sample of cerebrospinal fluid. Based on comparative analysis of 16S rRNA
gene sequences and phenotypic characteristics, the novel isolate was included in the Bacillus sphaericus-like group. The isolate was
closely related to Bacillus odysseyi and Bacillus silvestris, with 96.2 and 94.4 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively.
The major fatty acid was iso-C(15 : 0) (48 %). The name Bacillus massiliensis sp. nov. is proposed for the novel isolate, with strain
4400831(T) (=CIP 108446(T)=CCUG 49529(T)) as the type strain. PMID: 16825616 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus massilioanorexius Stand Genomic Sci. 2013 Jul 30;8(3):465-79. doi: 10.4056/sigs. 4087826. eCollection 2013.
Non-contiguous finished genome sequence and description of Bacillus massilioanorexius sp. nov. Mishra AK, Pfleiderer A, Lagier JC,
Robert C, Raoult D, Fournier PE. Author information: Aix-Marseille Université, URMITE, Faculté de médecine, France. Bacillus massilioanorexius strain AP8(T) sp. nov. is the type strain of B. massilioanorexius sp. nov., a new species within the genus Bacillus. This
strain, whose genome is described here, was isolated from the fecal flora of a 21-year-old Caucasian French female suffering from a
32
severe form of anorexia nervosa since the age of 12 years. B. massilioanorexius is a Gram-positive aerobic bacillus. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 4,616,135 bp long genome
(one chromosome but no plasmid) contains 4,432 protein-coding and 87 RNA genes, including 8 rRNA genes. PMCID: PMC3910694
PMID: 24501631 [PubMed]$$
116. Bacillus massiliogorillae Stand Genomic Sci. 2013 Oct 2;9(1):93-105. doi: 10.4056/sigs.4388124. eCollection 2013.
Non-contiguous finished genome sequence and description of Bacillus massiliogorillae sp. nov. Keita MB(1), Diene SM(1), Robert
C(1), Raoult D(2), Fournier PE(1), Bittar F(1). Author information: (1)URMITE, Aix-Marseille Université, Faculté de Médecine, Marseille, France. (2)URMITE, Aix-Marseille Université, Faculté de Médecine, Marseille, France ; King Fahad Medical Research Center,
King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Strain G2(T) sp. nov. is the type strain of B. massiliogorillae, a proposed new species within the genus Bacillus. This strain, whose genome is described here, was isolated in France from the fecal sample of a wild
western lowland gorilla from Cameroon. B. massiliogorillae is a facultative anaerobic, Gram-variable, rod-shaped bacterium. Here we
describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 5,431,633 bp long genome
(1 chromosome but no plasmid) contains 5,179 protein-coding and 98 RNA genes, including 91 tRNA genes. PMCID: PMC3910557
PMID: 24501648 [PubMed]$$
117. Bacillus massiliosenegalensis Stand Genomic Sci. 2013 Jun 5;8(2):264-78. doi: 10.4056/sigs.3496989. eCollection 2013. Non
contiguous-finished genome sequence and description of Bacillus massiliosenegalensis sp. nov. Ramasamy D(1), Lagier JC, Gorlas
A, Raoult D, Fournier PE. Author information: (1)Aix-Marseille Université, URMITE, Faculté de médecine, Marseille, France. Bacillus
massiliosenegalensis strain JC6(T) sp. nov. is the type strain of Bacillus massiliosenegalensis sp. nov., a new species within the genus Bacillus. This strain was isolated from the fecal flora of a healthy Senegalese patient. B. massiliosenegalensis is an aerobic
Gram-positive rod-shaped bacterium. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence
and annotation. The 4,981,278-bp long genome comprises a 4,957,301-bp chromosome and a 23,977-bp plasmid. The chromosome
contains 4,925 protein-coding and 72 RNA genes, including 4 rRNA genes. The plasmid contains 29 protein-coding genes. PMCID:
PMC3746431 PMID: 23991258 [PubMed]$$
118. Bacillus mesonae Liu B(1), Liu G(2), Hu G(2), Chen M(2). Bacillus mesonae sp. nov., isolated from Mesona chinensis root.. Int J
Syst Evol Microbiol. 2014 Jul 10. pii: ijs.0.059485-0. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.059485-0. [Epub ahead of print] Author information:
(1)Agricultural Bio-resource Institute [email protected] (2)Agricultural Bio-resource Institute. A Gram-positive, short rod-shaped and
motile, mildly halotolerant, endospore-forming bacterium (FJAT-13985T), was isolated from the internal tissue of Mesona chinensis
root. Strain FJAT-13985T grew at 20 - 45 ℃ (optimum at 30 ℃) and pH 5.7 - 9.0 (optimum at pH 7.0) with 0 - 2% (w/v) NaCl (optimum with 1% NaCl). The strain was catalase-positive and oxidase-negative. The cell-wall of strain FJAT-13985T contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and the predominant isoprenoid quinone was MK-7 (97.4%). The major fatty acids of the strain were anteiso-C15:0 (23.3%) and iso-C15:0 (40.8%). The G+C content of the DNA was 41.64 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S
rRNA gene sequences showed that strain FJAT-13985T was a member of the genus Bacillus and was most closely related to Bacillus
drentensis DSM 5600T (97.85%), Bacillus vireti DSM 15602T (97.69%) and Bacillus novalis DSM 15603T (97.58%). DNA-DNA hybridization resulted in relatedness values of only 12.11% to B. novalis DSM 15603T, 36.63% to B. drentensis DSM 5600T and 32.08%
to B. vireti DSM 15602T. Phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic properties clearly indicated that strain FJAT-13985T represents
a novel species within the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus mesonae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is FJAT-13985T
(= DSM 25968T =CGMCC1.12238T). Copyright © 2014, the Society for General Microbiology. PMID: 25013229 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
119. Bacillus mesophilum Manickam N(1), Singh NK, Bajaj A, Kumar RM, Kaur G, Kaur N, Bala M, Kumar A, Mayilraj S. Bacillus mesophilum sp. nov., strain IITR-54T, a novel 4-chlorobiphenyl dechlorinating bacterium. Arch Microbiol. 2014 Jul;196(7):517-23. doi:
10.1007/s00203-014-0988-9. Epub 2014 May 8. Author information: (1)Environmental Biotechnology Division, CSIR-Indian Institute
of Toxicological Research (IITR), Lucknow, 226 001, India. The taxonomic position of a Gram-positive, endospore-forming bacterium
isolated from soil sample collected from an industrial site was analyzed by a polyphasic approach. The strain designated as IITR-54T
matched most of the phenotypic and chemical characteristics of the genus Bacillus and represents a novel species. It was found to
biodegrade 4-chlorobiphenyl through dechlorination and was isolated through enrichment procedure from an aged polychlorinated
biphenyl-contaminated soil. Both resting cell assay and growth under aerobic liquid conditions using 4-chlorobiphenyl as sole source
of carbon along with 0.01% yeast extract, formation of chloride ions was measured. 16S rRNA (1,489 bases) nucleotide sequence of
isolated strain was compared with those of closely related Bacillus type strains and confirmed that the strain belongs to the genus
Bacillus. Strain IITR-54T differs from all other species of Bacillus by at least 2.1% at the 16S rRNA level, and the moderately related
species are Bacillus oceanisediminis (97.9%) followed by Bacillus infantis (97.7%), Bacillus firmus (97.4%), Bacillus drentensis
(97.3%), Bacillus circulans (97.2%), Bacillus soli (97.1%), Bacillus horneckiae (97.1%), Bacillus pocheonensis (97.1%) and Bacillus
bataviensis (97.1%), respectively. The cell wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and the major isoprenoid quinone
was MK-7. Major fatty acids are iso-C15:0 (32.4%) and anteiso-C15:0 (27.4%). Predominant polar lipids are diphosphatidylglycerol,
phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. The results of physiological and biochemical tests allowed the genotypic and
33
phenotypic distinctiveness of strain IITR-54T with its phylogenetic relatives and suggest that the strain IITR-54T should be recognized
as a novel species, for which the name Bacillus mesophilum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is IITR-54T (=MTCC 11060T=JCM
19208T). PMID: 24807729 [PubMed - in process]$$
120. Bacillus methanolicus Int J Syst Bacteriol. 1992 Jul;42(3):439-45. Bacillus methanolicus sp. nov., a new species of thermotolerant,
methanol-utilizing, endospore-forming bacteria. Arfman N(1), Dijkhuizen L, Kirchhof G, Ludwig W, Schleifer KH, Bulygina ES, Chumakov KM, Govorukhina NI, Trotsenko YA, White D, et al. Author information: (1)Department of Microbiology, University of Groningen,
Haren, The Netherlands. The generic position of 14 strains of gram-positive bacteria able to use methanol as a growth substrate was
determined. All are obligately aerobic, thermotolerant organisms that are able to grow at temperatures of 35 to 60 degrees C. Nine of
the strains produce oval spores at a subterminal-to-central position in slightly swollen rod-shaped cells. DNA-DNA hybridization studies, 5S rRNA sequence analysis, and physiological characteristics revealed that all 14 strains cluster as a well-defined group and
form a distinct new genospecies. Analysis of the 16S and 5S rRNA sequences indicated that this new species is distinct from Bacillus
brevis but closely related to B. firmus and B. azotoformans. The name proposed for this new species is B. methanolicus. The type
strain, PB1, has been deposited in the National Collection of Industrial and Marine Bacteria as NCIMB 13113. PMID: 1380290 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
121. Bacillus methylotrophicus Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2010 Oct;60(Pt 10):2490-5. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.015487-0. Epub 2009 Dec 4.
Bacillus methylotrophicus sp. nov., a methanol-utilizing, plant-growth-promoting bacterium isolated from rice rhizosphere soil.
Madhaiyan M(1), Poonguzhali S, Kwon SW, Sa TM. Author information: (1)Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Chungbuk National
University, Cheongju, Chungbuk 361-763, Republic of Korea. [email protected] A Gram-positive bacterium, designated
strain CBMB205(T), was isolated from the rhizosphere soil of traditionally cultivated, field-grown rice. Cells were strictly aerobic, motile, rod-shaped and formed endospores. The best growth was achieved at 30°C and pH 7.0 in ammonium mineral salts (AMS) medium containing 600 mM methanol. A comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence-based phylogenetic analysis placed strain CBMB205(T)
in a clade with the species Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus vallismortis, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus atrophaeus, Bacillus mojavensis
and Bacillus licheniformis and revealed pairwise similarities ranging from 98.2 to 99.2 %. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments revealed a low level (<36 %) of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain CBMB205(T) and its closest relatives. The major components of
the fatty acid profile were C₁₅:₀ anteiso, C₁₅:₀ iso, C₁₆:₀ iso and C₁₇:₀ anteiso. The diagnostic diamino acid of the cell wall was meso-diaminopimelic acid. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 45.0 mol%. The lipids present in strain CBMB205(T) were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, a minor amount of phosphatidylcholine and two unknown phospholipids. The predominant
respiratory quinone was MK-7. Studies of DNA-DNA relatedness, morphological, physiological and chemotaxonomic analyses and
phylogenetic data based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing enabled strain CBMB205(T) to be described as representing a novel species
of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus methylotrophicus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CBMB205(T) (=KACC
13105(T)=NCCB 100236(T)). PMID: 19966000 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
122. Bacillus migulanu Int J Syst Bacteriol. 1993 Apr;43(2):221-31. Characterization of Bacillus brevis with descriptions of Bacillus
migulanus sp. nov., Bacillus choshinensis sp. nov., Bacillus parabrevis sp. nov., and Bacillus galactophilus sp. nov. Takagi H(1), Shida
O, Kadowaki K, Komagata K, Udaka S. Author information: (1)Research Laboratory, Higeta Shoyu Co., Ltd., Chiba, Japan. Thirty-five
Bacillus brevis strains obtained from culture collections, including protein-producing isolates, were taxonomically studied by using
numerical analysis, DNA base composition, and DNA-DNA hybridization. Six DNA relatedness groups were represented, and these
groups correlated well with clusters based on the numerical analysis. The B. brevis strains were separated into B. brevis sensu stricto,
four new species, and an unidentified species of the genus Bacillus. Bacillus migulanus sp. nov., Bacillus choshinensis sp. nov., Bacillus parabrevis sp. nov., and Bacillus galactophilus sp. nov. are proposed. PMID: 8494737 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
123. Bacillus mojavensis Int J Syst Bacteriol. 1994 Apr;44(2):256-64. Bacillus mojavensis sp. nov., distinguishable from Bacillus subtilis
by sexual isolation, divergence in DNA sequence, and differences in fatty acid composition. Roberts MS(1), Nakamura LK, Cohan FM.
Author information: (1)Department of Biology, Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connecticut 06459-0170. A number of Bacillus
strains isolated from desert soil samples were shown to belong to a previously unidentified species, for which we propose the name
Bacillus mojavensis. The type strain is RO-H-1 (= NRRL B-14698). On the basis of restriction digest data, B. mojavensis is most
closely related to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus atrophaeus, and Bacillus subtilis. So far, B. mojavensis can be distinguished
from B. subtilis only by differences in whole-cell fatty acid composition, divergence in DNA sequence, and resistance to genetic
transformation between taxa (in addition to reduced genome relatedness values). Sequence divergence and sexual isolation may
prove to be more useful than metabolic characteristics for delimiting cryptic Bacillus species. PMID: 8186089 [PubMed - indexed for
MEDLINE]
124. Bacillus muralis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2005 Jan;55(Pt 1):119-31. Study of mural painting isolates, leading to the transfer of 'Bacillus maroccanus' and 'Bacillus carotarum' to Bacillus simplex, emended description of Bacillus simplex, re-examination of the strains
previously attributed to 'Bacillus macroides' and description of Bacillus muralis sp. nov. Heyrman J(1), Logan NA, Rodríguez-Díaz M,
Scheldeman P, Lebbe L, Swings J, Heyndrickx M, De Vos P. Author information: (1)Vakgroep BFM WE10V, Laboratorium voor Microbiologie, Universiteit Gent, K. L. Ledeganckstraat 35, B-9000 Gent, Belgium. [email protected] A group of 24 strains was
34
isolated from deteriorated mural paintings situated in Spain (necropolis of Carmona) and Germany (church of Greene-Kreiensen).
(GTG)5-PCR genomic fingerprinting was performed on these strains to assess their genomic variability and the strains were delineated into four groups. Representatives were studied by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and were found to be closely related to Bacillus
simplex and the species 'Bacillus macroides' (strain NCIMB 8796) and 'Bacillus maroccanus' (names not validly published) according
to a fasta search. The close similarity between B. simplex, 'B. macroides' NCIMB 8796, 'B. maroccanus' and the mural painting isolates was confirmed by additional (GTG)5-PCR, ARDRA, FAME and SDS-PAGE analyses. Furthermore, these techniques revealed
that strains of 'Bacillus carotarum', another name that has not been validly published, also showed high similarity to this group of organisms. On the other hand, it was shown that the strains labelled 'B. macroides' in different collections do not all belong to the same
species. Strain NCIMB 8796 can be allocated to B. simplex, while strain DSM 54 (=ATCC 12905) shares the highest 16S rRNA gene
sequence similarity with Bacillus sphaericus and Bacillus fusiformis (both around 98.6 %). On the basis of further DNA-DNA hybridization data and the study of phenotypic characteristics, one group of five mural painting strains was attributed to a novel species in
the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus muralis sp. nov. is proposed. Finally, the remaining mural painting strains, one (LMG
18508=NCIMB 8796) of two strains belonging to 'B. macroides' and strains belonging to 'B. maroccanus' and 'B. carotarum' are allocated to the species B. simplex and an emended description of B. simplex is given. PMID: 15653864 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
125. Bacillus naganoensis Int J Syst Bacteriol. 1990 Apr;40(2):123-5. Description of Bacillus naganoensis sp. nov. Tomimura E(1),
Zeman NW, Frankiewicz JR, Teague WM. Author information: (1)Enzyme Bio-Systems Ltd., Arlington Heights, Illinois 60005. A new
species, Bacillus naganoensis, is proposed for an obligately aerobic, moderately acidophilic, endospore-forming bacterium that produces a thermostable, aciduric pullulanase (EC 3.2.1.41). The organism was isolated from soil by selection on solid, pullulan-containing medium at pH 4.0 and 30 degrees C. The isolate required a medium pH of less than 6.5 for growth initiation. Fatty acid
composition studies revealed that the major fatty acid of cells grown in nutrient broth supplemented with 1% starch was
14-methylpentadecanoic acid (iso-C16) at 45 mol%. The guanine-plus-cytosine content of the DNA of this organism was 45 +/- 2
mol%. A type culture has been deposited with the American Type Culture Collection, Rockville, Md., as strain ATCC 53909. PMID:
2223604 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
126. Bacillus nanhaiensis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2011 Apr;61(Pt 4):888-93. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.022889-0. Epub 2010 May 21. Bacillus
nanhaiensis sp. nov., isolated from an oyster. Chen YG(1), Zhang L, Zhang YQ, He JW, Klenk HP, Tang SK, Zhang YX, Li WJ. Author
information: (1)College of Biology and Environmental Sciences, Jishou University, Jishou 416000, People's Republic of China. A novel Gram-stain-positive, slightly halophilic, facultatively alkaliphilic, catalase-positive, oxidase-negative, endospore-forming, motile,
rod-shaped, aerobic bacterium, designated strain JSM 082006(T), was isolated from an oyster collected from Naozhou Island in the
South China Sea. The isolate grew in 0-18 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 0.5-4.0 %), at pH 6.0-10.5 (optimum, pH 8.0) and at 15-45 °C (optimum, 30 °C). meso-Diaminopimelic acid was present in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C(15 : 0), iso-C(15 : 0) and C(16 : 0). Strain JSM 082006(T) contained MK-7 as the predominant respiratory quinone and diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine as the major polar lipids. The genomic DNA G+C content
was 40.2 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons revealed that strain JSM 082006(T) should
be assigned to the genus Bacillus and that it was most closely related to the type strains of Bacillus barbaricus (sequence similarity
99.1 %) and Bacillus arsenicus (97.5 %), followed by those of Bacillus rigui (96.6 %) and Bacillus solisalsi (96.1 %). Phylogenetic
analysis, DNA-DNA relatedness values, phenotypic characteristics and chemotaxonomic data support the view that strain JSM
082006(T) represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus nanhaiensis sp. nov. is proposed; the type
strain is JSM 082006(T) ( = DSM 23009(T) = KCTC 13712(T)). PMID: 20495032 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
127. Bacillus nanhaiisediminis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2011 May;61(Pt 5):1078-83. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.023671-0. Epub 2010 Jun 4. Bacillus nanhaiisediminis sp. nov., an alkalitolerant member of Bacillus rRNA group 6. Zhang J(1), Wang J, Song F, Fang C, Xin Y,
Zhang Y. Author information: (1)School of Life Science, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, PR China. [email protected] A Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain NH3(T), was isolated from a sediment sample from
the South China Sea and was subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. The isolate grew optimally at 37 °C and pH 9. Strain NH3(T)
had cell-wall peptidoglycan based on meso-diaminopimelic acid and MK-7 as the predominant menaquinone. The cellular fatty acid
profile included significant amounts of iso-C(15 : 0) and iso-C(14 : 0). The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol. The DNA G+C content of strain NH3(T) was 40.3 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S
rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain NH3(T) was a member of rRNA group 6 of the genus Bacillus, which includes alkalitolerant,
alkaliphilic and halotolerant species. The closest phylogenetic relatives were Bacillus akibai 1139(T) (96.82 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), B. pseudofirmus DSM 8715(T) (96.76 %), B. okhensis Kh10-101(T) (96.76 %) and B. alkalidiazotrophicus MS 6(T)
(96.47 %). Strain NH3(T) could be distinguished from these phylogenetically close neighbours based on a number of phenotypic
properties. On the basis of phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics and phylogenetic data, we conclude that strain NH3(T)
( = CGMCC 1.10116(T) = JCM 16507(T)) merits classification as the type strain of a novel species, for which the name Bacillus nanhaiisediminis sp. nov. is proposed. PMID: 20525818 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
35
128. Bacillus naphthovorans Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2002 Mar;58(4):547-53. Bacillus naphthovorans sp. nov. from oil-contaminated
tropical marine sediments and its role in naphthalene biodegradation. Zhuang WQ(1), Zhuang WQ, Maszenan AM, Tay ST. Author
information: (1)Environmental Engineering Research Centre, Division of Environmental and Water Resources Engineering, School of
Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. A Bacillus sp., designated as strain MN-003, was
isolated as the dominant cultivatable naphthalene-degrading organism from oil-contaminated tropical marine sediments. Strain
MN-003 is strictly aerobic, rod-shaped, Gram-positive, catalase positive, oxidase negative, and forms endospores. Strain MN-003
grew at salinities ranging from 0.28 to 7.00% and temperatures ranging from 15 to 41 degrees C. Phylogenetic analyses reveal that
strain MN-003 is most similar to Bacillus sp. VAN14, with a 16S rRNA sequence identity of 97.9%. Based on taxonomic and 16S
rRNA data, strain MN-003 was named Bacillus naphthovorans sp. nov. When grown with naphthalene as sole carbon source, strain
MN-003 had a maximal specific growth rate (mu(max)) of 0.32 +/- 0.03 h(-1), and a half-saturation constant (K(S)) of 22.3 +/-4.2 microM. A batch study of the tropical marine sediments enriched with naphthalene showed that cells of the Bacillus genus grew to become dominant members of the microbial community. The bacilli comprised 39.5 +/- 6.5% of the microbial fraction after 20 days of
enrichment. PMID: 11954805 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
129. Bacillus nealsonii Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2003 Jan;53(Pt 1):165-72. Bacillus nealsonii sp. nov., isolated from a spacecraft-assembly facility, whose spores are gamma-radiation resistant. Venkateswaran K(1), Kempf M, Chen F, Satomi M, Nicholson W,
Kern R. Author information: (1)Biotechnology and Planetary Protection Group, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA. [email protected] One of the spore-formers isolated from a spacecraft-assembly facility,
belonging to the genus Bacillus, is described on the basis of phenotypic characterization, 16S rDNA sequence analysis and
DNA-DNA hybridization studies. It is a Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped eubacterium that produces endospores.
The spores of this novel bacterial species exhibited resistance to UV, gamma-radiation, H2O2 and desiccation. The 18S rDNA sequence analysis revealed a clear affiliation between this strain and members of the low G+C Firmicutes. High 16S rDNA sequence
similarity values were found with members of the genus Bacillus and this was supported by fatty acid profiles. The 16S rDNA sequence similarity between strain FO-92T and Bacillus benzoevorans DSM 5391T was very high. However, molecular characterizations employing small-subunit 16S rDNA sequences were at the limits of resolution for the differentiation of species in this genus, but
DNA-DNA hybridization data support the proposal of FO-92T as Bacillus nealsonii sp. nov. (type strain is FO-92T =ATCC BAAM-519T
=DSM 15077T). PMID: 12656168 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
130. Bacillus neizhouensis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2009 Dec;59(Pt 12):3035-9. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.009522-0. Epub 2009 Jul 30. Bacillus
neizhouensis sp. nov., a halophilic marine bacterium isolated from a sea anemone. Chen YG(1), Zhang YQ, Wang YX, Liu ZX, Klenk
HP, Xiao HD, Tang SK, Cui XL, Li WJ. Author information: (1)College of Biology and Environmental Sciences, College of Chemistry
and Chemical Engineering, Jishou University, Jishou 416000, PR China. [email protected] A novel Gram-stain-positive,
slightly halophilic, facultatively alkaliphilic, non-motile, catalase- and oxidase-positive, endospore-forming, rod-shaped, aerobic bacterium, strain JSM 071004(T), was isolated from a sea anemone collected from Neizhou Bay in the South China Sea. Growth occurred
with 0.5-10 % (w/v) total salts (optimum 2-4 %) and at pH 6.5-10.0 (optimum pH 8.5) and 4-30 degrees C (optimum 25 degrees C).
meso-Diaminopimelic acid was present in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. The predominant respiratory quinone was menaquinone 7
(MK-7) and the polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C(15 : 0) and iso-C(15 : 0). The genomic DNA G+C content was 39.8 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based
on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain JSM 071004(T) belongs to the genus Bacillus, being related most closely to the
type strain of Bacillus agaradhaerens (sequence similarity 97.3 %), followed by the type strains of Bacillus cellulosilyticus (96.2 %),
Bacillus clarkii (96.1 %) and Bacillus polygoni (96.0 %). The combination of phylogenetic analysis, DNA-DNA hybridization, phenotypic characteristics and chemotaxonomic data support the proposal that strain JSM 071004(T) represents a novel species of the
genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus neizhouensis sp. nov. is proposed, with JSM 071004(T) (=CCTCC AB 207161(T) =DSM
19794(T) =KCTC 13187(T)) as the type strain. PMID: 19643899 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
131. Bacillus nematocida Syst Appl Microbiol. 2005 Jun;28(4):323-7. Bacillus nematocida sp. nov., a novel bacterial strain with nematotoxic activity isolated from soil in Yunnan, China. Huang XW(1), Niu QH, Zhou W, Zhang KQ. Author information: (1)Laboratory for
Conservation and Utilization of Bio-Resources, Yunnan University, Kunming, Yunnan 650091, P.R. China. An endospore-forming
bacterium, designated strain B-16T, was isolated from a forest soil sample in Yunnan, China. The isolate presented remarkable nematotoxic activity against nematode Panagrellus redivivus. The organism was strictly aerobic, motile, spore forming and rod shaped,
catalase- and oxidase-positive. The predominant isoprenoid quinone was menaquinone 7 (MK-7). The major cellular fatty acid profiles were anteiso-C15:0 (48.67%), iso-C15:0 (13.45%), C16:0 (9.06%) and anteiso-Cl7:0 (8.29%). The DNA G+C content was 46%.
Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rDNA sequence revealed that isolate belongs to the genus Bacillus. Strain B-16T exhibited high
16S rDNA similarity with its closest neighbors Bacillus vallismortis (99.79%), B. subtilis (99.43%), B. atrophaeus (99.43%), B. amyloliquefaciens (99.36%), B. licheniformis (98.0%) and less than 97.0% with all the other relative type strains in the genus Bacillus. The
phenotypic and genotypic characteristics and DNA-DNA relatedness data indicate that strain B-16T should be distinguished from all
the relative species of genus Bacillus. Therefore, on the basis of the polyphasic taxonomic data presented, a new species of the ge-
36
132.
133.
134.
135.
nus Bacillus, B. nematocida, with the type strain B-16T ( = CGMCC 1128T) is proposed. The GenBank accession number for the sequence reported in this paper is AY820954. PMID: 15997705 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus niabensis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2007 Aug;57(Pt 8):1909-13. Bacillus niabensis sp. nov., isolated from cotton-waste
composts for mushroom cultivation. Kwon SW(1), Lee SY, Kim BY, Weon HY, Kim JB, Go SJ, Lee GB. Author information: (1)Korean
Agricultural Culture Collection (KACC), Microbial Genetics Division, National Institute of Agricultural Biotechnology, Rural Development Administration, Suwon 441-707, Republic of Korea. A group of five bacilli, designated strains 4T12, 4T19(T), 5M45, 5M53 and
5T52, isolated from cotton-waste composts for mushroom cultivation, were examined. These strains were Gram-positive, aerobic,
motile, spore-forming rods. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses revealed that the isolates belonged to the genus Bacillus, showing
the highest levels of similarity (approx. 96.6-96.9 %) with respect to Bacillus herbersteinensis DSM 16534(T). The values for
DNA-DNA hybridization (approx. 85-96 %) among these five strains revealed that they belong to the same species. The major menaquinone present was MK-7 and the predominant cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C(15 : 0) (approx. 24.5-33.9 %) and C(16 : 0) (approx. 15.1-34.1 %). The DNA G+C contents were 37.7-40.9 mol%. On the basis of physiological, biochemical, chemotaxonomic and
comparative genomic analyses, the five isolates represent a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus niabensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 4T19(T) (=KACC 11279(T) =DSM 17723(T)). PMID: 17684280 [PubMed - indexed for
MEDLINE]
Bacillus novalis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2004 Jan;54(Pt 1):47-57. Bacillus novalis sp. nov., Bacillus vireti sp. nov., Bacillus soli sp.
nov., Bacillus bataviensis sp. nov. and Bacillus drentensis sp. nov., from the Drentse A grasslands. Heyrman J(1), Vanparys B, Logan
NA, Balcaen A, Rodríguez-Díaz M, Felske A, De Vos P. Author information: (1)Ghent University, Department BFM (WE10V), Laboratory of Microbiology, K-L Ledeganckstraat 35, B-9000 Gent, Belgium. [email protected] A group of 42 isolates were isolated
from the soil of several disused hay fields, in the Drentse A agricultural research area (The Netherlands), that were taken out of production at different times. The group represents hitherto-uncultured Bacillus lineages that have previously been found, by a
non-cultural method, to be predominant in soil. The strains were subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study, including (GTG)5-PCR,
16S rDNA sequence analysis, DNA-DNA hybridizations, DNA base-ratio determination, fatty acid analysis and morphological and biochemical characterization. By comparing the groupings obtained by (GTG)5-PCR and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, six clusters of
similar strains could be recognized. A DNA-DNA relatedness study showed that these clusters represented five novel genospecies.
Further analysis supported the proposal of five novel species in the genus Bacillus, namely Bacillus novalis sp. nov. (type strain
IDA3307T=R-15439T=LMG 21837T=DSM 15603T), Bacillus vireti sp. nov. (type strain IDA3632T=R-15447T=LMG 21834T=DSM
15602T), Bacillus soli sp. nov. (type strain IDA0086T=R-16300T=LMG 21838T=DSM 15604T), Bacillus bataviensis sp. nov. (type
strain IDA1115T=R-16315T=LMG 21833T=DSM 15601T) and Bacillus drentensis sp. nov. (type strain IDA1967T=R-16337T=LMG
21831T=DSM 15600T). PMID: 14742458 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus oceani Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2013 Nov;104(5):829-36. doi: 10.1007/s10482-013-9995-0. Epub 2013 Aug 11. Bacillus
oceani sp. nov., a new slightly halophilic bacterium, isolated from a deep sea sediment environment. Liu YJ(1), Long LJ, Huang XF,
You ZQ, Wang FZ, Li J, Kim CJ, Tian XP, Zhang S. Author information: (1)CAS Key Laboratory of Tropical Marine Bio-resources and
Ecology, RNAM Center for Marine Microbiology, CAS, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Marine Materia Medica, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, 510301, People's Republic of China. A strictly aerobic, Gram-stain
positive, slightly halophilic strain, designated SCSIO 04524(T), was isolated from a deep sea sediment sample collected from the
northern South China Sea at a depth of 3415 m. The isolate slightly embedded into the medium after 72 h incubation at 30 °C.
Growth was found to occur on media with 0-10 % NaCl but extremely weak growth occurred without supplying NaCl. The predominant menaquinone was determined to be MK-7. The major cellular fatty acid identified was iso-C15:0. The diagnostic polar lipids were
determined to be diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidyl methylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol. The
genomic DNA G+C content was determined to be 38 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequences analysis showed that this strain had the
highest similarities with Bacillus carboniphilus JCM 9731(T) (94.7 %) and Bacillus endophyticus 2DT(T) (94.3 %). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that strain SCSIO 04524(T) formed a distinct lineage with Bacillus chungangensis CAU 348(T) and B. carboniphilus
JCM 9731(T). Physiological characteristics including utilization of sole nitrogen and carbon sources, and chemotaxonomic properties
of cellular fatty acids and polar lipids could readily distinguish strain SCSIO 04524(T) from its most closely related species. Based on
this polyphasic taxonomic data, a new species, Bacillus oceani sp. nov., is proposed, with the type strain SCSIO 04524(T) (=DSM
26213(T) = KCTC 33077(T)). PMID: 23934481 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]$$
Bacillus oceanisediminis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2010 Dec;60(Pt 12):2924-9. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.019851-0. Epub 2010 Jan 29.
Bacillus oceanisediminis sp. nov., isolated from marine sediment. Zhang J(1), Wang J, Fang C, Song F, Xin Y, Qu L, Ding K. Author
information: (1)School of Life Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, PR China. [email protected] A Gram-stain-positive, spore-forming, rod-shaped and aerobic bacterium was isolated from a sediment sample from
the South Sea in China. The isolate, designated H2(T), grew at 4-45 °C (optimum 37 °C) and pH 6-10 (optimum pH 7.0). The
cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. The major isoprenoid quinone was MK-7 and the polar lipids consisted
of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and an unknown aminophospholipid. The major fatty acid
37
136.
137.
138.
139.
was iso-C(15 : 0). The genomic DNA G+C content of strain H2(T) was 44.8mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene
sequences showed that the isolate formed a monophyletic clade with Bacillus firmus IAM 12464(T). DNA-DNA relatedness between
the isolate and B. firmus ATCC 14575(T) was low (27.5 %). Strain H2(T) also had a phenotypic profile that readily distinguished it
from its closest phylogenetic neighbours. It is evident from the combination of genotypic and phenotypic data that the organism
should be classified in a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus oceanisediminis sp. nov. is proposed. The
type strain is H2(T) (=CGMCC 1.10115(T) =JCM 16506(T)). PMID: 20118297 [PubMed - in process]
Bacillus odysseyi Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2004 Jan;54(Pt 1):195-201. Bacillus odysseyi sp. nov., a round-spore-forming bacillus
isolated from the Mars Odyssey spacecraft. La Duc MT(1), Satomi M, Venkateswaran K. Collaborators: Venkateswaran K(2). Author
information: (1)Biotechnology and Planetary Protection Group, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA. [email protected] (2)NASA JPL A round-spore-forming Bacillus species that produces an exosporium was
isolated from the surface of the Mars Odyssey spacecraft. This novel species has been characterized on the basis of phenotypic
traits, 16S rDNA sequence analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization. According to the results of these analyses, this strain belongs to the
genus Bacillus and is a Gram-positive, aerobic, rod-shaped, endospore-forming eubacterium. Ultrathin sections of the spores showed
the presence of an exosporium, spore coat, cortex and core. 16S rDNA sequence similarities between this strain, Bacillus fusiformis
and Bacillus silvestris were approximately 96% and DNA-DNA reassociation values with these two bacilli were 23 and 17%, respectively. Spores of the novel species were resistant to desiccation, H2O2 and UV and gamma radiation. Of all strains tested, the spores
of this strain were the most consistently resistant and survived all of the challenges posed, i.e. exposure to conditions of desiccation
(100% survival), H2O2 (26% survival), UV radiation (10% survival at 660 J m(-2)) and gamma radiation (0.4% survival). The name
proposed for this novel bacterium is Bacillus odysseyi sp. nov.; the type strain is 34hs-1T (=ATCC PTA-4993T=NRRL
B-30641T=NBRC 100172T). PMID: 14742480 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus okhensis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2006 May;56(Pt 5):1073-7. Bacillus okhensis sp. nov., a halotolerant and alkalitolerant
bacterium from an Indian saltpan. Nowlan B(1), Dodia MS, Singh SP, Patel BK. Author information: (1)Microbial Gene Research and
Resources Facility, School of Biomolecular and Biomedical Sciences, Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia 4111. A strictly aerobic,
rod-shaped bacterium (0.6-0.8 x2-3 microm), designated strain Kh10-101T, was isolated from a saltpan (22 degrees 15' N, 69 degrees 1' E) in the vicinity of Port Okha, India. The creamish pigmented colonies of strain Kh10-101T were round, flat and translucent
with irregular margins and a smooth surface. The strain possessed up to three subpolar flagella, and was motile by a corkscrew motion. The strain grew optimally at 37 degrees C (temperature growth range 25-40 degrees C) in a complex glucose-containing medium with 5 % NaCl (NaCl growth range 0-10 %) at pH 9 (pH growth range pH 7-10), indicating that it was a mesophilic halotolerant
alkaliphile. The strain was sensitive to lincomycin, meticillin, cefuroxime and cephalexin, but resistant to gentamicin, tetracycline and
cotrimazine. Spores were not detected and cells were heat sensitive. The isolate metabolized a range of carbohydrates and hydrolysed casein, gelatin and starch. Growth was not observed on aromatic compounds, Tween 40 or Tween 80. Nitrate was not reduced
and catalase was produced. Electron microscopic examination of thin sections revealed a single thick Gram-positive cell wall. The
DNA G+C content was 41+/-1 mol%. Phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain Kh10-101T was a
member of the sixth rRNA group of the genus Bacillus, which includes alkalitolerant, alkaliphilic and halotolerant species. The halotolerant obligate alkaliphile Bacillus krulwichiae is the closest relative of strain Kh10-101T (96 % similarity) but a number of phenotypic differences suggest that strain Kh10-101T (=JCM 13040T=ATCC BAA-1137T) should be designated the type strain of a new
species, for which the name Bacillus okhensis sp. nov. is proposed. PMID: 16627657 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus okuhidensis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2002 Jul;52(Pt 4):1205-9. Bacillus okuhidensis sp. nov., isolated from the Okuhida
spa area of Japan. Li Z(1), Kawamura Y, Shida O, Yamagata S, Deguchi T, Ezaki T. Author information: (1)Department of Urology,
Gifu University School of Medicine, Japan. [email protected] Two Gram-positive, endospore-forming, alkaliphilic bacteria were
isolated from water samples obtained from the Okuhida hot spa area of Japan. The unknown bacteria were characterized using
phenotypic and molecular taxonomic methods. On the basis of phylogenetic evidence and phenotypic distinctiveness, a new species,
Bacillus okuhidensis sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain of Bacillus okuhidensis is GTC 854T (= JCM 10945T = DSM 13666T).
PMID: 12148629 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus oryzaecorticis Hong SW(1), Kwon SW(2), Kim SJ(2), Kim SY(3), Kim JJ(3), Lee JS(3), Oh MH(1), Kim AJ(4), Chung KS(5).
Bacillus oryzaecorticis sp. nov., a moderately halophilic bacterium isolated from the rice-husk. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2014 May 23.
pii: ijs.0.058768-0. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.058768-0. [Epub ahead of print] Author information: (1)Rural Development Administration;
(2)Korean Agricultural Culture Collection (KACC), National Academy of Agricultural Science, RDA; (3)Bio Center, Chungbuk Techno
Park; (4)Kyonggi University; (5)Yonsei University [email protected] A Gram-positive, aerobic, endospore forming, and moderately halophilic rod, designated strain R1T, was isolated from the rice husks and was subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study.
Strain R1T produced spherical or ellipsoidal endospores at a subterminal position in swollen sporangia, and was catalase and oxidase positive. The isolate grew optimally at 37 °C and pH 6.0-7.0, and could grow with up to 9% (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis
based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain R1T belongs to the genus Bacillus. The species most closely related to
strain R1T were Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis NCIB3610T, Bacillus aquimaris TF12T, and Bacillus marisflavi TF11T, with 16S rRNA
38
140.
141.
142.
143.
similarities of 96.0%, 98.4%, and 98.7%, respectively. DNA-DNA relatedness values between the isolate and the reference strains
were ≤ 42±3%. The predominant menaquinones were MK-5 (50%) and MK-7 (50%). The major polar lipids were phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, and phosphatidylethanolamine. The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C15:0 (48.6%) and anteiso-C15:0
(20.6%), and the cell-wall diamino acid was meso-diaminopimelic acid. On the basis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence and the chemotaxonomic and phenotypic characteristics, it is concluded that strain R1T represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which
we propose the name Bacillus oryzaecorticis sp. nov. The type strain is R1T (=KACC 17217T =KCCM 90231T=JCM 19602T). Copyright © 2014, the Society for General Microbiology. PMID: 24860111 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Bacillus oshimensis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2005 Mar;55(Pt 2):907-11. Bacillus oshimensis sp. nov., a moderately halophilic,
non-motile alkaliphile. Yumoto I(1), Hirota K, Goto T, Nodasaka Y, Nakajima K. Author information: (1)Research Institute of Genome-based Biofactory, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukisamu-Higashi, Toyohira-ku,
Sapporo 062-8517, Japan. A halophilic and halotolerant, facultatively alkaliphilic strain, K11(T), was isolated from soil obtained from
Oshyamanbe, Oshima, Hokkaido, Japan. The isolate grew at pH 7-10. It was non-motile, Gram-positive and aerobic. Cells comprised
straight rods and produced ellipsoidal spores. The isolate grew in 0-20 % NaCl, with optimum growth at 7 % NaCl, and hydrolysed
casein, gelatin, starch, DNA and Tweens 20, 40, 60 and 80. The major isoprenoid quinone was menaquinone-7, and the cellular fatty
acid profile consisted of significant amounts of C(15) branched-chain acids, iso C(15 : 0) and anteiso C(15 : 0). Phylogenetic analysis
based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing indicated that strain K11(T) was a member of group 6 [Nielsen et al., FEMS Microbiol Lett 117
(1994), 61-66] (alkaliphiles) of the genus Bacillus. DNA-DNA hybridization revealed a low relatedness (14 %) of the isolate to its
closest phylogenetic neighbour, Bacillus clausii. On the basis of phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, phylogenetic data
and DNA-DNA relatedness data, it was concluded that K11(T) (=JCM 12663(T)=NCIMB 14023(T)) merits classification as the type
strain of a novel species, for which the name Bacillus oshimensis sp. nov. is proposed. PMID: 15774684 [PubMed - indexed for
MEDLINE]
Bacillus pakistanensis Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2014 Jun;105(6):1163-72. doi: 10.1007/s 10482- 014-0177-5. Epub 2014 Apr 29.
Bacillus pakistanensis sp. nov., a halotolerant bacterium isolated from salt mines of the Karak Area in Pakistan. Roohi A(1), Ahmed I,
Paek J, Sin Y, Abbas S, Jamil M, Chang YH. Author information: (1)National Culture Collection of Pakistan (NCCP), National Institute
for Genomics and Advanced Biotechnology (NIGAB), National Agricultural Research Center (NARC), Park Road, Islamabad, 45500,
Pakistan. A rod shaped, non-motile, endospore forming, Gram-stain positive and moderately halotolerant strain, designated as
NCCP-168(T), was isolated from salt mines sampled in the Karak district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province in Pakistan. To delineate
its taxonomic position, the strain was subjected to polyphasic characterization. Cells of strain NCCP-168(T) can grow at 10-40 (○)C
(optimum at 30-35 (○)C), in a pH range of 5.0-9.0 (optimum at pH 8.0) and in 0-17 % (w/v) NaCl on agar medium. The phylogenetic
analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain NCCP-168(T) belongs to the genus Bacillus with the highest similarity to Bacillus seohaeanensis BH724(T) (97.1 %), and less than 97 % similarity with other closely related taxa (95.6 % with B. subtilis subsp. subtilis NCIB3610(T)). DNA-DNA relatedness between strain NCCP-168(T) and the type strains of closely related species
was lower than 30 %. Chemotaxonomic data (major menaquinone, MK-7; cell wall peptidoglycan type, A1γ [meso-diaminopimelic
acid]; major fatty acids, iso-C15:0 29.9 %, anteiso-C15:0 29.3 %, iso-C16:0 11.4 %, iso-C14:0 8.9 % and anteiso-C17:0 7.0 %; major
polar lipids, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine) support the affiliation of strain NCCP-168(T)
with genus Bacillus. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, strain NCCP-168(T) can be distinguished
from the closely related taxa and thus represents a novel species in the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus pakistanensis sp.
nov. is proposed, with the type strain NCCP-168(T) (= KCTC 13786(T) = DSM 24834(T) = JCM 18975(T)). PMID: 24777297 [PubMed
- in process]$$
Bacillus pallidus Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2008 Dec;58(Pt 12):2850-4. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.2008/000075-0. Bacillus pallidus sp. nov.,
isolated from forest soil. Zhou Y(1), Wei W, Che Q, Xu Y, Wang X, Huang X, Lai R. Author information: (1)Key Laboratory of Microbiological Engineering of Agricultural Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, Life Sciences College of Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, PR China. A Gram-positive bacterium, designated strain CW 7(T), was isolated from forest soil in Anhui Province,
south-east China. Cells were strictly aerobic, motile with peritrichous flagella and rod-shaped. The strain grew optimally at 30-37 degrees C and pH 7.0-8.0. The major fatty acids of strain CW 7(T) were anteiso-C(15 : 0), iso-C(15 : 0) and anteiso-C(17 : 0). The predominant menaquinone was MK-7. The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 42.3 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that strain CW 7(T) belonged to a monophyletic cluster within the genus
Bacillus and showed 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of less than 96.5 % to recognized species of the genus Bacillus. The results of the polyphasic taxonomic study, including phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analyses, showed that strain CW
7(T) represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus pallidus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is
CW 7(T) (=KCTC 13200(T)=CCTCC AB 207188(T)=LMG 24451(T)). PMID: 19060070 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus panacisoli Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2014 Mar;64(Pt 3):901-6. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.054320-0. Epub 2013 Nov 25. Bacillus
panacisoli sp. nov., isolated from ginseng soil. Choi JH(1), Cha CJ. Author information: (1)Department of Systems Biotechnology,
Chung-Ang University, Anseong 456-756, Republic of Korea. A Gram-staining-positive, motile, facultatively anaerobic, endo-
39
spore-forming and rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain CJ32(T), was isolated from ginseng soil at Geumsan in Korea. The isolate grew optimally at 30 °C, 2% (w/v) NaCl and pH 7.0. Colonies of strain CJ32(T) were beige and circular with an entire margin on
LB agar plates. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain CJ32(T) was associated with the
genus Bacillus and was most closely related to Bacillus graminis YC6957(T) (97.3% similarity) and Bacillus lentus IAM 12466(T)
(97.1%). DNA-DNA hybridization with closely related strains was below 31.3%. The major respiratory isoprenoid quinone was MK-7.
The diagnostic diamino acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid. The polar lipid profile of strain CJ32(T)
consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol and several unidentified lipids, including phospholipids, aminolipids and aminophospholipids. The predominant fatty acids of strain CJ32(T) were iso-C15:0 and anteiso-C15:0. The
G+C content of the genomic DNA was 35.1 mol%. Based on phenotypic, genotypic and phylogenetic data, strain CJ32(T) should be
classified within a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus panacisoli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is
strain CJ32(T) ( = KACC 17503(T) = JCM 19226(T)). PMID: 24277860 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]$$
144. Bacillus panaciterrae Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2006 Dec;56(Pt 12):2861-6. Bacillus panaciterrae sp. nov., isolated from soil of a
ginseng field. Ten LN(1), Baek SH, Im WT, Liu QM, Aslam Z, Lee ST. Author information: (1)Department of Biological Sciences, Korea
Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1, Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701, Republic of Korea. A
Gram-positive, non-motile, endospore-forming bacterium, designated Gsoil 1517(T), was isolated from soil of a ginseng field in
Pocheon Province (South Korea) and was characterized in order to determine its taxonomic position, using a polyphasic approach. It
was found to rod-shaped and aerobic or facultatively anaerobic. It grew optimally at 30 degrees C and at pH 6.5-7.0. Comparative
16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain Gsoil 1517(T) forms a distinct phylogenetic lineage within the genus Bacillus,
being related to Bacillus funiculus JCM 11201(T) (96.8 %). The strain showed less than 94.3 % sequence similarity with other Bacillus
species. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was found to be 47.8 mol% and the predominant respiratory quinone was MK-7. The
major fatty acids were iso-C(15 : 0) (42.4 %), anteiso-C(15 : 0) (17.4 %), iso-C(14 : 0) (9.7 %) and C(16 : 0) (6.0 %). On the basis of
its phenotypic properties and phylogenetic distinctiveness, strain Gsoil 1517(T) represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for
which the name Bacillus panaciterrae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Gsoil 1517(T) (=KCTC 13929(T)=CCUG
52470(T)=LMG 23408(T)). PMID: 17158988 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
145. Bacillus paraflexus Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2013 Dec;63(Pt 12):4735-43. doi: 10.1099/ijs. 0.048223-0. Epub 2013 Aug 29. Bacillus
paraflexus sp. nov., isolated from compost. Chandna P(1), Mayilraj S, Kuhad RC. Author information: (1)Lignocellulose Biotechnology
Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, University of Delhi South Campus, New Delhi 110 021, India. A Gram-stain-positive,
rod-shaped, endospore-forming, aerobic bacterium capable of growing at 15-42 °C (optimum 30 °C) and at pH 5-11 (optimum pH 7)
was isolated from compost. Its taxonomic position was deduced using a polyphasic approach and the strain was designated RC2(T).
16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the isolate belongs to the division Firmicutes, forming a clade within the cluster containing Bacillus flexus IFO 15715(T), and showed highest similarity to B. flexus IFO 15715(T) (98.1 %). The cell wall contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. The major cellular fatty acids of the novel strain were iso-C15:0 (36.83 %),
anteiso-C15:0 (49.19 %) and C16:0 (5.19 %). DNA-DNA hybridization between strain RC2(T) and B. flexus DSM 1320(T) showed a
level of relatedness of 54.5 %. The polar lipid profile of strain RC2(T) showed the presence of phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. The predominant isoprenoid quinone was MK-7 and the G+C content of strain RC2(T) was
37.6 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic characteristics, phylogenetic analysis and the results of biochemical and physiological tests,
strain RC2(T) was clearly distinguished from closely related members of the genus, and the strain is assigned to a novel species, for
which the name Bacillus paraflexus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is RC2(T) ( = MTCC 9831(T) = MCC 2100(T) = KCTC
13724(T) = CCM 7754(T)). PMID: 23990650 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]$$
146. Bacillus patagoniensis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2005 Jan;55(Pt 1):443-7. Bacillus patagoniensis sp. nov., a novel alkalitolerant
bacterium from the rhizosphere of Atriplex lampa in Patagonia, Argentina. Olivera N(1), Siñeriz F, Breccia JD. Author information:
(1)PROIMI Planta Piloto de Procesos Industriales Microbiológicos, Av. Belgrano y Pasaje Caseros, 4000 San Miguel de Tucumán,
Tucumán, Argentina. [email protected] A Gram-positive, rod-shaped, spore-forming bacterium (PAT 05T) was isolated from the
rhizosphere of the perennial shrub Atriplex lampa in north-eastern Patagonia, Argentina. Its overall biochemical and physiological
characteristics indicated that this strain should be placed in the alkaliphilic Bacillus group. Strain PAT 05T grew at pH 7-10 (optimum
pH 8), but not at pH 6. Its DNA G+C content was 39.7 mol%. Sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene of PAT 05T revealed the
closest match (99.6 % similarity) with Bacillus sp. DSM 8714. The highest level of DNA-DNA relatedness (88.6 %) was also found
with this strain. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity and phylogenetic analysis, G+C content and DNA-DNA hybridization data, strain PAT 05T is related at the species level to Bacillus sp. DSM 8714, a member of a group referred as phenon 4a by
Nielsen et al. [Nielsen, P., Fritze, D. & Priest, F. G. (1995). Microbiology 141, 1745-1761], which still lacks taxonomic standing. These
results support the proposal of strain PAT 05T (=DSM 16117T=ATCC BAA-965T) as the type strain of Bacillus patagoniensis sp. nov.
PMID: 15653916 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
147. Bacillus persepolensis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2009 Sep;59(Pt 9):2352-8. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.010090-0. Epub 2009 Jul 20. Bacillus
persepolensis sp. nov., a moderately halophilic bacterium from a hypersaline lake. Amoozegar MA(1), Sánchez-Porro C, Rohban R,
40
Hajighasemi M, Ventosa A. Author information: (1)Extremophiles Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biology, College
of Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran. A Gram-positive, moderately halophilic, endospore-forming bacterium, designated
strain HS136T, was isolated from the hypersaline lake Howz-Soltan in Iran. Cells were motile rods, producing ellipsoidal endospores
at a central-subterminal position in non-swollen sporangia. Strain HS136T, a strictly aerobic bacterium, grew between pH 7.0 and
10.0 (optimal growth at pH 8.0-8.5), between 25 and 45 degrees C (optimal growth at 40 degrees C) and at salinities of 5-20% (w/v)
NaCl, growing optimally at 10% (w/v) NaCl. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain HS136T was shown to belong
to the genus Bacillus within the phylum Firmicutes and showed closest phylogenetic similarity to Bacillus salarius BH169T (95.2%)
and Bacillus qingdaonensis CM1T (94.5%). The DNA G+C content of this new isolate was 37.1 mol%. The major cellular fatty acids
of strain HS136T were iso-C15:0, anteiso-C15:0 and anteiso-C17:0, and its polar lipid pattern consisted of phosphatidylglycerol and
diphosphatidylglycerol. The isoprenoid quinone was MK-7. The peptidoglycan type is A1gamma, with meso-diaminopimelic acid as
the diagnostic diamino acid. On the basis of polyphasic evidence from this study, Bacillus persepolensis sp. nov. is proposed, with
strain HS136T (=CCM 7595T=DSM 21632T=JCM 15720T=LMG 25222T) as the type strain. PMID: 19620367 [PubMed - indexed for
MEDLINE]
148. Bacillus persicus Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2013 Apr;63(Pt 4):1229-34. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.042689-0. Epub 2012 Jul 6. Bacillus persicus sp. nov., a halophilic bacterium from a hypersaline lake. Didari M(1), Amoozegar MA, Bagheri M, Mehrshad M, Schumann P,
Spröer C, Sánchez-Porro C, Ventosa A. Author information: (1)Extremophiles Lab., Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biology
and Center of Excellence in Phylogeny of Living Organisms, College of Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran. A novel
gram-positive, slightly halophilic bacterium, designated strain B48(T), was isolated from soil around the hypersaline lake Aran-Bidgol
in Iran and characterized taxonomically using a polyphasic approach. Cells of strain B48(T) were non-motile rods and produced ellipsoidal endospores at a central or subterminal position in swollen sporangia. Strain B48(T) was a strictly aerobic bacterium, catalase- and oxidase-positive. The strain was able to grow at NaCl concentrations of 0.5-10.0 % (w/v), with optimum growth occurring at
2.5 % (w/v) NaCl. The optimum temperature and pH for growth were 35 °C and pH 7.5-8.0, respectively. On the basis of 16S rRNA
gene sequence analysis, strain B48(T) was shown to belong to the genus Bacillus within the phylum Firmicutes and showed the
closest phylogenetic similarity to the species Bacillus foraminis CV53(T) (97.4 %) and Bacillus purgationiresistens DS22(T) (96.9 %).
The DNA G+C content of this new isolate was 40.1 mol%. The major cellular fatty acids of strain B48(T) were iso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0, and its polar lipid pattern consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, an aminophospholipid and two unknown phospholipids. The only quinone present was menaquinone 7 (MK-7). The peptidoglycan contained
meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. All these features confirm the placement of isolate B48(T) within the genus
Bacillus. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments revealed a low level of relatedness between strain B48(T) and Bacillus foraminis
IBRC-M 10625(T) (8.1 %). On the basis of polyphasic evidence from this study, a new species of the genus Bacillus, Bacillus persicus
sp. nov., is proposed, with strain B48(T) ( = IBRC-M 10115(T) = DSM 25386(T) = CECT 8001(T)) as the type strain. PMID: 22771682
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
149. Bacillus pervagus Curr Microbiol. 2014 Jan;68(1):88-95. doi: 10.1007/s00284-013-0443-1. Epub 2013 Aug 31. Bacillus thaonhiensis
sp. nov., a new species, was isolated from the forest soil of Kyonggi University by using a modified culture method. Van Pham HT(1),
Kim J. Author information: (1)Department of Life Science, Graduate School of Kyonggi University, Suwon, Gyeonggi-Do, 443-760,
South Korea. Erratum in$$
150. Bacillus pervagus Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2014 Jan;64(Pt 1):88-94. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.054833-0. Epub 2013 Sep 10. Bacillus pervagus sp. nov. and Bacillus andreesenii sp. nov., isolated from a composting reactor. Kosowski K(1), Schmidt M, Pukall R, Hause G,
Kämpfer P, Lechner U. Author information: (1)Institut für Biologie/Mikrobiologie, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, D-06099
Halle, Germany. Two strains, 8-4-E12(T) and 8-4-E13(T), were isolated from a biowaste composting reactor. Based on 16S rRNA
gene sequences, both strains belong to the genus Bacillus. Strain 8-4-E12(T) was most closely related to the type strains of Bacillus
shackletonii, B. acidicola, B. sporothermodurans and B. oleronius (96.4, 96.3, 96.0 and 95.6 % 16S rRNA gene similarity, respectively), whereas strain 8-4-E13(T) was most closely related to the type strain of Bacillus humi (96.5 % sequence similarity). Strains
8-4-E12(T) and 8-4-E13(T) shared 94 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. The fatty acid profile of strain 8-4-E12(T) was dominated by saturated iso- and anteiso-branched fatty acids (iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0), and also contained
considerable amounts of C16 : 0. The fatty acid profile of strain 8-4-E13(T) showed a predominance of iso-C15 : 0 (65 %), with smaller
amounts of other saturated branched-chain fatty acids along with an unsaturated alcohol. Both strains contained diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine as major polar lipids. Additionally, strain 8-4-E12(T) contained an unknown
lipid and strain 8-4-E13(T) two unknown (amino-)phospholipids. The diagnostic diamino acid found in the cell-wall peptidoglycan of
8-4-E12(T) and 8-4-E13(T) was meso-diaminopimelic acid. The predominant menaquinone was MK-7. The results of physiological
and biochemical tests also allowed phenotypic differentiation of the two strains from each other and from related Bacillus species. On
the basis of their phylogenetic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic properties, strains 8-4-E12(T) and 8-4-E13(T) represent novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the names Bacillus pervagus sp. nov. (type strain 8-4-E12(T) = DSM 23947(T) = LMG 27601(T))
41
151.
152.
153.
154.
and Bacillus andreesenii sp. nov. (type strain 8-4-E13(T) = DSM 23948(T) = LMG 27602(T)) are proposed. PMID: 24021730 [PubMed
- indexed for MEDLINE]$$
Bacillus plakortidis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2007 Dec;57(Pt 12):2888-93. Bacillus plakortidis sp. nov. and Bacillus murimartini sp.
nov., novel alkalitolerant members of rRNA group 6. Borchert MS(1), Nielsen P, Graeber I, Kaesler I, Szewzyk U, Pape T, Antranikian
G, Schäfer T. Author information: (1)Hamburg University of Technology, Technical Microbiology, Kasernenstrasse 12, D-21073 Hamburg, Germany. [email protected] The Gram-positive, alkali- and salt-tolerant marine bacterium strain P203(T) is described together with its closest phylogenetic neighbour, terrestrial isolate LMG 21005(T). Strain P203(T) was isolated from material from the
sponge Plakortis simplex that was obtained from the Sula-Ridge, Norwegian Sea. Strain LMG 21005(T) was an undescribed strain
that was isolated from a church wall mural in Germany. Strains P203(T) and LMG 21005(T) were identified as novel alkalitolerant
members of the Bacillus rRNA group 6 with a 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 99.5 %. The closest described neighbour, Bacillus gibsonii DSM 8722(T), showed 99.0 % gene sequence similarity with P203(T) and 98.8 % similarity with strain LMG 21005(T).
Despite the high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, DNA-DNA cross-hybridization revealed only 25.8-34.1 % similarity amongst the
three strains. The DNA G+C contents were 41.1 mol% for strain P203(T) and 39.6 mol% for strain LMG 21005(T). Both strains grew
well between pH 7 and pH 11. Strain P203(T) showed growth at moderate temperatures (from 4 to 30 degrees C) and in the presence of up to 12 % (w/v) NaCl at pH 9.7, whereas strain LMG 21005(T) was not salt tolerant (up to 4 % NaCl) and no growth was
observed at 4 degrees C. The major fatty acids of strains P203(T), LMG 21005(T) and the type strain of B. gibsonii were the saturated terminally methyl-branched compounds iso-C(15 : 0) (19.8, 15.6 and 28.0 %, respectively) and anteiso-C(15 : 0) (57.1, 48.6 and
45.2 %, respectively). Physiological and biochemical tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strains P203(T) and
LMG 21005(T) from the six related Bacillus species with validly published names and supported the proposal of two novel species,
Bacillus plakortidis [type strain P203(T) (=DSM 19153(T)=NCIMB 14288(T))] and Bacillus murimartini [type strain LMG 21005(T)
(=NCIMB 14102(T))]. PMID: 18048744 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus pocheonensis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2007 Nov;57(Pt 11):2532-7. Bacillus pocheonensis sp. nov., a moderately halotolerant, aerobic bacterium isolated from soil of a ginseng field. Ten LN(1), Baek SH, Im WT, Larina LL, Lee JS, Oh HM, Lee ST. Author
information: (1)Department of Biology and Medicinal Science, Pai Chai University, 14 Yeonja-1-Gil, Seo-Gu, Daejeon 302-735, Republic of Korea. A Gram-positive, non-motile, endospore-forming bacterial strain, designated Gsoil 420T, was isolated from soil of a
ginseng field in Pocheon Province, South Korea, and was characterized, using a polyphasic approach, in order to determine its taxonomic position. The novel isolate consisted of strictly aerobic, rod-shaped cells and was able to grow in medium supplemented with
up to 12% NaCl at 25 degrees C and pH 6.5-7.0. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain Gsoil 420T fell
within the radiation of the cluster comprising Bacillus species and formed a coherent cluster with Bacillus niacini (16S rRNA gene
sequence similarity, 98.6%), Bacillus bataviensis (98.6%), Bacillus soli (98.3%), Bacillus drentensis (98.0%), Bacillus novalis (98.0%),
Bacillus vireti (97.9%), Bacillus foraminis (97.6%), Bacillus fumarioli (97.4%) and Bacillus jeotgali (97.0%). The levels of 16S rRNA
gene sequence similarity with respect to other Bacillus species with validly published names were less than 96.8%. Strain Gsoil 420T
had a genomic DNA G+C content of 44.9 mol% and the predominant respiratory quinone was MK-7. The major fatty acids were anteiso-C15:0 (33.9%), iso-C15:0 (24.5%) and iso-C14:0 (19.9%). These chemotaxonomic results supported the affiliation of strain
Gsoil 420T to the genus Bacillus. However, low DNA-DNA relatedness values and distinguishing phenotypic characteristics allowed
genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain Gsoil 420T from recognized Bacillus species. On the basis of its phenotypic properties and phylogenetic distinctiveness, strain Gsoil 420T represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus
pocheonensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Gsoil 420T (=KCTC 13943T=DSM 18135T). PMID: 17978214 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus polygoni Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2008 Jan;58(Pt 1):120-4. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.65193-0. Bacillus polygoni sp. nov., a moderately halophilic, non-motile obligate alkaliphile isolated from indigo balls. Aino K(1), Hirota K, Matsuno T, Morita N, Nodasaka Y, Fujiwara T, Matsuyama H, Yoshimune K, Yumoto I. Author information: (1)Research Institute of Genome-based Biofactory, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukisamu-Higashi, Toyohira-ku, Sapporo 062-8517, Japan. A moderately
halophilic, obligate alkaliphile (growth range pH 8-12), designated strain YN-1(T), was isolated from indigo balls obtained from Ibaraki,
Japan. The cells of the isolate stained Gram-positive, and were aerobic, non-motile, sporulating rods which grew optimally at pH 9.
The strain grew in 3-14% NaCl with optimum growth in 5% NaCl. It hydrolysed casein and Tweens 20, 40 and 60, but not gelatin,
starch, DNA or pullulan. Its major isoprenoid quinone was MK-7 and its cellular fatty acid profile mainly consisted of anteiso-C(15:0),
anteiso-C(17:0) and anteiso-C(17:1). 16S rRNA phylogeny suggested that strain YN-1(T) was a member of group 7 (alkaliphiles) of
the genus Bacillus, with the closest relative being Bacillus clarkii DSM 8720(T) (similarity 99.5%). However, DNA-DNA hybridization
showed a low DNA-DNA relatedness (7%) of strain YN-1(T) with B. clarkii DSM 8720(T). Owing to the significant differences in phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, and phylogenetic and DNA-DNA relatedness data, the isolate merits classification as a
new species, for which the name Bacillus polygoni is proposed. The type strain of this species is YN-1(T) (=JCM 14604(T)=NCIMB
14282(T)). PMID: 18175695 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus pseudomycoides Int J Syst Bacteriol. 1998 Jul;48 Pt 3:1031-5. Bacillus pseudomycoides sp. nov. Nakamura LK. Author
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155.
156.
157.
158.
information: National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, Peoria,
IL 61604, USA. [email protected] Previous DNA relatedness studies showed that strains identified as Bacillus mycoides segregated into two genetically distinct yet phenotypically similar groups, one being B. mycoides sensu stricto and the other,
an unclassified taxon. In the present study, the taxonomic position of this second group was assessed by measuring DNA relatedness and determining phenotypic characteristics of an increased number of B. mycoides strains. Also determined was the second
group's 16S RNA gene sequence. The 36 B. mycoides strains studied segregated into two genetically distinct groups showing DNA
relatedness of about 30%; 18 strains represented the species proper and 18 the second group with intragroup DNA relatedness for
both groups ranging from 70 to 100%. DNA relatedness to the type strains of presently recognized species with G+C contents of approximately 35 mol% (Bacillus alcalophilus, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus circulans, Bacillus lentus, Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus
sphaericus) ranged from 22 to 37%. Although shown to be genetically distinct taxa, the two B. mycoides groups exhibited highly similar (98%) 16S RNA sequences. Phylogenetic analyses showed that both B. mycoides and the second group clustered closely with B.
cereus. Although not distinguishable by physiological and morphological characteristics, the two B. mycoides groups and B. cereus
were clearly separable based on fatty acid composition. The data established that the second B. mycoides group merits recognition
as a new species for which the name Bacillus pseudomycoides is proposed. The type stain is NRRL B-617(T). PMID: 9734060
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus psychrotolerans Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2002 Nov;52(Pt 6):2127-33. Two novel psychrotolerant species, Bacillus psychrotolerans sp. nov. and Bacillus psychrodurans sp. nov., which contain ornithine in their cell walls. Abd El-Rahman HA(1), Fritze D,
Spröer C, Claus D. Author information: (1)DSMZ-Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen GmbH, Mascheroder
Weg 1b, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. Eleven psychrotolerant Bacillus strains with ornithine as diamino acid in position 3 of the
peptide side chain of the cell wall and a G+C range of 35.7-38.4 mol% were characterized taxonomically. DNA-DNA hybridization
studies confirmed previously physiologically established groups. High DNA-binding values (> 70%) were found within groups I A
(consisting of the type strain of Bacillus insolitus DSM 5(T) and Bacillus insolitus DSM 2272), I B (consisting of isolates 3H1(T0, 71H1,
84E1, 87H2 and 4H2) and I C (consisting of isolates 68E39T), 61E1, 4E3 and 67E1). Low DNA-binding values (< 60%) were revealed between the three groups. Consequently, strains of groups I B and I C were considered as being representatives of new psychrotolerant species. For group I B strains the name Bacillus psychrotolerans sp. nov. is proposed with the type strain 3H1(T) (= DSM
11706(T) = NCIMB 13838(T)) and for group I C strains the name Bacillus psychrodurans sp. nov. is proposed with the type strain
68E3(T) (= DSM 11713(T) = NCIMB 13837(T)). PMID: 12508879 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus purgationiresistans Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2012 Jan;62(Pt 1):71-7. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.028605-0. Epub 2011 Feb 18. Bacillus purgationiresistans sp. nov., isolated from a drinking-water treatment plant. Vaz-Moreira I(1), Figueira V, Lopes AR, Lobo-da-Cunha A, Spröer C, Schumann P, Nunes OC, Manaia CM. Author information: (1)CBQF-Escola Superior de Biotecnologia,
Universidade Católica Portuguesa, Porto, Portugal. A Gram-positive, aerobic, non-motile, endospore-forming rod, designated
DS22(T), was isolated from a drinking-water treatment plant. Cells were catalase- and oxidase-positive. Growth occurred at 15-37 °C,
at pH 7-10 and with <8% (w/v) NaCl (optimum growth: 30 °C, pH 7-8 and 1-3% NaCl). The major respiratory quinone was menaquinone 7, the G+C content of the genomic DNA was 36.5 mol% and the cell wall contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. On the basis of
16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain DS22(T) was a member of the genus Bacillus. Its closest phylogenetic neighbours were
Bacillus horneckiae NRRL B-59162(T) (98.5% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Bacillus oceanisediminis H2(T) (97.9%), Bacillus
infantis SMC 4352-1(T) (97.4%), Bacillus firmus IAM 12464(T) (96.8%) and Bacillus muralis LMG 20238(T) (96.8%). DNA-DNA hybridization, and biochemical and physiological characterization allowed the differentiation of strain DS22(T) from its closest phylogenetic neighbours. The data supports the proposal of a novel species, Bacillus purgationiresistans sp. nov.; the type strain is DS22(T)
(=DSM 23494(T)=NRRL B-59432(T)=LMG 25783(T)). PMID: 21335493 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus pycnus Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2002 Mar;52(Pt 2):501-5. Bacillus pycnus sp. nov. and Bacillus neidei sp. nov.,
round-spored bacteria from soil. Nakamura LK(1), Shida O, Takagi H, Komagata K. Author information: (1)Microbial Properties Research Unit, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, Peoria, IL 61604, USA. [email protected] Bacillus
sphaericus sensu lato currently consists of seven or more groups of unrelated taxa, one of which is B. sphaericus sensu stricto and
another of which is Bacillus fusiformis. Members of two groups (groups 6 and 7), in common with all other B. sphaericus-like organisms, are unable to grow anaerobically or to use common hexoses, pentoses and hexitols as sources of carbon, have G+C contents
of 34-36 mol % and form round spores. Groups 6 and 7 can be differentiated from other B. sphaericus-like organisms by low DNA
relatedness and by variations in whole-cell fatty acid composition. Unique characteristics of group 6 include the ability to oxidize beta-hydroxybutyrate, the non-requirement for biotin and thiamin and failure to grow in 5% NaCl. Distinctive traits of group 7 include the
inability to oxidize pyruvate and a requirement for biotin, thiamin and cystine for growth. These data show that groups 6 and 7 represent two novel species, for which the names Bacillus pycnus sp. nov. and Bacillus neidei sp. nov., respectively, are proposed; the
corresponding type strains are NRRL NRS-1691T (= JCM 11075T) and NRRL BD-87T (= JCM 11077T). PMID: 11931162 [PubMed indexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus qingdaonensis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2007 May;57(Pt 5):1143-7. Bacillus qingdaonensis sp. nov., a moderately haloal-
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kaliphilic bacterium isolated from a crude sea-salt sample collected near Qingdao in eastern China. Wang QF(1), Li W, Liu YL, Cao
HH, Li Z, Guo GQ. Author information: (1)Institute of Cell Biology, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000,
People's Republic of China. A moderately haloalkaliphilic, Gram-positive bacterium, designated as strain CM1(T), was isolated from a
crude sea-salt sample collected near Qingdao in eastern China. Strain CM1(T) was found to grow optimally at 37 degrees C and pH
9.0. It was shown to be aerobic, rod-shaped and capable of growth at salinities of 2.5-20 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 12 %). The genomic DNA G+C content was about 48 mol%. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C(15 : 0), anteiso-C(17 : 0) and iso-C(16 : 0)
and the major isoprenoid quinones were MK-7(H(2)) and MK-6(H(2)). Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences
revealed that CM1(T) is a member of the genus Bacillus and has less than 95.2 % gene sequence similarity to the most closely related strain, Bacillus salarius BH169(T). Its DNA-DNA reassociation value with respect to B. salarius BH169(T) was 35.4 %. On the
basis of phenotypic and molecular properties, strain CM1(T) represents a novel Bacillus species, for which the name Bacillus qingdaonensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CM1(T) (=CGMCC 1.6134(T)=JCM 14087(T)). PMID: 17473273 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
159. Bacillus qingshengii Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2014 Jul;64(Pt 7):2473-9. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.061929-0. Epub 2014 May 6. Bacillus
qingshengii sp. nov., a rock-weathering bacterium isolated from weathered rock surface. Xi J(1), He LY(1), Huang Z(1), Sheng XF(2).
Author information: (1)Key Laboratory of Agricultural Environment Microbiology, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, PR China. (2)Key Laboratory of Agricultural Environment Microbiology, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, PR China [email protected] A novel type of
rock-weathering bacterium was isolated from weathered rock (tuff) surface collected from Dongxiang (Jiangxi, eastern China). Cells
of strain G19(T) were Gram-reaction-positive, rod-shaped, endospore-forming and non-motile. The strain was aerobic, catalase- and
oxidase-positive, and grew optimally at 30 °C and pH 7.0. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain G19(T) was
shown to belong to the genus Bacillus and the closest phylogenetic relatives were Bacillus aryabhattai B8W22(T) (97.4 %) and Bacillus megaterium IAM 13418(T) (97.1 %). The DNA G+C content was 36.7 mol% and the predominant respiratory quinone was MK-7.
The major fatty acids were iso-C14 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0. The polar lipid profile of strain G19(T) contained phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol and an unidentified lipid. Based on the low level of DNA-DNA relatedness
(ranging from 49.4 % to 55.0 %) to these type strains of species of the genus Bacillus and unique phenotypic characteristics, strain
G19(T) represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus qingshengii sp. nov. is proposed. The type
strain is G19(T) ( = CCTCC AB 2013273(T) = JCM 19454(T)). © 2014 IUMS. PMID: 24801156 [PubMed - in process]$$
160. Bacillus rhizosphaerae Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2011 Oct;100(3):437-44. doi: 10.1007/s10482-011-9600-3. Epub 2011 Jun 14.
Bacillus rhizosphaerae sp. nov., an novel diazotrophic bacterium isolated from sugarcane rhizosphere soil. Madhaiyan M(1),
Poonguzhali S, Lee JS, Lee KC, Hari K. Author information: (1)Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India. [email protected] A Gram-positive, non-pigmented, rod-shaped, diazotrophic bacterial strain, designated SC-N012(T), was isolated from rhizosphere soil of sugarcane and was subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic
study. The strain exhibited phenotypic properties that included chemotaxonomic characteristics consistent with its classification in the
genus Bacillus. Sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene of SC-N012(T) revealed the closest match (98.9% pair wise similarity) with
Bacillus clausii DSM 8716(T). However, DNA-DNA hybridization experiments indicated low levels of genomic relatedness (32%) with
this strain. The major components of the fatty acid profile are iso-C(15:0), anteiso-C(15:0), iso-C(17:0) and anteiso-C(17:0). The diagnostic cell-wall diamino acid was meso-diaminopimelic acid. The G+C content of the genomic DNA is 43.0 mol%. The lipids present in strain SC-N012(T) are diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol and two unknown phospholipids. Their predominant respiratory quinone was MK-7. Studies of DNA-DNA relatedness, morphological, physiological and
chemotaxonomic analyses and phylogenetic data based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing allowed strain SC-N012(T) to be described
as members of novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus rhizosphaerae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain
is SC-N012(T) (=DSM 21911(T) = NCCB 100267(T)). PMID: 21671194 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
161. Bacillus rigui Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2010 Sep;60(Pt 9):2204-9. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.018184-0. Epub 2009 Nov 6. Bacillus rigui sp.
nov., isolated from wetland fresh water. Baik KS(1), Lim CH, Park SC, Kim EM, Rhee MS, Seong CN. Author information:
(1)Department of Biology, Sunchon National University, Suncheon 540-742, Republic of Korea. Two Gram-stain-positive strains,
WPCB074(T) and WPCB165, were isolated from fresh water collected from the Woopo wetland (Republic of Korea). Both strains
were strictly aerobic, motile, endospore-forming rods. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that
strains WPCB074(T) and WPCB165 belonged to the genus Bacillus and that strain WPCB074(T) was most closely related to Bacillus
solisalsi YC1(T) (98.4 % sequence similarity), B. barbaricus V2-BIII-A2(T) (97.7 %), B. macauensis ZFHKF-1(T) (96.9 %), B. arsenicus Con a/3(T) (96.4 %) and B. gelatini LMG 21880(T) (95.1 %). The 16S rRNA gene sequences of strains WPCB074(T) and
WPCB165 differed at one position (99.9 % similarity), suggesting that these two strains constitute a single species. DNA-DNA relatedness between strain WPCB074(T) and the type strains of B. solisalsi, B. barbaricus, B. macauensis, B. arsenicus and B. gelatini
were 26, 17, 20, 14 and 7 %, respectively. Strain WPCB074(T) was characterized by having cell-wall peptidoglycan based on meso-diaminopimelic acid, MK-7 as the predominant menaquinone and iso-C(15 : 0) and anteiso-C(15 : 0) as the major fatty acids. The
44
162.
163.
164.
165.
166.
DNA G+C content of strain WPCB074(T) was 41.9 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic properties, phylogeny and genomic distinctiveness, strain WPCB074(T) represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus for which the name Bacillus rigui sp. nov. is proposed.
The type strain is WPCB074(T) (=KCTC 13278(T) =JCM 16348(T)). PMID: 19897614 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus ruris Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2005 Nov;55(Pt 6):2551-4. Bacillus ruris sp. nov., from dairy farms. Heyndrickx M(1), Scheldeman P, Forsyth G, Lebbe L, Rodríguez-Díaz M, Logan NA, De Vos P. Author information: (1)Department of Animal Product Quality,
Centre for Agricultural Research-Ghent, Brusselsesteenweg 370, B-9090 Melle, Belgium. [email protected] Four novel ellipsoidal spore-forming Bacillus isolates with swollen sporangia, isolated from raw milk and feed concentrate, showed a high level of
similarity in SDS-PAGE, fatty acid methyl esters and routine phenotypic tests. However, 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons
showed that this taxon was different from other related Bacillus species, and only a low level of DNA relatedness was found with the
closest phylogenetic and phenotypic relative, Bacillus galactosidilyticus. This taxon could be differentiated from B. galactosidilyticus
on the basis of morphological differences, stronger acid reactions with a wide range of substrates after 48 h incubation, and qualitative and quantitative differences in fatty acid content. On the basis of these data, a novel species, Bacillus ruris sp. nov., is proposed,
with LMG 22866T (=DSM 17057T) as the type strain. PMID: 16280525 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus safensis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2006 Aug;56(Pt 8):1735-40. Bacillus safensis sp. nov., isolated from spacecraft and assembly-facility surfaces. Satomi M(1), La Duc MT, Venkateswaran K. Author information: (1)National Research Institute of Fisheries
Science, Fisheries Research Agency, Yokohama, 236-8648, Japan. Thirteen strains of a novel spore-forming, Gram-positive, mesophilic heterotrophic bacterium were isolated from spacecraft surfaces (Mars Odyssey Orbiter) and assembly-facility surfaces at the
Jet Propulsion Laboratory in California and the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences has placed these novel isolates within the genus Bacillus, the greatest sequence similarity (99.9 %) being found with Bacillus pumilus. However, these isolates share a mere 91.2 % gyrB sequence similarity with Bacillus pumilus, rendering their 16S rRNA
gene-derived relatedness suspect. Furthermore, DNA-DNA hybridization showed only 54-66 % DNA relatedness between the novel
isolates and strains of B. pumilus. rep-PCR fingerprinting and previously reported matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization
time-of-flight mass spectrometry protein profiling clearly distinguished these isolates from B. pumilus. Phenotypic analyses also
showed some differentiation between the two genotypic groups, although the fatty acid compositions were almost identical. The polyphasic taxonomic studies revealed distinct clustering of the tested strains into two distinct species. On the basis of phenotypic characteristics and the results of phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA and gyrB gene sequences, repetitive element primer-PCR fingerprinting and DNA-DNA hybridization, the 13 isolates represent a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus
safensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is FO-36b(T) (=ATCC BAA-1126(T)=NBRC 100820(T)). PMID: 16902000 [PubMed indexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus salarius Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2006 Feb;56(Pt 2):373-7. Bacillus salarius sp. nov., a halophilic, spore-forming bacterium
isolated from a salt lake in China. Lim JM(1), Jeon CO, Lee SM, Lee JC, Xu LH, Jiang CL, Kim CJ. Author information: (1)Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, 52 Oeundong, Yusong, Daejeon 305-333, Republic of Korea. A moderately halophilic bacterium, strain BH169T, capable of growing at salinities of 3-20% (w/v) NaCl was isolated from a saline lake in China. Strain
BH169T was strictly aerobic, short-rod-shaped and non-motile (non-flagellated). Its major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15:0, anteiso-C17:0, iso-C15:0 and iso-C16:0. The genomic DNA G+C content was about 43 mol% and the predominant quinone was MK-7.
The cell-wall peptidoglycan was of the A1gamma type, containing meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the isolate formed a distinct phylogenetic line within the
spore-forming rods of the genus Bacillus. The levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to the type strains of Bacillus species
were below 93%. On the basis of phenotypic and molecular properties, strain BH169T (=KCTC 3912T=DSM 16461T) represents the
type strain of a novel species within the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus salarius sp. nov. is proposed. PMID: 16449443
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus salexigens Int J Syst Bacteriol. 1997 Jul;47(3):735-41. Bacillus salexigens sp. nov., a new moderately halophilic Bacillus
species. Garabito MJ(1), Arahal DR, Mellado E, Márquez MC, Ventosa A. Author information: (1)Department of Microbiology and
Parasitology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Seville, Spain. Bacillus salexigens sp. nov. is proposed based on the characteristics
of six moderately halophilic, grampositive, rod-shaped strains isolated from salterns and hypersaline soils located in different geographical areas of Spain. These strains were motile, formed endospores, were strictly aerobic, were catalase and oxidase positive,
and contained peptidoglycan of the meso-diamlnopimelic acid type in their vegetative cell walls. The DNA base compositions of these
strains ranged from 36.3 to 39.5 mol%, and these organisms constitute a homology group with levels of DNA-DNA homology ranging
from 73 to 100%. The 16S rRNA sequence of strain C-20MoT, which was used as the representative strain of these isolates, groups
with the 16S rRNA sequences of members of the genus Bacillus, and the highest level of similarity is 95.4%. The type strain is strain
C-20Mo (= ATCC 700290 = DSM 11483 = CCM 4646). PMID: 9226905 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus saliphilus Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2005 Jan;55(Pt 1):159-63. Bacillus saliphilus sp. nov., isolated from a mineral pool in
Campania, Italy. Romano I(1), Lama L, Nicolaus B, Gambacorta A, Giordano A. Author information: (1)Istituto di Chimica Biomolecolare, Comprensorio ex Olivetti, via Campi Flegrei 34, 80078 Pozzuoli, Na, Italy. A haloalkaliphilic Gram-positive bacterium, strain
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6AGT, that grew aerobically at an optimum temperature of 37 degrees C and at pH 7-10 (optimum 9.0), was isolated from algal mat
from a mineral pool located in Malvizza in the Campania region (southern Italy). The isolate tolerated high concentrations of NaCl, up
to 25 %. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, the strain was shown to belong to the genus Bacillus. Analysis of the
16S rRNA gene sequence revealed high similarity between strain 6AGT and an unidentified isolate from Hailaer soda lake (China)
(99.9 % identity) and two Kenyan isolates, 3E1 and WE4 (98.3 and 97.8 % identity, respectively). The G+C content of the DNA was
48.4 mol%. The predominant respiratory quinones were MK-7(H2), MK-7(H4) and DMK-7(H2); phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol were the predominant polar lipids. iC15 : 0 and aiC15 : 0 were the major fatty acids. Strain 6AGT accumulated osmolytes.
The phylogenetic distance of strain 6AGT (=DSM 15402T=ATCC BAA-957T) from any recognized species within the genus Bacillus
allowed it to be classified as the type strain of Bacillus saliphilus sp. nov. PMID: 15653870 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
167. Bacillus salsus Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2013 Sep;63(Pt 9):3324-9. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.050120-0. Epub 2013 Mar 15. Bacillus salsus
sp. nov., a halophilic bacterium from a hypersaline lake. Amoozegar MA(1), Didari M, Bagheri M, Fazeli SA, Schumann P, Spröer C,
Sánchez-Porro C, Ventosa A. Author information: (1)Extremophiles Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biology and
Center of Excellence in Phylogeny of Living Organisms, College of Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran. [email protected] A
Gram-staining-positive, endospore-forming, rod-shaped, strictly aerobic, slightly halophilic bacterium, designated strain A24(T), was
isolated from the hypersaline lake Aran-Bidgol in Iran. Cells of strain A24(T) were motile rods and produced oval endospores at a
terminal position in swollen sporangia. Strain A24(T) was catalase and oxidase positive. Growth occurred with between 0.5 and 7.5%
(w/v) NaCl and the isolate grew optimally at 3% (v/w) NaCl. The optimum temperature and pH for growth were 35 °C and pH 8.0, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain A24(T) belonged to the genus Bacillus
within the phylum Firmicutes and showed the closest phylogenetic similarity with the species Bacillus alkalitelluris BA288(T) (97.2%),
Bacillus herbersteinensis D-1,5a(T) (96.0%) and Bacillus litoralis SW-211(T) (95.6%). The G+C content of the genomic DNA of this
strain was 35.9 mol%. The polar lipid pattern of strain A24(T) consisted of phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and two unknown phospholipids. The major cellular fatty acids of strain A24(T) were anteiso-C(15:0) and iso-C(15:0).
The respiratory quinones were MK-7 (94%) and MK-6 (4%). The peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. All these features confirm the placement of isolate A24(T) within the genus Bacillus. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments revealed a relatedness of 8% between strain A24(T) and Bacillus alkalitelluris IBRC-M 10596(T), supporting its placement as a
novel species. Phenotypic characteristics, phylogenetic analysis and DNA-DNA relatedness data suggest that this strain represents a
novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus salsus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is strain A24(T)
( = IBRC-M 10078 (T) = KCTC 13816(T)). PMID: 23504967 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]$$
168. Bacillus sediminis Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2013 Dec;104(6):1109-16. doi: 10.1007/s10482- 013-0032-0. Epub 2013 Sep 14.
Bacillus sediminis sp. nov., isolated from an electroactive biofilm. Yu Z(1), Wang Y, Qin D, Yang G, Zhou S. Author information:
(1)Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou, 510650, People's Republic of China. A Gram-stain
positive, facultative anaerobic, motile, spore-forming rod-shaped bacterium with peritrichous flagella, designated DX-5(T), was isolated from an electroactive biofilm. Growth was observed to occur at 35-60 °C, at pH 7.0-10.0 and with 0.5-10 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum
growth: 50 °C, pH 8.0 and 0.5-3 % NaCl). Cells were determined to be catalase- and oxidase-positive. The predominant respiratory
quinone was identified as MK-7; the major polar lipids were determined to be diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, glycolipid,
aminoglycolipid and an unidentified phospholipid; the DNA G+C content was determined to be 46.6 mol%; and the major fatty acids
(>5 %) were identified as anteiso-C15:0 (33.6 %), iso-C15:0 (24.1 %) and anteiso-C17:0 (13.4 %). The phylogenetic analysis based
on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons indicated that strain DX-5(T) should be assigned to the genus Bacillus, and was related
most closely to the type strains of B. fortis DSM 16012(T) (96.3 %), B. composti KACC 16872(T) (96.3 %) and B. fordii DSM 16014(T)
(95.8 %). Results of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic analysis indicated that strain DX-5(T) represents a novel species,
for which the name B. sediminis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is DX-5(T) (=CGMCC 1.12412(T) = KCTC 33102(T)). PMID:
24037481 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]$$
169. Bacillus selenatarsenatis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2007 May;57(Pt 5):1060-4. Bacillus selenatarsenatis sp. nov., a selenate- and
arsenate-reducing bacterium isolated from the effluent drain of a glass-manufacturing plant. Yamamura S(1), Yamashita M, Fujimoto
N, Kuroda M, Kashiwa M, Sei K, Fujita M, Ike M. Author information: (1)Water and Soil Environment Division, National Institute for
Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506, Japan. [email protected] A facultatively anaerobic, selenateand arsenate-reducing bacterium, designated strain SF-1(T), was isolated from a selenium-contaminated sediment obtained from an
effluent drain of a glass-manufacturing plant in Japan. The bacterium stained Gram-positive and was a motile, spore-forming rod capable of respiring with selenate, arsenate and nitrate as terminal electron acceptors. The major cellular fatty acids of the strain were
iso-C(15 : 0), iso-C(17 : 1)omega10c and C(16 : 1)omega7c alcohol. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 42.8 mol%. Though
the nearest phylogenetic neighbour was Bacillus jeotgali JCM 10885(T), with a 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 99.6 %,
DNA-DNA hybridization studies showed only 14 % relatedness between these strains, a level that is clearly below the value recommended to delimit different species. This, together with the phenotypic differences (utilization of electron acceptors, NaCl tolerance),
suggests that strain SF-1(T) represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus selenatarsenatis sp. nov.
46
170.
171.
172.
173.
is proposed. The type strain is SF-1(T) (=JCM 14380(T)=DSM 18680(T)). PMID: 17473259 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus seohaeanensis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2006 Aug;56(Pt 8):1893-8. Bacillus seohaeanensis sp. nov., a halotolerant bacterium that contains L-lysine in its cell wall. Lee JC(1), Lim JM, Park DJ, Jeon CO, Li WJ, Kim CJ. Author information: (1)Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, 52 Oeundong, Yusong, Daejeon 305-333, Republic of Korea. A halotolerant,
round-endospore-forming, aerobic, Gram-positive bacterium, designated BH724(T), was isolated from a solar saltern at Taean in Korea. Cells of this strain were rod-shaped and found to be non-motile. Strain BH724(T) grew at salinities of 0-10 % (w/v) NaCl with an
optimum of 3 % (w/v) NaCl and at temperatures of 15-50 degrees C with an optimum of 40 degrees C. Phylogenetic analyses based
on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain BH724(T) belonged to the genus Bacillus and that Bacillus aquimaris TF-12(T),
Bacillus marisflavi TF-11(T) and Bacillus vietnamensis JCM 11124(T) were its closest neighbours, sharing 97.3, 97.2 and 97.0 % 16S
rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively. The genomic DNA G+C content was 39 mol% and the predominant menaquinone was
MK-7. Its major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C(15 : 0), iso-C(15 : 0), iso-C(16 : 0) and iso-C(14 : 0). The peptidoglycan type was
A1alpha, linked directly through l-lysine. On the basis of morphological, chemotaxonomic, physiological and phylogenetic properties,
strain BH724(T) represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus seohaeanensis sp. nov. is proposed.
The type strain is BH724(T) (=KCTC 3913(T)=DSM 16464(T)). PMID: 16902027 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus shacheensis J Gen Appl Microbiol. 2014;60(3):101-5. Lei Z(1), Qiu P, Ye R, Tian J, Liu Y, Wang L, Tang SK, Li WJ, Tian Y.
Bacillus shacheensis sp. nov., a moderately halophilic bacterium isolated from a saline-alkali soil. Author information: (1)Key Laboratory of Leather Chemistry and Engineering, Ministry of Education and College of Light Industry, Textile & Food Engineering, Sichuan
University. A moderately halophilic bacterium, strain HNA-14(T), was isolated from a saline-alkali soil sample collected in Shache
County, Xinjiang Province. On the basis of the polyphasic taxonomic data, the isolate was considered to be a member of the genus
Bacillus. The organism grew optimally at 30°C and pH 8.0. It was moderately halophilic and its optimum growth occurred at 5-10%
NaCl. The diamino acid found in the cell-wall peptidoglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid and the predominant menaquinone was
MK-7. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15:0 and iso-C15:0 and the polar lipid profile consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol,
phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol manno- sides and two unknown phospholipids. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 48.6 mol%. Strain HNA-14(T) exhibited a low 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 96% with its nearest neighbors [Bacillus clausii KSM-K16 (96.5%), Bacillus xiaoxiensis DSM 21943(T)(96.2%), Bacillus clausii DSM 8716(T) (96.1%),
Bacillus patagoniensis PAT05(T) (96.1%), Bacillus lehensis MLB-2(T) (96.0%), Bacillus oshimensis K11(T) (95.9%) and Bacillus
hunanensis DSM 23008(T) (95.8%)] and the phenotypic characteristics indicate that strain HNA-14(T) can be distinguished from
them. Therefore, a novel species of the genus Bacillus, Bacillus shacheensis sp. nov. (type strain, HNA-14(T)=KCTC 33145=DSM
26902) is proposed. PMID: 25008165 [PubMed - in process]
Bacillus shackletonii Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2004 Mar;54(Pt 2):373-6. Bacillus shackletonii sp. nov., from volcanic soil on Candlemas Island, South Sandwich archipelago. Logan NA(1), Lebbe L, Verhelst A, Goris J, Forsyth G, Rodríguez-Díaz M, Heyndrickx M,
De Vos P. Author information: (1)School of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Glasgow Caledonian University, Cowcaddens Road,
Glasgow G4 0BA, UK. [email protected] A sample of mossy soil taken from the eastern lava flow of northern Candlemas Island,
South Sandwich archipelago, yielded six isolates of aerobic, endospore-forming bacteria. Miniaturized routine phenotypic tests and
other observations, amplified rDNA restriction analysis and SDS-PAGE analysis suggested that the strains represent a novel taxon.
16S rDNA sequence comparisons support the proposal of a novel species, Bacillus shackletonii sp. nov., the type strain of which is
LMG 18435(T) (=CIP 107762(T)). PMID: 15023945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus siamensis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2010 Oct;60(Pt 10):2364-70. doi: 10.1099/ijs. 0.018879-0. Epub 2009 Nov 20. Bacillus
siamensis sp. nov., isolated from salted crab (poo-khem) in Thailand. Sumpavapol P(1), Tongyonk L, Tanasupawat S, Chokesajjawatee N, Luxananil P, Visessanguan W. Author information: (1)Department of Food and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of
Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand. A Gram-positive, endospore-forming, rod-shaped
bacterium, strain PD-A10(T), was isolated from salted crab (poo-khem) in Thailand and subjected to a taxonomic study. Phenotypic
and chemotaxonomic characteristics, including phylogenetic analyses, showed that the novel strain was a member of the genus Bacillus. The novel strain grew in medium with 0-14 % (w/v) NaCl, at 4-55°C and at pH4.5-9. The predominant quinone was a menaquinone with seven isoprene units (MK-7). The major fatty acids were anteiso-C₁₅:₀ and anteiso-C₁₇:₀. Polar lipid analysis revealed
the presence of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, lysylphosphatidylglycerol, glycolipid and
unknown lipids. The DNA G+C content was 41.4 mol%. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities between strain PD-A10(T) and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NBRC 15535(T), Bacillus subtilis DSM 10(T), Bacillus vallismortis DSM 11031(T) and Bacillus mojavensis
IFO 15718(T) were 99.5, 99.4, 99.4 and 99.2 %, respectively. Strain PD-A10(T) showed a low degree similarity of rep-PCR fingerprints and low DNA-DNA relatedness with the above-mentioned species. On the basis of the data gathered in this study, strain
PD-A10(T) should be classified as representing a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus siamensis sp. nov.
is proposed. The type strain is PD-A10(T) (=BCC 22614(T)=KCTC 13613(T)). PMID: 19933584 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
174. Bacillus silvestris Int J Syst Bacteriol. 1999 Apr;49 Pt 2:795-802. Bacillus silvestris sp. nov., a new member of the genus Bacillus
that contains lysine in its cell wall. Rheims H(1), Frühling A, Schumann P, Rohde M, Stackebrandt E. Author information:
47
(1)DSMZ-Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany. A Gram-positive, aerobic,
rod-shaped, peritrichously flagellated, round-endospore-forming bacterium was isolated from a forest soil near Braunschweig, Lower
Saxony, Germany, and designated strain HR3-23T (T = type strain). Morphologically, strain HR3-23T shows the characteristics of a
member of the genus Bacillus. The spore position is terminal in a swollen sporangium. Comparative analysis of the 16S rDNA sequence shows strain HR3-23T to be most closely related to Caryophanon tenue (95.8% 16S rRNA similarity) and to Bacillus sphaericus (95.4% 16S rRNA similarity). Phylogenetically, the isolate clusters among species of Bacillus RNA group 2. The DNA G + C content of isolate HR3-23T is 39.3 mol%, the peptidoglycan type is A4 alpha (L-Lys-D-Glu), the major respiratory lipoquinone is menaquinone MK-7 and the predominant fatty acid is of the iso-C15:0 type. Based on the morphological, chemotaxonomic, physiological
and phylogenetic properties, a new species, Bacillus silvestris, is proposed; strain HR3-23T is the type strain (= DSM 12223T). PMID:
10319505 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
175. Bacillus siralis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2000 Nov;50 Pt 6:2181-7. Bacillus siralis sp. nov., a novel species from silage with a higher
order structural attribute in the 16S rRNA genes. Pettersson B(1), de Silva SK, Uhlén M, Priest FG. Author information:
(1)Department of Biotechnology, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. A novel bacterial strain (171544T) was recently
isolated from silage and was classified in the genus Bacillus by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Additional silage samples have been
investigated in the present study and four organisms resembling strain 171544T were isolated. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of these bacteria showed that they constitute a new species of the genus Bacillus. This taxon was positioned in the family Bacillaceae on the basis of evolutionary distance trees using 16S rDNA sequences. Bacillus circulans, Bacillus firmus and Bacillus
benzoevorans were the most closely related species with 165 rDNA similarities of 97.2, 96.3 and 95.9%, respectively. All five silage
isolates shared a higher order structural feature in the 3' region of the 16S rRNA gene comprising an extension to helix 49 of 24 bp
and highly similar random amplified polymorphic DNA patterns that distinguished them from the type strains of B. circulans and B.
firmus. Moreover, they possessed a unique pattern of phenotypic features including subterminally or terminally located endospores
which distinctly swelled the sporangium, strictly aerobic metabolism but with the ability to utilize nitrate as a terminal electron acceptor
under anaerobic conditions, and hydrolysis of casein but not starch. The name Bacillus siralis is therefore proposed for this new taxon. The type strain of B. siralis is strain 171544T (= NCIMB 13601T = CIP 106295T). PMID: 11155995 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
176. Bacillus solimangrovi Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2014 May;64(Pt 5):1622-8. doi: 10.1099/ijs. 0.058230-0. Epub 2014 Jan 31. Bacillus
solimangrovi sp. nov., isolated from mangrove soil. Lee GH(1), Rhee MS, Chang DH, Kwon KK, Bae KS, Yang SH, Kim BC. Author
information: (1)Korean Collection for Type Cultures (KCTC), Biological Resource Center (BRC), Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), 125 Gwahangno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-806, Republic of Korea. Two novel bacterial strains,
GH2-4T and GH2-5, were isolated from mangrove soil near the seashore of Weno island in Chuuk state, Micronesia, and were characterized by a polyphasic approach. The two strains were strictly aerobic, Gram-staining-positive, motile, endospore-forming rods
that were catalase- and oxidase-positive. Colonies were circular, convex, stringy and transparent yellowish (GH2-4T) or opaque whitish (GH2-5). The 16S rRNA gene sequences of the two isolates were identical. The most closely related strains in terms of 16S rRNA
gene sequence similarity were Bacillus kochii WCC 4582T, B. horneckiae DSM 23495T, B. azotoformans LMG 9581T, B. cohnii DSM
6307T and B. halmapalus DSM 8723T (95.6, 95.4, 95.4, 95.2 and 95.2% similarity, respectively). The partial groEL sequence of strain
GH2-4T was identical to that of strain GH2-5 and showed <85% similarity to those of the most closely related strains. The isolates
grew at pH 5-12 (optimal growth at pH 9), at 10-40 °C (optimum 30-35 °C) and at 0-9% (w/v) NaCl (optimum 1-3% NaCl). The
cell-wall peptidoglycan of strains GH2-4T and GH2-5 contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and cell-wall hydrolysates contained ribose as a major sugar. The DNA G+C content was 36 mol%, and DNA-DNA relatedness between the isolates and five related reference strains was 20-24%. Strain GH2-4T exhibited 81% DNA-DNA relatedness with strain GH2-5. The major cellular fatty acids of
both strains were iso-C15:0, iso-C16:0, iso-C14:0 and anteiso-C15:0 and the predominant menaquinone was MK-7. On the basis of
the evidence from this polyphasic study, strains GH2-4T and GH2-5 (=KCTC 33143=JCM 18995=DSM 27084) represent a novel
species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus solimangrovi sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is GH2-4T (=KCTC
33142T=JCM 18994T=DSM 27083T). PMID: 24488932 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]$$
177. Bacillus solisalsi Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2009 Jun;59(Pt 6):1460-4. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.000653-0. Bacillus solisalsi sp. nov., a halotolerant, alkaliphilic bacterium isolated from soil around a salt lake. Liu H(1), Zhou Y, Liu R, Zhang KY, Lai R. Author information:
(1)Biotoxin Units of Key Laboratory of Animal Models and Human Disease Mechanisms, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese
Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223, Yunnan, PR China. A novel Gram-positive, motile, rod-shaped bacterium isolated from a saline soil in China was characterized by a polyphasic taxonomic approach. The strain, designated YC1(T), was halotolerant [tolerating
up to 15 % (w/v) NaCl] and alkaliphilic (growing at a broad pH range of 5-13). 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the
isolate belonged to the genus Bacillus, showing highest similarity to Bacillus macauensis JCM 13285(T) (98.0 %). However,
DNA-DNA hybridization indicated low levels of genomic relatedness with B. macauensis JCM 13285(T) (8.5 %). The major isoprenoid
quinone was MK-7 and the cellular fatty acid profile consisted of significant amounts of iso-C(15 : 0) (38.6 %) and anteiso-C(15 : 0)
(35.9 %). The predominant polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. The G+C
48
content of the genomic DNA was 41.8 mol%. On the basis of the polyphasic evidence from this study, strain YC1(T) (=KCTC
13181(T)=CGMCC 1.6854(T)) should be classified as the type strain of a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name
Bacillus solisalsi sp. nov. is proposed. PMID: 19502335 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
178. Bacillus songklensis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2013 Nov;63(Pt 11):4189-95. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.050682-0. Epub 2013 Jun 14. Bacillus songklensis sp. nov., isolated from soil. Kang H(1), Weerawongwiwat V, Kim JH, Sukhoom A, Kim W. Author information:
(1)Department of Microbiology, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. A Gram-stain-positive,
spore-forming, rod-shaped, motile, strictly aerobic bacterial strain, designated CAU 1033(T), was isolated from soil and its taxonomic
position was investigated using a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that
strain CAU 1033(T) formed a distinct lineage within the genus Bacillus and was most closely related to Bacillus drentensis KCTC
13025(T) (similarity 95.9 %). CAU 1033(T) contained MK-7 as the only isoprenoid quinone and iso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0 as the
major fatty acids. The cell wall peptidoglycan of strain CAU 1033(T) contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and the major whole-cell
sugars were arabinose, sucrose and ribose. The polar lipids were composed of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, two unidentified phospholipids, four unidentified aminophospholipids, an unidentified aminolipid, two unidentified glycolipids and another unidentified polar lipid. The DNA G+C content was 41.4 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic data and phylogenetic inference, strain CAU 1033(T) was classified as a representative of a novel species in the genus Bacillus for which the
name Bacillus songklensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CAU 1033(T) ( = KCTC 13881(T) = CCUG 61889(T)). PMID:
23771626 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]$$
179. Bacillus sonorensis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2001 Sep;51(Pt 5):1671-9. Bacillus sonorensis sp. nov., a close relative of Bacillus
licheniformis, isolated from soil in the Sonoran Desert, Arizona. Palmisano MM(1), Nakamura LK, Duncan KE, Istock CA, Cohan FM.
Author information: (1)Department of Biology, Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT 06459-0170, USA. Eight Bacillus strains isolated
from Sonoran Desert soil were shown to belong to a previously unidentified species, for which the name Bacillus sonorensis sp. nov.
is proposed. The type strain is strain L87-10T (= NRRL B-23154T). On the basis of phenotypic and genetic data, B. sonorensis is
most closely related to Bacillus licheniformis. B. sonorensis can be distinguished from B. licheniformis by salt tolerance, pigmentation,
multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, reassociation of genomic DNA and sequence differences in protein-coding genes and 16S rRNA.
PMID: 11594594 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
180. Bacillus subterraneus Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2002 May;52(Pt 3):869-74. Bacillus subterraneus sp. nov., an iron- and manganese-reducing bacterium from a deep subsurface Australian thermal aquifer. Kanso S(1), Greene AC, Patel BK. Author information:
(1)Microbial Research Discovery Unit, School of Biomolecular and Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Griffith University, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. A facultatively anaerobic bacterium, designated strain COOI3B(T) (= ATCC BAA 136T = DSM 13966T),
was isolated from the waters emitted by a bore well tapping the deep subterranean thermal waters of the Great Artesian Basin of
Australia. The cells were straight to slightly curved rods (0.5-0.8 x 2-25 microm) that occurred singly and rarely in pairs or in chains.
Strain COOI3B(T) was motile by peritrichous flagella. It stained gram-negative, but electron micrographs showed a
gram-positive-type cell wall. Spores were never observed and cells were heat-sensitive. Yeast extract at 0.02% (w/v) was required for
growth and could also be used as a sole carbon and energy source at concentrations higher than 0.1% (w/v). The strain utilized
amorphous iron(III), manganese(IV), nitrate, nitrite and fumarate as electron acceptors in the presence of yeast extract, glucose, sucrose, fructose, maltose, xylose, starch, glycerol, ethanol or lactate. Electron acceptors were not obligately required and growth was
better in the presence of nitrate than in its absence. Acid was not produced from growth on carbohydrates. Tryptophan deaminase,
H2S, arginine dihydrolase, lysine decarboxylase, beta-galactosidase, arabinosidase, glucuronidase, glucosaminidase, nitroanilidase,
xylosidase and ornithine decarboxylase were not produced. Starch and gelatin, but not casein, were hydrolysed. Aesculin and catalase, but not oxidase and urease, were produced. Strain COOI3B(T) grew optimally at temperatures between 37 and 40 degrees C
(the temperature growth range was 25-45 degrees C) and at pH 7.0-9.0 (the pH growth range was 6.0 to 9.5) with 5% (w/v) NaCl (the
NaCl concentration growth range was 0.9%, w/v). The DNA base composition was 43 +/- 1 mol % G+C. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that it was a member of the family Bacillaceae, Bacillus infernus and Bacillus firmus being the closest phylogenetic neighbours
(having a mean similarity value of 96%); hence, strain COOI3B(T) is designated as a novel species, Bacillus subterraneus sp. nov.
PMID: 12054251 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
181. Bacillus taeanensis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2006 Dec;56(Pt 12):2903-8. Bacillus taeanensis sp. nov., a halophilic Gram-positive
bacterium from a solar saltern in Korea. Lim JM(1), Jeon CO, Kim CJ. Author information: (1)Korea Research Institute of Bioscience
and Biotechnology, 52 Oeundong, Yusong, Daejeon 305-333, Republic of Korea. A halophilic bacterium, strain BH030017(T), showing optimum growth at 2-5 % (w/v) NaCl was isolated from solar-saltern sediment from the Tae-An area of Korea and was characterized taxonomically. The cells of strain BH030017(T) were Gram-positive, motile, short rods containing cell-wall peptidoglycan based
on meso-diaminopimelic acid. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C(15 : 0) and iso-C(15 : 0). The DNA G+C content was 36
mol% and the predominant lipoquinone was MK-7. The major cellular phospholipids were phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain BH030017(T)
formed a cluster with Bacillus clarkii DSM 8720(T) and Bacillus agaradhaerens DSM 8721(T) within the family Bacillaceae. 16S rRNA
49
182.
183.
184.
185.
gene sequence similarities with respect to closely related type strains were less than 95.1 %. On the basis of its phylogenetic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic properties, strain BH030017(T) represents a novel species within the genus Bacillus, for which the
name Bacillus taeanensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is BH030017(T) (=KCTC 3918(T)=DSM 16466(T)). PMID: 17158996
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus tequilensis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2006 Jul;56(Pt 7):1475-84. Bacillus tequilensis sp. nov., isolated from a 2000-year-old
Mexican shaft-tomb, is closely related to Bacillus subtilis. Gatson JW(1), Benz BF, Chandrasekaran C, Satomi M, Venkateswaran K,
Hart ME. Author information: (1)Department of Molecular Biology and Immunology, University of North Texas Health Science Center,
Fort Worth, TX 76107, USA. A Gram-positive, spore-forming bacillus was isolated from a sample taken from an approximately
2000-year-old shaft-tomb located in the Mexican state of Jalisco, near the city of Tequila. Tentative identification using conventional
biochemical analysis consistently identified the isolate as Bacillus subtilis. DNA isolated from the tomb isolate, strain 10b(T), and
closely related species was used to amplify a Bacillus-specific portion of the highly conserved 16S rRNA gene and an internal region
of the superoxide dismutase gene (sodA(int)). Trees derived from maximum-likelihood methods applied to the sodA(int) sequences
yielded non-zero branch lengths between strain 10b(T) and its closest relative, whereas a comparison of a Bacillus-specific 546 bp
amplicon of the 16S rRNA gene demonstrated 99 % similarity with B. subtilis. Although the 16S rRNA gene sequences of strain 10b(T)
and B. subtilis were 99 % similar, PFGE of NotI-digested DNA of strain 10b(T) revealed a restriction profile that was considerably different from those of B. subtilis and other closely related species. Whereas qualitative differences in whole-cell fatty acids were not
observed, significant quantitative differences were found to exist between strain 10b(T) and each of the other closely related Bacillus
species examined. In addition, DNA-DNA hybridization studies demonstrated that strain 10b(T) had a relatedness value of less than
70 % with B. subtilis and other closely related species. Evidence from the sodA(int) sequences, whole-cell fatty acid profiles and
PFGE analysis, together with results from DNA-DNA hybridization studies, justify the classification of strain 10b(T) as representing a
distinct species, for which the name Bacillus tequilensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 10b(T) (=ATCC BAA-819(T)=NCTC
13306(T)). PMID: 16825615 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus thaonhiensis Curr Microbiol. 2014 Aug;69(2):225. Using a new culture method for unculturable soil bacteria, we discovered
a novel species, NHI-38(T), from the forest soil of Kyonggi University campus, South Korea. It was a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, and
endospore-forming bacterial strain. It grew over a wide pH range (6.5-9.5), with an optimum range of pH 7-9, and in a wide range of
temperatures (15-60 °C), with an optimum range of 35-45 °C. Growth was possible at 0-2 % NaCl concentration, and the optimal
range was between 0.5 and 1.5 % NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that this new species
clustered within the genus Bacillus; it was closely related to "Bacillus abyssalis" SCSIO 15042(T) (98.86 %), B. methanolicus NCIMB
13113(T) (95.97 %), B. vietnamensis 15-1(T) (95.8 %), B. seohaeanensis BH724(T) (95.5 %), B. timonensis MM10403188(T)
(95.33 %), and B. subtilis subsp. subtilis NCIB 3610(T) (94.87 %). The main fatty acid components of this bacterium were iso-C15:0
(35.92 %), summed feature 3 (C16:1ω7c/C16:1ω6c; 16.92 %), and anteiso-C15:0 (14.19 %). The predominant quinone in this bacterial strain was MK-7. The polar lipid profile primarily comprised phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, and diphosphatidylglycerol. The genomic DNA G+C composition of the isolate was 40.7 mol%. The DNA-DNA hybridization results indicated that this
strain was distinct from other Bacillus species, the degree of similarity being 50 % with "B. abyssalis", 56 % with B. methanolicus, 47 %
with B. vietnamensis, 43 % with B. seohaeanensis, 46 % with B. timonensis, and 32 % with B. subtilis. Based on our results, we regard strain NHI-38(T) as a novel member of the Bacillus genus, and we propose the name Bacillus thaonhiensis (=KACC
17216(T) = KEMB 9005-019(T) = JCM 18863(T)). PMID: 23995763 [PubMed - in process]$$
Bacillus thermoamylovorans Int J Syst Bacteriol. 1995 Jan;45(1):9-16. Bacillus thermoamylovorans sp. nov., a moderately thermophilic and amylolytic bacterium. Combet-Blanc Y(1), Ollivier B, Streicher C, Patel BK, Dwivedi PP, Pot B, Prensier G, Garcia JL.
Author information: (1)Laboratoire de Microbiologie ORSTOM, Université de Provence, Marseille, France. A moderately thermophilic,
facultatively anaerobic, amylolytic bacterium was isolated from palm wine, a tropical alcoholic beverage that was sampled in Senegal.
The cells were gram positive, catalase positive, non-spore forming, rod shaped, and slightly motile with peritrichous flagella. The
strain which we examined did not possess cytochrome and produced L-(+)-lactate, acetate, ethanol, and formate but not hydrogen
during carbohydrate fermentation. Growth occurred at pH values ranging from 5.4 to 8.5, and optimum growth occurred at around pH
7.0. The optimum temperature for growth was around 50 degrees C, and the upper temperature limit for growth was 58 degrees C.
The guanine-plus-cytosine content of the DNA was 38.8 +/- 0.2 mol%. A sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene revealed that the
new organism is closely related phylogenetically to members of genus Bacillus. Despite the lack of spores, we propose that on the
basis of phylogenetic characteristics, the new isolate should be classified as a new Bacillus species, Bacillus thermoamylovorans.
The type strain is strain DKP (= Collection of Institut Pasteur CNCM I-1378). PMID: 7857812 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus thermocatenulatus Mikrobiologiia. 1975 Mar-Apr;44(2):265-8. [New species of thermophilic bacilli--Bacillus thermocatenulatus nov. sp]. [Article in Russian] Golovacheva RS, Loginova LG, Salikhov TA, Kolesnikov AA, Zaĭtseva GN. Detailed study of the obligate-thermophilic aerobic spore-forming bacterium, indentified earlier as Bacillus megaterium, allowed to describe it as a new species--Bacillus thermocatenulatus nov. sp. This organism is characterized by a high content of GC in DNA (69 mole percent). PMID:
1226140 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]。
50
186. Bacillus thermocopriae Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2013 Aug;63(Pt 8):3024-9. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.046953-0. Epub 2013 Feb 8. Bacillus
thermocopriae sp. nov., isolated from a compost. Han L(1), Yang G, Zhou X, Yang D, Hu P, Lu Q, Zhou S. Author information:
(1)Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environmental and Soil Science, Guangzhou 510650, PR China. A Gram-reaction-positive, facultatively anaerobic, motile, endospore-forming, rod-shaped strain, designated SgZ-7(T), was isolated from a windrow compost pile and
was characterized by means of a polyphasic approach. Growth occurred with 0-3 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 1 %), at pH 6.0-10.0 (optimum pH 7.2) and at 40-60 °C (optimum 50 °C). The main respiratory quinone was MK-7. The predominant polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol. The major fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0.
The DNA G+C content was 46.6 mol%. The phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons revealed that
strain SgZ-7(T) should be assigned to the genus Bacillus and was related most closely to Bacillus drentensis LMG 21831(T) (sequence similarity 97.2 %). The result of the DNA-DNA hybridization experiment revealed a low relatedness (27.2 %) between the
isolate and B. drentensis LMG 21831(T). The results of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic analyses clearly indicated that
strain SgZ-7(T) represents a novel species, for which the name Bacillus thermocopriae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is
SgZ-7(T) (= CCTCC AB 2012030(T) = KACC 16700(T)). PMID: 23396718 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
187. Bacillus thermodenitrificans Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2000 May;50 Pt 3:1331-7. Bacillus thermodenitrificans sp. nov., nom. rev.
Manachini PL(1), Mora D, Nicastro G, Parini C, Stackebrandt E, Pukall R, Fortina MG. Author information: (1)Department of Food
Science and Microbiology, University of Milan, Italy. A polyphasic study was performed on 10 soil isolates of thermophilic denitrifying
Bacillus strains from different geographical areas. The presence of two main characteristic bands following amplification of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rrn operons suggests a close relatedness to 'Bacillus thermodenitrificans'. The isolates cluster
around two strains of 'B. thermodenitrificans' in riboprint and fatty acid analyses, though differences occur at the strain level. Subsequent DNA-DNA reassociation studies including the 10 isolates, 'B. thermodenitrificans' DSM 465T and DSM 466, and Bacillus stearothermophilus ATCC 12980T and Bacillus thermoleovorans ATCC 43513T revealed such a high level of genomic relatedness between the isolates and the DSM strains (> 73% similarity) that they must be considered strains of the same taxon. The degree of
DNA-DNA similarity between the 12 strains of 'B. thermodenitrificans' and the type strains of the other two phylogenetically neighbouring Bacillus species was significantly lower (21-43% similarity). Based upon phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic evidence, the designation of B. thermodenitrificans sp. nov., nom. rev. is proposed. The type strain of B. thermodenitrificans is DSM
465T. PMID: 10843079 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
188. Bacillus thermoglucosidasius Syst Appl Microbiol. 1983;4(4):487-95. doi: 10.1016/S0723-2020(83)80006-X. Bacillus thermoglucosidasius sp. nov., a New Species of Obligately Thermophilic Bacilli. Suzuki Y(1), Kishigami T, Inoue K, Mizoguchi Y, Eto N, Takagi M,
Abe S. Author information: (1)Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Kyoto Prefectural University, Shimogamo, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606,
Japan. A group of 6 strains of obligately thermophilic spore-formers is described as a novel species named Bacillus thermoglucosidasius. The strains are strictly aerobic, neutrophilic, amylolytic, Gram-positive, azide sensitive, produce terminally swollen sporangia
and exo-oligo-1,6-glucosidase in large amounts. Strain KP 1006 (DSM 2542) is designated as the type strain. Growth occurs at temperatures from 42°C to 69°C with an optimum at 61-63°C, and at an initial pH of 6.5-8.5. The guanine + cytosine content of DNA, estimated by thermal DNA denaturation, is 45-46 mol%. Copyright © 1983 Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart/New York. Published by
Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved. PMID: 23194806 [PubMed]
189. Bacillus thermolactis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2011 Aug;61(Pt 8):1954-61. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.024240-0. Epub 2010 Sep 10. Bacillus
thermolactis sp. nov., isolated from dairy farms, and emended description of Bacillus thermoamylovorans. Coorevits A(1), Logan NA,
Dinsdale AE, Halket G, Scheldeman P, Heyndrickx M, Schumann P, Van Landschoot A, De Vos P. Author information: (1)Laboratory
of Biochemistry and Brewing, Faculty of Applied Engineering Sciences, University College Ghent, Schoonmeerstraat 52, 9000 Ghent,
Belgium. [email protected] A polyphasic taxonomic study was performed on 22 thermotolerant, aerobic, endospore-forming
bacteria from dairy environments. Seventeen isolates were retrieved from raw milk, one from a filter cloth and four from grass, straw
or milking equipment. These latter four isolates (R-6546, R-7499, R-7764 and R-7440) were identified as Bacillus thermoamylovorans
based on DNA-DNA hybridizations (values above 70 % with Bacillus thermoamylovorans LMG 18084(T)) but showed discrepancies
in characteristics with the original species description, so an emended description of this species is given. According to 16S rRNA
gene sequence analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization experiments, the remaining 18 isolates (R-6488(T), R-28193, R-6491, R-6492,
R-7336, R-33367, R-6486, R-6770, R-31288, R-28160, R-26358, R-7632, R-26955, R-26950, R-33520, R-6484, R-26954 and
R-7165) represented one single species, most closely related to Bacillus thermoamylovorans (93.9 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), for which the name Bacillus thermolactis is proposed. Cells were Gram-stain-positive, facultatively anaerobic, endospore-forming rods that grew optimally at 40-50 °C. The cell wall peptidoglycan type of strain R-6488(T), the proposed type strain,
was A1γ based on meso-diaminopimelic acid. Major fatty acids of the strains were C(16 : 0) (28.0 %), iso-C(16 : 0) (12.1 %) and
iso-C(15 : 0) (12.0 %). MK-7 was the predominant menaquinone, and major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and some unidentified phospholipids. DNA G+C content was 35.0 mol%. Phenotypic properties allowed discrimination from
other thermotolerant species of the genus Bacillus and supported the description of the novel species Bacillus thermolactis, with
strain R-6488(T) ( = LMG 25569(T) = DSM 23332(T)) as the proposed type strain. PMID: 20833876 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
51
190. Bacillus thermoleovorans Extremophiles. 2000 Dec;4(6):365-71. Isolation and characterization of lipid-degrading Bacillus thermoleovorans IHI-91 from an icelandic hot spring. Markossian S(1), Becker P, Märkl H, Antranikian G. Author information: (1)Institute
of Technical Microbiology, Technical University Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg, Germany. An efficient lipid-degrading thermophilic aerobic bacterium was isolated from an icelandic hot spring and classified as Bacillus thermoleovorans IHI-91. The aerobic bacterium
grows optimally at 65 degrees C and pH 6.0 and secretes a high level of lipase (300 Ul(-1)). The newly isolated strain utilizes several
lipids such as palmitic acid, stearic acid, lanolin, olive oil, sunflower seed oil, soya oil, and fish oil as sole carbon and energy source
without an additional supply of growth factors. The degradation of about 93% of triolein, which is present in olive oil, was observed
after only 7h of fermentation at a maximal growth rate of 1.0 h(-1). During growth at optimal conditions on yeast extract, the doubling
time was only 15 min. Based on 16S rDNA studies, DNA-DNA hybridization and morphological and physiological properties, the isolate IHI-91 was identified as Bacillus thermoleovorans IHI-91 sp. nov. Because of its production of high concentrations of thermoactive lipases and esterases and the capability of degrading a wide range of lipids at high temperatures, the isolated strain is an ideal
candidate for application in various biotechnological processes such as wastewater treatment. PMID: 11139079 [PubMed - indexed
for MEDLINE]
191. Bacillus thermophilum Tang J(1), Yang G, Wen J, Yu Z, Zhou S, Liu Z. Bacillus thermophilum sp. nov., isolated from a microbial fuel
cell. Arch Microbiol. 2014 Jun 8. [Epub ahead of print] Author information: (1)Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environmental and Soil
Sciences, Guangzhou, 510650, People's Republic of China. A novel thermophilic, Gram-staining positive bacterium, designated
DX-2(T), was isolated from the anode biofilm of a microbial fuel cell. Cells of the strain were oxidase positive, catalase positive, facultative anaerobic, motile rods. The isolate grew at 30-60 °C (optimum 50 °C) and pH 5-9 (optimum pH 8-8.5). The pairwise 16S
rRNA gene sequence similarities showed that strain DX-2(T) was most closely related to Bacillus fumarioli LMG 17489(T) (96.2 %), B.
firmus JCM 2512(T) (96.0 %) and B. foraminis DSM 19613(T) (95.7 %). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences
showed that strain DX-2(T) formed a cluster with B. smithii (95.5 %) and B. infernus (94.9 %). The genomic G+C content of DX-2(T)
was 43.7 mol%. The predominant respiratory quinone was MK-7. The polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and unknown phospholipids. The major cellular fatty acid was iso-C16:0. Based on its phenotypic
characteristics, chemotaxonomic features, and results of phylogenetic analysis, the strain was identified to represent a distinct novel
species in the genus Bacillus, and the name proposed is B. thermophilum sp. nov. The type strain is DX-2(T) (=CCTCC
AB2012194(T) = KCTC 33128(T)). PMID: 24908072 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
192. Bacillus thermotolerans Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2013 Oct;63(Pt 10):3672-8. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.048942-0. Epub 2013 Apr 26. Bacillus thermotolerans sp. nov., a thermophilic bacterium capable of reducing humus. Yang G(1), Zhou X, Zhou S, Yang D, Wang Y,
Wang D. Author information: (1)Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650, PR China. A novel thermotolerant bacterium, designated SgZ-8(T), was isolated from a compost sample. Cells were non-motile, endospore-forming,
Gram-staining positive, oxidase-negative and catalase-positive. The isolate was able to grow at 20-65 °C (optimum 50 °C) and pH
6.0-9.0 (optimum 6.5-7.0), and tolerate up to 9.0 % NaCl (w/v) under aerobic conditions. Anaerobic growth occurred with anthraquinone-2,6- disulphonate (AQDS), fumarate and NO3(-) as electron acceptors. Phylogenetic analysis based on the16S rRNA and gyrB
genes grouped strain SgZ-8(T) into the genus Bacillus, with the highest similarity to Bacillus badius JCM 12228(T) (96.2 % for 16S
rRNA gene sequence and 83.5 % for gyrB gene sequence) among all recognized species in the genus Bacillus. The G+C content of
the genomic DNA was 49.3 mol%. The major isoprenoid quinone was menaquinone 7 (MK-7) and the polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and an unidentified phospholipid. The major cellular fatty acid
was iso-C16 : 0. On the basis of its phenotypic and phylogenetic properties, chemotaxonomic analysis and the results of physiological
and biochemical tests, strain SgZ-8(T) ( = CCTCC AB 2012108(T) = KACC 16706(T)) was designated the type strain of a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus thermotolerans sp. nov. is proposed. PMID: 23625259 [PubMed - indexed for
MEDLINE]$$
193. Bacillus thiaminolyticus Int J Syst Bacteriol. 1990 Jul;40(3):242-6. Bacillus thiaminolyticus sp. nov., nom. rev. Nakamura LK. Author
information: Northern Regional Research Center, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Peoria, Illinois 61604. The name "Bacillus thiaminolyticus" Kuno 1951 was not included on the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names and has lost standing in bacteriological nomenclature. The genetic homogeneity of "Bacillus thiaminolyticus" was assessed by determining guanine-plus-cytosine contents by the
buoyant density method and by measuring DNA relatedness by using spectrophotometric reassociation procedures. Of the 26 strains
which I studied, 24 had guanine-plus-cytosine contents in the range from 52 to 54 mol%. The consistently high DNA relatedness values of 60 to 100% of these 24 strains to the type strain indicated that the "B. thiaminolyticus" group is genetically homogeneous. Low
DNA relatedness values of 20 to 31% showed that "B. thiaminolyticus" is genetically unrelated to Bacillus alvei, "Bacillus aneurinolyticus," "Bacillus apiarius," Bacillus larvae, Bacillus laterosporus, Bacillus macerans, and Bacillus stearothermophilus. In general, the
"B. thiaminolyticus" group was highly homogeneous for 49 phenotypic characteristics and clearly distinguishable from B. alvei, with
which it was allegedly synonymous. On the basis of these findings, revival of the name Bacillus thiaminolyticus is proposed. PMID:
2397192 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
194. Bacillus thioparus FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2007 Jun;271(2):289-96. Epub 2007 Apr 20. Isolation and characterization of Bacillus thi-
52
oparus sp. nov., chemolithoautotrophic, thiosulfate-oxidizing bacterium. Pérez-Ibarra BM(1), Flores ME, García-Varela M. Author information: (1)Doctorado en Ciencias Biológicas de la Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, México. [email protected] A novel bacterium, strain BMP-1(T), was isolated from a continuous wastewater treatment culture system operating with a bacterial consortium.
Cells of the isolate were Gram-variable, aerobic, moderately halotolerant, motile and endospore-forming rods. Strain BMP-1(T) grew
chemolithoautotrophically by oxidation of thiosulfate to sulfate with a growth yield of 1.07 g protein mol(-1) of thiosulfate consumed.
DNA G+C content was 43.8 mol%. Its cell wall had peptidoglycan based on m-diaminopimelic acid, and the major component of fatty
acid was C(15 : 0). The 16S rRNA gene analysis showed that strain belongs to the genus Bacillus, sharing a 99.5% of sequence similarity with Bacillus jeotgali CCM 7133(T). DNA-DNA hybridization between the isolate of this study and this strain was 44%. Thus, the
inclusion of strain BMP-1(T) in the genus Bacillus is suggested as a novel species and the name Bacillus thioparus sp. nov. (Type
strain BMP-1(T)=BM-B-436(T)=CECT 7196(T)) is proposed. The sequence of the 16S rRNA gene has been deposited in GenBank
with accession number DQ371431. PMID: 17451444 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
195. Bacillus tianmuensis FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2009 Jul;296(1):26-30. doi: 10.1111/j.1574- 6968.2009. 01610.x. Epub 2009 May 1. Bacillus tianmuensis sp. nov., isolated from soil in Tianmu Mountain national natural reserve, Hangzhou, China. Wen YP(1), Wu XC,
Qian CD, Zhao YH, Fang HH, Li O. Author information: (1)Institute of Microbiology, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University,
Hangzhou, China. In a project aiming to isolate strains with the ability to produce nonribosomal peptides, a gram-negative, endospore-forming, rod-shaped strain, designated B5(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected from Tianmu Mountain national natural
reserve in Hangzhou, China. Strain B5(T) contained meso-diaminopimelic acid in the cell wall peptidoglycan. The major cellular fatty
acids were anteiso-C(15:0) and iso-C(15:0). The DNA G+C content was 42.5 mol%. The phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA
gene sequence indicated that strain B5(T) fell within the genus Bacillus, with highest sequence similarity values to Bacillus barbaricus
DSM 14730(T) (96.4%) and Bacillus macauensis JCM 13285(T) (95.5%). The isolate, however, could be distinguished from Bacillus
strains with validly published names by low 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values, distinct phenotypic and chemotaxonomic
characteristics. On the basis of these polyphasic evidences, it is demonstrated that the isolate B5(T) represents a novel species of
the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus tianmuensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is B5(T) (=DSM 22111(T)=CGMCC
1.8879(T)). PMID: 19459975 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
196. Bacillus tianshenii Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2014 Jun;64(Pt 6):1998-2002. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.062224-0. Epub 2014 Mar 10. Bacillus
tianshenii sp. nov., isolated from a marine sediment sample. Jiang Z(1), Zhang DF(1), Khieu TN(2), Son CK(3), Zhang XM(1), Cheng
J(1), Tian XP(4), Zhang S(5), Li WJ(6). Author information: (1)Key Laboratory of Microbial Diversity in Southwest China, Ministry of
Education, and Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Bio-resources, Yunnan Institute of Microbiology, Yunnan University,
Kunming, 650091, PR China. (2)Key Laboratory of Microbial Diversity in Southwest China, Ministry of Education, and Laboratory for
Conservation and Utilization of Bio-resources, Yunnan Institute of Microbiology, Yunnan University, Kunming, 650091, PR China
School of Biotechnology and Food Technology, Hanoi University of Science and Technology, Vietnam. (3)School of Biotechnology
and Food Technology, Hanoi University of Science and Technology, Vietnam. (4)Key laboratory of Tropical Marine Bio-resources and
Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS); RNAM Center for Marine Microbiology, CAS; Guangdong Key laboratory of Marine
Materia Medica; South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, CAS, Guangzhou, 510301, PR China. (5)Key laboratory of Tropical Marine
Bio-resources and Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS); RNAM Center for Marine Microbiology, CAS; Guangdong Key laboratory of Marine Materia Medica; South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, CAS, Guangzhou, 510301, PR China [email protected]
[email protected] (6)Key Laboratory of Microbial Diversity in Southwest China, Ministry of Education, and Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Bio-resources, Yunnan Institute of Microbiology, Yunnan University, Kunming, 650091, PR China
[email protected] [email protected] A novel Gram-stain-positive, motile, catalase- and oxidase-positive, aerobic, endospore-forming, peritrichous, rod-shaped bacterium, designated YIM M13235(T), was isolated from a marine sediment sample collected from the South China Sea. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain YIM M13235(T)
belonged to the genus Bacillus. The strain grew optimally at 30 °C, pH 7.0 and in the presence of 2-4% (w/v) NaCl. meso-Diaminopimelic acid was present in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. Strain YIM M13235(T) exhibited a menaquinone system with MK-7,
and the major polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, four unknown phospholipids and one unknown glycolipid. The major fatty acids (>5%) were iso-C(15 : 0), anteiso-C(15 : 0), anteiso-C(17 : 0),
iso-C(17 : 1)ω10c and summed feature 4 (anteiso-C(17 : 1) and/or iso-C(17 : 1)). The genomic DNA G+C content was 42.1 mol%. The
DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain YIM M13235(T) and its close relatives (16S rRNA gene sequence similarities >97%) including Bacillus halmapalus DSM 8723(T), Bacillus horikoshii DSM 8719(T) and Bacillus zhanjiangensis JSM 099021(T) were 41%,
44% and 44%, respectively. On the basis of genotypic, phenotypic and DNA-DNA relatedness data, it is apparent that strain YIM
M13235(T) represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus tianshenii sp. nov. is proposed. The type
strain is YIM M13235(T) ( = DSM 25879(T) = KCTC 33044(T)). © 2014 IUMS. PMID: 24614848 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]$$
197. Bacillus timonensis Stand Genomic Sci. 2012 Jul 30;6(3):346-55. doi: 10.4056/sigs.2776064. Epub 2012 Jul 20. Non contiguous-finished genome sequence and description of Bacillus timonensis sp. nov. Kokcha S(1), Mishra AK, Lagier JC, Million M, Leroy Q,
Raoult D, Fournier PE. Author information: (1)Unité de Recherche sur les Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales Emergentes, UMR
53
198.
199.
200.
201.
CNRS 6236 - IRD 198, Faculté de médecine, Aix-Marseille Université Bacillus timonensis strain MM10403188(T) sp. nov. is the type
strain of a proposed new species within the genus Bacillus. This strain, whose genome is described here, was isolated from the fecal
flora of a healthy patient. B. timonensis is an aerobic Gram-negative rod shaped bacterium. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 4,632,049 bp long genome (1 chromosome but no plasmid) contains 4,610 protein-coding and 74 RNA genes, including 5 rRNA genes. PMCID: PMC3558959 PMID: 23408487 [PubMed]
Bacillus toyonensis Syst Appl Microbiol. 2013 Sep;36(6):383-91. doi: 10.1016/j.syapm.2013.04.008. Epub 2013 Jun 19. Description
of Bacillus toyonensis sp. nov., a novel species of the Bacillus cereus group, and pairwise genome comparisons of the species of the
group by means of ANI calculations. Jiménez G(1), Urdiain M, Cifuentes A, López-López A, Blanch AR, Tamames J, Kämpfer P,
Kolstø AB, Ramón D, Martínez JF, Codoñer FM, Rosselló-Móra R. Author information: (1)Rubinum SA, Avda de La Llana 123, 08191
Rubí, Catalonia, Spain. [email protected] Strain BCT-7112(T) was isolated in 1966 in Japan from a survey designed to obtain
naturally occurring microorganisms as pure cultures in the laboratory for use as probiotics in animal nutrition. This strain, which was
primarily identified as Bacillus cereus var toyoi, has been in use for more than 30 years as the active ingredient of the preparation
TOYOCERIN(®), an additive for use in animal nutrition (e.g. swine, poultry, cattle, rabbits and aquaculture). Despite the fact that the
strain was initially classified as B. cereus, it showed significant genomic differences from the type strains of the B. cereus group that
were large enough (ANI values below 92%) to allow it to be considered as a different species within the group. The polyphasic taxonomic study presented here provides sufficient discriminative parameters to classify BCT-7112(T) as a new species for which the
name Bacillus toyonensis sp. nov. is proposed, with BCT-7112(T) (=CECT 876(T); =NCIMB 14858(T)) being designated as the type
strain. In addition, a pairwise comparison between the available genomes of the whole B. cereus group by means of average nucleotide identity (ANI) calculations indicated that besides the eight classified species (including B. toyonensis), additional genomospecies
could be detected, and most of them also had ANI values below 94%. ANI values were on the borderline of a species definition only
in the cases of representatives of B. cereus versus B. thuringiensis, and B. mycoides and B. weihenstephanensis. Copyright © 2013
Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved. PMID: 23791203 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]$$
Bacillus trypoxylicola Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2010 Jan;60(Pt 1):61-6. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.005843-0. Epub 2009 Jul 31. Bacillus
trypoxylicola sp. nov., xylanase-producing alkaliphilic bacteria isolated from the guts of Japanese horned beetle larvae (Trypoxylus
dichotomus septentrionalis). Aizawa T(1), Urai M, Iwabuchi N, Nakajima M, Sunairi M. Author information: (1)Department of Applied
Biological Sciences, College of Bioresource Sciences, Nihon University, 1866 Kameino, Fujisawa, Kanagawa 252-8510, Japan.
Three xylanase-producing alkaliphilic strains, SU1(T), 36AC4 and 36AC6, were isolated from the guts of larvae of the Japanese
horned beetle (Trypoxylus dichotomus septentrionalis). The isolates stained Gram-positive and were aerobic, spore-forming,
non-motile and rod-shaped and grew optimally at 30 degrees C and pH 9. They contained MK-7 as the major isoprenoid quinone and
iso-C(15 : 0), anteiso-C(15 : 0), anteiso-C(17 : 0) and iso-C(17 : 0) as the major fatty acids. The DNA G+C contents of the strains
were 37.4-37.7 mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, these strains were shown to belong to the genus Bacillus.
Although their 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to the type strains of the alkaliphilic species Bacillus pseudalcaliphilus and B. alcalophilus was 97 %, the novel isolates formed a distinct group in the phylogenetic trees and DNA-DNA relatedness values to the
type strains of these species were less than 30 %. Results of physiological and biochemical tests, including salt preference, enabled
these strains to be differentiated phenotypically from described Bacillus species. Therefore, strains SU1(T), 36AC4 and 36AC6 represent a novel species for which the name Bacillus trypoxylicola sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is SU1(T) (=NBRC 102646(T)
=KCTC 13244(T)). PMID: 19648346 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus vallismortis Int J Syst Bacteriol. 1996 Apr;46(2):470-5. Bacillus vallismortis sp. nov., a close relative of Bacillus subtilis,
isolated from soil in Death Valley, California. Roberts MS(1), Nakamura LK, Cohan FM. Author information: (1)Center for Microbial
Ecology, Michigan State University, East Lansing 48824-1101, USA. Five Bacillus strains isolated from Death Valley soil were shown
to belong to a previously unidentified species, for which we propose the name Bacillus vallismortis. The type strain is strain DV1-F-3
(= NRRL B-14890). On the basis of previously published restriction digestion data, B. vallismortis is most closely related to Bacillus
subtilis. At this time B. vallismortis can be distinguished from B. subtilis only by differences in whole-cell fatty acid compositions, DNA
sequences, and levels of reassociation of genomic DNA. PMID: 8934905 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus velezensis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2005 Jan;55(Pt 1):191-5. Bacillus velezensis sp. nov., a surfactant-producing bacterium isolated from the river Vélez in Málaga, southern Spain. Ruiz-García C(1), Béjar V, Martínez-Checa F, Llamas I, Quesada E.
Author information: (1)Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Campus Universitario de Cartuja, University of Granada,
18071 Granada, Spain. Two Gram-positive, endospore-forming bacterial strains, CR-502T and CR-14b, which produce surfactant
molecules are described. Phenotypic tests and phylogenetic analyses showed these strains to be members of the genus Bacillus and
related to the species Bacillus atrophaeus, Bacillus mojavensis, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus vallismortis and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens,
although they differ from these species in a number of phenotypic characteristics. DNA-DNA hybridization confirmed that they show
less than 20 % hybridization with the above-mentioned species and therefore represent a novel species of Bacillus. The DNA G+C
content is 46.4 mol% in strain CR-502T and 46.1 mol% in strain CR-14b. The main fatty acids in strain CR-502T are 15 : 0 anteiso
(32.70 %), 15 : 0 iso (29.86 %) and 16 : 0 (13.41 %). The main quinone in strain CR-502T is MK-7 (96.6 %). In the light of the poly-
54
202.
203.
204.
205.
206.
phasic evidence gathered in this study, it is proposed that these strains be classified as a novel species of the genus Bacillus, with
the name Bacillus velezensis sp. nov. The type strain (CR-502T=CECT 5686T=LMG 22478T) was isolated from a brackish water
sample taken from the river Vélez at Torredelmar in Málaga, southern Spain. PMID: 15653875 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus vietnamensis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2004 Nov;54(Pt 6):2117-20. Bacillus vietnamensis sp. nov., a moderately halotolerant, aerobic, endospore-forming bacterium isolated from Vietnamese fish sauce. Noguchi H(1), Uchino M, Shida O, Takano K,
Nakamura LK, Komagata K. Author information: (1)Department of Applied Biology and Chemistry, Faculty of Applied Bioscience, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Sakuragaoka 1-1-1, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8502, Japan. Erratum in Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2005
Jan;55(Pt 1):545. Five strains of Gram-positive, endospore-forming, moderately halotolerant bacteria were studied taxonomically.
Four were isolated from Vietnamese fish sauce and one from the Gulf of Mexico. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene
sequences showed that these strains clustered within the radiation of the genus Bacillus but separately from recognized Bacillus
species. DNA G+C composition of the isolates ranged from 43 to 44 mol%. Strains 15-1(T) and NRRL B-14850 showed high levels of
DNA-DNA relatedness (82-100 %) to each other and to the other strains isolated here; they displayed low levels of DNA-DNA relatedness (<29 %) to the type strains of selected recognized Bacillus species. They grew in 15 % NaCl and optimally in 1 % NaCl,
which is characteristic of moderately halotolerant bacteria. The isolates grew at pH 6.5 to 10.0 but not at pH 6.0. Their cell walls contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. The major isoprenoid quinone was MK-7 and the principal cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C(15 :
0), iso-C(15 : 0) and anteiso-C(17 : 0). Based on these results, the strains tested were regarded as members of a novel Bacillus species for which the name Bacillus vietnamensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 15-1(T) (=JCM 11124(T)=NRIC 0531(T)=NRRL
23890(T)). PMID: 15545444 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus vulcani Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2000 Nov;50 Pt 6:2009-12. Bacillus vulcani sp. nov., a novel thermophilic species isolated
from a shallow marine hydrothermal vent. Caccamo D(1), Gugliandolo C, Stackebrandt E, Maugeri TL. Author information:
(1)Dipartimento di Biologia Animale ed Ecologia Marina, Università Messina, Italy. A thermophilic spore-forming bacterium was isolated from sediment of a shallow hydrothermal vent at Vulcano Island (Italy). After phenotypic and molecular analyses, it was identified as a novel Bacillus species, for which the name Bacillus vulcani is proposed. The type strain is strain 3s-1T (= DSM 13174T =
CIP 106305T). PMID: 11155974 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus wakoensis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2005 Nov;55(Pt 6):2309-15. Characterization of alkaliphilic Bacillus strains used in
industry: proposal of five novel species. Nogi Y(1), Takami H, Horikoshi K. Author information: (1)Extremobiosphere Research Center,
Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, 2-15 Natsushima-cho, Yokosuka 237-0061, Japan. [email protected]
Twenty alkaliphilic bacterial strains from industrial applications or enzyme studies were subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic investigation, including 16S rRNA gene sequencing, determination of genomic DNA G+C content, DNA-DNA hybridization, fatty acid analysis and standard bacteriological characterization. By comparing the groupings obtained based on the genomic DNA G+C content and
the construction of a phylogenetic tree based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence, 12 clusters of similar strains were recognized.
DNA-DNA hybridization revealed that these clusters represented five novel genospecies. Further analysis supported the proposal of
five novel species in the genus Bacillus: Bacillus wakoensis sp. nov. (type strain N-1T=JCM 9140T=DSM 2521T), Bacillus hemicellulosilyticus sp. nov. (type strain C-11T=JCM 9152T=DSM 16731T), Bacillus cellulosilyticus sp. nov. (type strain N-4T=JCM
9156T=DSM 2522T), Bacillus akibai sp. nov. (type strain 1139T=JCM 9157T=ATCC 43226T) and Bacillus mannanilyticus sp. nov.
(type strain AM-001T=JCM 10596T=DSM 16130T). PMID: 16280488 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus weihenstephanensis Int J Syst Bacteriol. 1998 Oct;48 Pt 4:1373-82. Bacillus weihenstephanensis sp. nov. is a new psychrotolerant species of the Bacillus cereus group. Lechner S(1), Mayr R, Francis KP, Prüss BM, Kaplan T, Wiessner-Gunkel E, Stewart GS, Scherer S. Author information: (1)Institut für Mikrobiologie, Technische Universität München, Germany. The Bacillus cereus
group comprises the four valid species Bacillus cereus, Bacillus mycoides, Bacillus thuringiensis and bacillus anthracis. Some isolates of B. cereus are known to be psychrotolerant (growth at 7 degrees C or below). Here, specific sequence differences are described between the 16S rDNA, the 23S rDNA, the 16S-23S rDNA spacer region and the genes of the major cold-shock protein homologue cspA in a variety of psychrotolerant and mesophilic B. cereus and B. mycoides strains. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA
analysis using three different primers clearly separated psychrotolerant strains of both species from the rest of the B. cereus group,
as did inverse PCR patterns of the rDNA operons. These data strongly support a hitherto unrecognized fifth sub-group within the B.
cereus species group comprising psychrotolerant, but not mesophilic, B. cereus strains. Despite the latter finding, the DNA sequences investigated exhibited a high degree of sequence similarity indicating a close relationship between the species of the B. cereus
group. Considering the unusual importance of B. cereus in both food poisoning and food spoilage and to avoid merging all species of
the group, a new species, Bacillus weihenstephanensis sp. nov., comprising psychrotolerant 'cereus' strains, is proposed. Isolates of
the new species grow at 4-7 degrees C but not at 43 degrees C and can be identified rapidly using rDNA or cspA targeted PCR. The
type strain is B. weihenstephanensis WSBC 10204T (= DSM 11821T). PMID: 9828439 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Bacillus xiamenensis Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2014 Jan;105(1):99-107. doi: 10.1007/s 10482- 013-0057-4. Epub 2013 Oct 25.
Bacillus xiamenensis sp. nov., isolated from intestinal tract contents of a flathead mullet (Mugil cephalus). Lai Q(1), Liu Y, Shao Z.
Author information: (1)State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Marine Genetic Resources, Key Laboratory of Marine Genetic Re-
55
sources, Third Institute of Oceanography, SOA, Key Laboratory of Marine Genetic Resources of Fujian Province, Xiamen, 361005,
China. A taxonomic study was carried out on strain HYC-10(T), which was isolated from the intestinal tract contents of a flathead
mullet, Mugil cephalus, captured from the sea off Xiamen Island, China. The bacterium was observed to be Gram positive, oxidase
and catalase positive, rod shaped, and motile by subpolar flagella. The bacterium was found to grow at salinities of 0-12 % and at
temperatures of 8-45 °C. The isolate was found to hydrolyze aesculin and gelatin, but was unable to reduce nitrate to nitrite. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain HYC-10(T) belongs to the genus Bacillus, with highest
sequence similarity (99.3 %) to Bacillus aerophilus 28K(T), Bacillus stratosphericus 41KF2a(T) and Bacillus altitudinis DSM 21631(T),
followed by Bacillus safensis DSM 19292(T) (99.5 %) and Bacillus pumilus DSM 27(T) (99.5 %), while the sequence similarities to
others were all below 97.6 %. The genomic ANIm values between strain HYC-10(T) and three type strains (B. altitudinis DSM
21631(T), B. safensis DSM 19292(T) and B. pumilus DSM 27(T)) were determined to range from 89.11 to 91.53 %. The DNA-DNA
hybridization estimate values between strain HYC-10(T) and the three type strains were from 36.60 to 44.00 %. The principal fatty
acids identified were iso-C15:0 (39.1 %), anteiso-C15:0 (22.7 %), iso-C17:0 (13.1 %), C16:0 (6.1 %), anteiso-C17:0 (5.8 %) and
iso-C16:0 (5.1 %). The G+C content of the chromosomal DNA was determined from the draft genome sequence to be 41.3 mol%.
The respiratory quinone was determined to be MK-7 (100 %). Phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, aminoglycolipid, two glycolipids and two unknown phospholipids were found to be present. The combined genotypic and phenotypic data show that strain
HYC-10(T) represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus xiamenensis sp. nov. is proposed, with the
type strain HYC-10(T) (=CGMCC NO.1.12326(T) = LMG 27143(T) = MCCC 1A00008(T)). PMID: 24158533 [PubMed - in process]$$
207. Bacillus xiaoxiensis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2011 Sep;61(Pt 9):2095-100. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.026286-0. Epub 2010 Sep 24. Bacillus
xiaoxiensis sp. nov., a slightly halophilic bacterium isolated from non-saline forest soil. Chen YG(1), Zhang YQ, Chen QH, Klenk HP,
He JW, Tang SK, Cui XL, Li WJ. Author information: (1)Key Laboratory of Ecotourism's Application Technology of Hunan Province,
College of Biology and Environmental Sciences, Jishou University, Jishou 416000, PR China. [email protected] A novel
Gram-stain-positive, slightly halophilic, catalase-positive, oxidase-negative, endospore-forming, motile, facultatively anaerobic,
rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain JSM 081004(T), was isolated from non-saline forest soil in Xiaoxi National Natural Reserve,
China. Growth occurred with 0.5-20 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 2-4 %), at pH 6.0-10.5 (optimum pH 8.0) and at 5-40 °C (optimum
25-30 °C). meso-Diaminopimelic acid was present in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C₁₅:₀ and
anteiso-C₁₅:₀. Strain JSM 081004(T) contained MK-7 as the predominant respiratory quinone, and diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol as the major polar lipids. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain JSM 081004(T) was
40.1 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons revealed that strain JSM 081004(T) should be
assigned to the genus Bacillus and was most closely related to the type strains of Bacillus lehensis (sequence similarity 97.8 %), Bacillus oshimensis (97.8 %) and Bacillus patagoniensis (97.3 %). Phylogenetic analysis, DNA-DNA relatedness values, phenotypic
characteristics and chemotaxonomic data all support the proposal of strain JSM 081004(T) as a representative of a novel species of
the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus xiaoxiensis sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is JSM 081004(T) ( = CCTCC AA
208057(T) = DSM 21943(T)). PMID: 20870888 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
208. Bacillus zhanjiangensis Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2011 Mar;99(3):473-80. doi: 10.1007/s10482-010-9510-9. Epub 2010 Sep 24.
Bacillus zhanjiangensis sp. nov., isolated from an oyster in South China Sea. Chen YG(1), Hu SP, Tang SK, He JW, Xiao JQ, Zhu HY,
Li WJ. Author information: (1)Key Laboratory of Ecotourism's Application Technology of Hunan Province, College of Biology and Environmental Sciences, Jishou University, Jishou 416000, People's Republic of China. A novel Gram-stain-positive, motile, catalaseand oxidase-positive, endospore-forming, aerobic, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain JSM 099021(T), was isolated from an
oyster collected from Naozhou Island in the South China Sea. Growth occurred with 0-15% (w/v) NaCl (optimum 2-4%) and at pH
6.0-10.0 (optimum pH 7.5) and at 10-45°C (optimum 30-35°C). meso-Diaminopimelic acid was present in the cell-wall peptidoglycan.
The predominant respiratory quinone was menaquinone 7 (MK-7) and the major polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol,
phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15:0, anteiso-C17:0, iso-C15:0 and
iso-C16:0. The genomic DNA G + C content was 39.5 mol%. A phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated
that strain JSM 099021(T) belongs to the genus Bacillus, and was most closely related to the type strains of Bacillus halmapalus
(sequence similarity 99.0%), Bacillus horikoshii (98.4%) and Bacillus cohnii (98.0%). The combination of phylogenetic analysis,
DNA-DNA hybridization, phenotypic characteristics and chemotaxonomic data supported the proposal that strain JSM 099021(T)
represents a new species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus zhanjiangensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain was
JSM 099021(T) (=DSM 23010(T) = KCTC 13713(T)). PMID: 20865333 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
56
第六节
Brevibacillus
209. Brevibacillus invocatus Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2002 May;52(Pt 3):953-66. Polyphasic identification of Bacillus and Brevibacillus
strains from clinical, dairy and industrial specimens and proposal of Brevibacillus invocatus sp. nov.. Logan NA(1), Forsyth G, Lebbe
L, Goris J, Heyndrickx M, Balcaen A, Verhelst A, Falsen E, Ljungh A, Hansson HB, De Vos P. Author information: (1)School of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Glasgow Caledonian University, UK. [email protected] Thirty-three clinical, dairy and industrial
isolates of aerobic endospore-forming bacteria which were unreactive in routine identification tests were characterized genotypically
by using amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA), 16S rDNA sequencing and DNA-DNA reassociation, and phenotypically by
using fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis, SDS-PAGE of whole-cell proteins, API Biotype 100 assimilation tests and 16 other routine phenotypic tests. Three isolates were identified as strains of Bacillus badius, 12 as Brevibacillus agri, including 3 strains associated with an outbreak of waterborne illness, 4 as Brevibacillus centrosporus and 2 as Brevibacillus parabrevis; 12 strains contaminating an antibiotic production plant were recognized as members of a new species, for which the name Brevibacillus invocatus is
proposed, with the type strain LMG 18962T (= B2156T = CIP 106911T = NCIMB 13772T). PMID: 12054263 [PubMed - indexed for
MEDLINE]
第七节
Caldalkalibacillus
210. Caldalkalibacillus thermarum Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2006 Jun;56(Pt 6):1217-21. Caldalkalibacillus thermarum gen. nov., sp. nov.,
a novel alkalithermophilic bacterium from a hot spring in China. Xue Y(1), Zhang X, Zhou C, Zhao Y, Cowan DA, Heaphy S, Grant
WD, Jones BE, Ventosa A, Ma Y. Author information: (1)State Key laboratory of Microbial Resources, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People's Republic of China. A thermophilic, alkaliphilic and catalase-positive bacterium, designated strain HA6(T), was isolated from a hot spring in China. The strain was aerobic and chemo-organotrophic and grew optimally at
60 degrees C, pH 8.5 and 1.5 % (w/v) NaCl. The cells were Gram-positive rods, forming single terminal endospores. The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C(15 : 0) and iso-C(17 : 0). The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. The
genomic DNA G+C content was 45.2 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain
HA6(T) formed a distinct lineage within the family Bacillaceae and was most closely related to Bacillus horti K13(T) and Bacillus
smithii DSM 4216(T), with sequence similarities of 91.8 and 93.1 %, respectively. On the basis of its physiological and molecular
properties, strain HA6(T) should be placed in a novel genus and species, for which the name Caldalkalibacillus thermarum gen. nov.,
sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Caldalkalibacillus thermarum is strain HA6(T) (=CGMCC 1.4242(T)=JCM 13486(T)). PMID:
16738094 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
第八节
Caldibacillus
211. Caldibacillus debilis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2012 Jul;62(Pt 7):1470-85. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.030346-0. Epub 2011 Aug 19. Taxonomic revision of the genus Geobacillus: emendation of Geobacillus, G. stearothermophilus, G. jurassicus, G. toebii, G. thermodenitrificans and G. thermoglucosidans (nom. corrig., formerly 'thermoglucosidasius'); transfer of Bacillus thermantarcticus to the genus
as G. thermantarcticus comb. nov.; proposal of Caldibacillus debilis gen. nov., comb. nov.; transfer of G. tepidamans to Anoxybacillus
as A. tepidamans comb. nov.; and proposal of Anoxybacillus caldiproteolyticus sp. nov. Coorevits A(1), Dinsdale AE, Halket G, Lebbe
L, De Vos P, Van Landschoot A, Logan NA. Author information: (1)Department of Applied Engineering Sciences, University College
Ghent, Ghent, Belgium. [email protected] Sixty-two strains of thermophilic aerobic endospore-forming bacteria were subjected
to polyphasic taxonomic study including 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, polar lipid and fatty acid analysis, phenotypic characterization, and DNA-DNA hybridization experiments. Distinct clusters of the species Geobacillus stearothermophilus, Geobacillus thermodenitrificans, Geobacillus toebii and Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius were formed, allowing their descriptions to be emended,
and the distinctiveness of the poorly represented species Geobacillus jurassicus, Geobacillus subterraneus and Geobacillus caldoxylosilyticus was confirmed. It is proposed that the name Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius be corrected to Geobacillus thermogluco-
57
sidans nom. corrig. Bacillus thermantarcticus clustered between Geobacillus species on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and its transfer to the genus Geobacillus as Geobacillus thermantarcticus comb. nov. (type strain LMG 23032(T)=DSM
9572(T)=strain M1(T)=R-35644(T)) is proposed. The above-mentioned species, together with Geobacillus thermoleovorans and Geobacillus thermocatenulatus, form a monophyletic cluster representing the genus Geobacillus. The distinctiveness of 'Geobacillus
caldoproteolyticus' was confirmed and it is proposed that it be accommodated, along with Geobacillus tepidamans, in the genus Anoxybacillus as Anoxybacillus caldiproteolyticus sp. nov. (type strain DSM 15730(T)=ATCC BAA-818(T)=LMG 26209(T)=R-35652(T))
and Anoxybacillus tepidamans comb. nov. (type strain LMG 26208(T)=ATCC BAA-942(T)=DSM 16325(T)=R-35643(T)), respectively.
The type strain of Geobacillus debilis was not closely related to any members of the genera Anoxybacillus and Geobacillus, and it is
proposed that this species be placed in the new genus Caldibacillus as Caldibacillus debilis gen. nov. comb. nov. The type strain of
the type species, Caldibacillus debilis, is LMG 23386(T) (=DSM 16016(T)=NCIMB 13995(T)=Tf(T)=R-35653(T)). PMID: 21856988
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
第九节
Cerasibacillus
212. Cerasibacillus quisquiliarum Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2004 Jul;54(Pt 4):1063-9. Cerasibacillus quisquiliarum gen. nov., sp. nov.,
isolated from a semi-continuous decomposing system of kitchen refuse. Nakamura K(1), Haruta S, Ueno S, Ishii M, Yokota A, Igarashi Y. Author information: (1)Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Yayoi 1-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657, Japan. [email protected] A moderately thermophilic and alkaliphilic bacillus,
which had been reported and designated BLx (Haruta et al., 2002), was isolated from a semi-continuous decomposing system of
kitchen refuse. Cells of strain BLxT were strictly aerobic, rod-shaped, motile and spore forming. The optimum temperature and pH for
growth were approximately 50 degrees C and pH 8-9. Strain BLxT was able to grow at NaCl concentrations from 0.5 to 7.5%, with
optimum growth at 0.5% NaCl. The predominant menaquinone was MK-7, and the major fatty acid was iso-C(15 : 0). Phylogenetic
analysis showed that strain BLxT was positioned in an independent lineage within the cluster that includes the genera Virgibacillus
and Lentibacillus in Bacillus rRNA group 1. Strain BLxT exhibited 16S rDNA similarity of 92.8-94.8% to Virgibacillus species and 92.3%
to Lentibacillus salicampi. Phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analyses supported the classification of strain BLxT in a
novel genus and species. Cerasibacillus quisquiliarum gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed on the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic
and phylogenetic data. The type strain is BLxT (DSM 15825T=IAM15044T=KCTC 3815T). PMID: 15280270 [PubMed - indexed for
MEDLINE]
第十节
Domibacillus
213. Domibacillus robiginosus Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2013 Jun;63(Pt 6):2054-61. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.044396-0. Epub 2012 Oct 12.
Domibacillus robiginosus gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from a pharmaceutical clean room. Seiler H(1), Wenning M, Scherer S. Author
information: (1)Department of Microbiology (ZIEL), Technische Universität München, Weihenstephaner Berg 3, D-85350 Freising,
Germany. [email protected] A novel red-pigmented bacterial strain, designated WS 4628(T), was isolated from a pharmaceutical clean room of a vaccine-producing company and was investigated in a taxonomic study using a polyphasic approach. The
strain was Gram-stain-positive, strictly aerobic, motile, catalase-positive and produced spherical to slightly ellipsoidal endospores in
rods. The genomic DNA G+C content was 44.1 mol%. The major fatty acids were anteiso-C15:0, iso-C15:0 and anteiso-C17:0 and
the predominant quinone was MK-6. The polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, an unidentified phosphoglycolipid and an unidentified phospholipid. meso-diaminopimelic acid (type A1γ) was present in the cell-wall peptidoglycan and
the major whole-cell sugars were glucose and ribose. The closest phylogenetic neighbours were identified as Bacillus badius ATCC
14574(T) (95.8% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Bacillus indicus Sd/3(T) (94.8%), Jeotgalibacillus alimentarius YKJ-13(T)
(94.8%) and Bacillus cibi JG-30(T) (94.8%). Phylogenetic, physiological, biochemical and morphological differences between strain
WS 4628(T) and its closest relatives in the families Bacillaceae and Planococcaceae suggest that this strain represents a novel species in a new genus in the family Bacillaceae for which the name Domibacillus robiginosus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed; the type
strain of the type species is WS 4628(T) (=DSM 25058(T)=LMG 26645(T)). PMID: 23064349 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
58
第十一节
Edaphobacillus
214. Edaphobacillus lindanitolerans Basic Microbiol. 2013 Sep;53(9):758-65. doi: 10.1002/jobm.201200150. Epub 2013 Jan 15.
Edaphobacillus lindanitolerans gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) contaminated soil. Lal D(1), Khan F,
Gupta SK, Schumann P, Lal R. Author information: (1)Department of Zoology, Molecular Biology Laboratory, University of Delhi, Delhi,
India. A Gram-staining-positive, aerobic, cocco-bacilli-shaped, non-motile, non-spore forming, cream colored strain bacterium (strain
MNA4(T) ) was isolated from hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) contaminated soil. Strain MNA4(T) showed the highest 16S rRNA gene
sequence similarity of 97.47% with type species of the newly defined genus Bhargavaea cecembensis. Phylogenetic analysis based
on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain MNA4(T) belonged to a clade represented by Bhargavaea cecembensis, Bacillus
beijingensis and Bacillus ginsengi. DNA-DNA hybridization values of the strain MNA4(T) with close relatives were well below the 70%
threshold value recommended for delineation of species. The major fatty acids were anteiso C15:0 , anteiso C17:0 , iso C16:0 and
iso C15:0 . The strain was found to contain respiratory quinones MK-8, MK-9 and MK-7 in an approximate molar ratio of 85:7:5. Polar
lipid profile consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and two unknown phospholipids. The DNA G + C content was
55.6 mol%. Peptidoglycan type was A4α (L-Lys - L-Ala - D-Asp). Phylogenetic analysis, fatty acids profile, phenotypic properties and
chemotaxonomic data of strain MNA4(T) indicated that it represents a novel species of a novel genus for which the name Edaphobacillus lindanitolerans gen. nov., sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is MNA4(T) (=CCM 7584(T) = DSM 22424(T) ). © 2013
WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. PMID: 23322487 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
第十二节
Fictibacillus
215. Fictibacillus phosphorivorans Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2013 Aug;63(Pt 8):2934-44. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.049171-0. Epub 2013 Jan 25.
Fictibacillus phosphorivorans gen. nov., sp. nov. and proposal to reclassify Bacillus arsenicus, Bacillus barbaricus, Bacillus macauensis, Bacillus nanhaiensis, Bacillus rigui, Bacillus solisalsi and Bacillus gelatini in the genus Fictibacillus. Glaeser SP(1), Dott W, Busse
HJ, Kämpfer P. Author information: (1)Institut für Angewandte Mikrobiologie, Justus-Liebig-Universität Giessen, D-35392 Giessen,
Germany. Erratum in Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2013 Oct;63(Pt 10):3930. A Gram-positive-staining, aerobic, endospore-forming bacterium (Ca7(T)) was isolated from a bioreactor showing extensive phosphorus removal. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity
comparisons, strain Ca7(T) was grouped in the genus Bacillus, most closely related to Bacillus nanhaiensis JSM 082006(T) (100 %),
Bacillus barbaricus V2-BIII-A2(T) (99.2 %) and Bacillus arsenicus Con a/3(T) (97.7 %). Moderate 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities were found to the type strains of the species Bacillus gelatini and Bacillus rigui (96.4 %), Bacillus macauensis (95.1 %) and Bacillus solisalsi (96.1 %). All these species were grouped into a monophyletic cluster and showed very low sequence similarities
(<94 %) to the type species of the genus Bacillus, Bacillus subtilis. The quinone system of strain Ca7(T) consists predominantly of
menaquinone MK-7. The polar lipid profile exhibited the major compounds diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. In addition, minor compounds of an unidentified phospholipid and an aminophospholipid were detected. No glycolipids were found in strain Ca7(T), which was consistent with the lipid profiles of B. nanhaiensis, B. barbaricus, B. arsenicus, B. rigui,
B. solisalsi, B. macauensis and B. gelatini, but in contrast to B. subtilis. The diagnostic diamino acid of the peptidoglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid and the polyamine pattern contained predominantly spermidine and spermine. The major fatty acids, which
were iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0 and C16 : 0, supported the grouping of strain Ca7(T) in the family Bacillaceae. The strain showed
DNA-DNA similarities of 48 % (reciprocal 47 %) to B. nanhaiensis DSM 23009(T), 31 % (reciprocal 36 %) to B. barbaricus
V2-BIII-A2(T) and 29 % (reciprocal 39 %) to B. arsenicus DSM 15822(T), respectively. These results clearly demonstrate that strain
Ca7(T) is a representative of a novel species, which can be differentiated from its closest relatives by physiological and biochemical
tests. Because of the low sequence similarity of strain Ca7(T) to B. subtilis, which was shared by B. nanhaiensis, B. barbaricus, B.
arsenicus, B. gelatini, B. rigui, B. solisalsi and B. macauensis, and their unique lipid patterns, we propose that strain Ca7(T) represents a novel species in a novel genus for which the name Fictibacillus phosphorivorans gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type
strain is Ca7(T) (= CCM 8426(T) = LMG 27063(T)). In addition we propose the reclassification of B. nanhaiensis, B. barbaricus, B.
arsenicus, B. rigui, B. macauensis, B. solisalsi and B. gelatini as Fictibacillus nanhaiensis comb. nov., Fictibacillus barbaricus comb.
nov., Fictibacillus arsenicus comb. nov., Fictibacillus rigui comb. nov., Fictibacillus macauensis comb. nov., Fictibacillus solisalsi comb.
nov. and Fictibacillus gelatini comb. nov., respectively [type strains JSM 082006(T) (= DSM 23009(T) = KCTC 13712(T)),
V2-BIII-A2(T) ( = CCM 4982(T) = DSM 14730(T)), Con a/3(T) ( = MTCC 4380(T) = DSM 15822(T) = JCM 12167(T)), WPCB074(T)
59
( = KCTC 13278(T) = JCM 16348(T)), ZFHKF-1(T) ( = JCM 13285(T) = DSM 17262(T)), YC1(T) ( = KCTC 13181(T) = CGMCC
1.6854(T)) and LMG 21881(T) ( = DSM 15866(T)), respectively]. PMID: 23355698 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
第十三节
Filobacillus
216. Filobacillus milensis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2001 Mar;51(Pt 2):425-31. Filobacillus milensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a new halophilic
spore-forming bacterium with Orn-D-Glu-type peptidoglycan. Schlesner H(1), Lawson PA, Collins MD, Weiss N, Wehmeyer U, Völker
H, Thomm M. Author information: (1)Institut für Allgemeine Mikrobiologie der Universität Kiel, Germany. [email protected]
A spore-forming, halophilic bacterium was isolated from surface sediment located on the beach of Palaeochori Bay near to a shallow
water hydrothermal vent area, Milos, Greece. The bacterium, designated SH 714T, consisted of motile, strictly aerobic rods which
contained an Orn-D-Glu type murein and a G+C content of 35 mol%. Thin sections showed a cell wall typical for Gram-positive bacteria; the peptidoglycan layer, however, was very thin. The Gram-reaction of the organism was negative. Comparative 16S rRNA
gene sequencing demonstrated that the isolate represents a new line of descent within the spore-forming rods branching at the periphery of the rRNA group 1 Bacillus (Bacillus sensu stricto). The nearest phylogenetic neighbours of the unknown bacterium were
Bacillus haloalkaliphilus, Marinococcus albus and Halobacillus species. Based on phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence it is proposed that the unknown bacterium be classified as Filobacillus milensis gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain is SH 714T (= DSM
13259T = ATCC 700960T). PMID: 11324591 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
第十四节
Geobacillus
217. Geobacillus debilis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2004 Nov;54(Pt 6):2197-201. Geobacillus debilis sp. nov., a novel obligately thermophilic bacterium isolated from a cool soil environment, and reassignment of Bacillus pallidus to Geobacillus pallidus comb. nov. Banat
IM(1), Marchant R, Rahman TJ. Author information: (1)School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulster, Coleraine, County Londonderry BT52 1SA, Northern Ireland, UK. [email protected] Several aerobic, motile, rod-shaped, thermophilic, spore-forming
Geobacillus bacteria predominantly giving a Gram-positive staining reaction were isolated from a cool soil environment in Northern
Ireland and taxonomically investigated. Two isolates, F10 and Tf(T), showed low 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to recognized
members of the genus Geobacillus. Phylogenetic tree investigation using neighbour-joining, maximum-likelihood and parsimony
methods indicated that strains F10 and Tf(T) represent a single novel species, for which the name Geobacillus debilis sp. nov. is
proposed, with type strain Tf(T) (=DSM 16016(T)=NCIMB 13995(T)) and which belongs to a subgroup of the genus Geobacillus
comprising Geobacillus toebii and Geobacillus caldoxylosilyticus. However, G. debilis showed closest affinities to Bacillus pallidus,
which we propose should become Geobacillus pallidus comb. nov. PMID: 15545458 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
218. Geobacillus gargensis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2004 Nov;54(Pt 6):2019-24. Geobacillus gargensis sp. nov., a novel thermophile
from a hot spring, and the reclassification of Bacillus vulcani as Geobacillus vulcani comb. nov. Nazina TN(1), Lebedeva EV, Poltaraus AB, Tourova TP, Grigoryan AA, Sokolova DSh, Lysenko AM, Osipov GA. Author information: (1)Institute of Microbiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. 60-letiya Oktyabrya 7/2, Moscow, 117312 Russia. [email protected] A novel thermophilic
spore-forming strain, Ga(T), was isolated from the Garga hot spring located in the northern part of the Transbaikal region (Russia).
Strain Ga(T) was found to be an aerobic, Gram-positive, rod-shaped, thermophilic (optimum growth temperature is 60-65 degrees C),
chemo-organotrophic bacterium that grows on various sugars, carboxylic acids and hydrocarbons. The G+C content of its DNA is
52.9 mol%. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity data show that strain Ga(T) is closely related to members of the genus Geobacillus. Relevant chemotaxonomic data (in particular, the major fatty acid profile of strain Ga(T), which includes iso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 :
0 and iso-C17 : 0 acids) support the assignment of this strain to the genus Geobacillus. The physiological, biochemical and
DNA-DNA hybridization studies of strain Ga(T) showed that it differs both genotypically and phenotypically from the recognized Geobacillus species. Based on these data, strain Ga(T) belongs to a novel species, Geobacillus gargensis sp. nov. (type strain,
Ga(T)=VKM B-2300(T)=DSM 15378(T)). The analysis of the phenotypic characteristics (additional to those given in the original description) of the type strain of Bacillus vulcani (DSM 13174(T)) showed that they are very similar to the major phenotypic characteristics of the genus Geobacillus. The low DNA-DNA reassociation values of strain DSM 13174(T) with various species of this genus
(from 38 to 54 %) clearly demonstrate a sufficient genomic distinction of this strain and its taxonomic status as a species. The physi-
60
ological characteristics, phylogenetic position and DNA-DNA reassociation values of B. vulcani allow this species to be reclassified as
Geobacillus vulcani comb. nov. The main properties that differentiate G. vulcani from the other species of the genus are its ability to
produce acids from glycerol, lactose and ribose. PMID: 15545427 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
219. Geobacillus stearothermophilus Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2001 Mar;51(Pt 2):433-46. Taxonomic study of aerobic thermophilic bacilli: descriptions of Geobacillus subterraneus gen. nov., sp. nov. and Geobacillus uzenensis sp. nov. from petroleum reservoirs and
transfer of Bacillus stearothermophilus, Bacillus thermocatenulatus, Bacillus thermoleovorans, Bacillus kaustophilus, Bacillus thermodenitrificans to Geobacillus as the new combinations G. stearothermophilus, G. th. Nazina TN(1), Tourova TP, Poltaraus AB,
Novikova EV, Grigoryan AA, Ivanova AE, Lysenko AM, Petrunyaka VV, Osipov GA, Belyaev SS, Ivanov MV. Author information:
(1)Department of Microbial Biogeochemistry and Biotechnology, Institute of Microbiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow.
[email protected] Five hydrocarbon-oxidizing strains were isolated from formation waters of oilfields in Russia, Kazakhstan and
China. These strains were moderately thermophilic, neutrophilic, motile, spore-forming rods, aerobic or facultatively anaerobic. The
G+C content of their DNA ranged from 49.7 to 52.3 mol%. The major isoprenoid quinone was menaquinone-7; cellular fatty acid profiles consisted of significant amounts of iso-15:0, iso-16:0 and iso-17:0 fatty acids (61.7-86.8% of the total). Based on data from 16S
rDNA analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization, the subsurface isolates could be divided into two groups, one of which consisted of
strains UT and X and the other of which consisted of strains K, Sam and 34T. The new strains exhibited a close phylogenetic relationship to thermophilic bacilli of 'Group 5' of Ash et al. [Ash, C., Farrow, J. A. E., Wallbanks, S. & Collins, M. D. (1991). Lett Appl Microbiol 13, 202-206] and a set of corresponding signature positions of 16S rRNA. Comparative analysis of the 16S rDNA sequences
and fatty acid compositions of the novel isolates and established species of thermophilic bacilli indicated that the subsurface strains
represent two new species within a new genus, for which the names Geobacillus subterraneus gen. nov., sp. nov., and Geobacillus
uzenensis sp. nov. are proposed. It is also proposed that Bacillus stearothermophilus, Bacillus thermoleovorans, Bacillus thermocatenulatus, Bacillus kaustophilus, Bacillus thermoglucosidasius and Bacillus thermodenitrificans be transferred to this new genus, with
Geobacillus stearothermophilus (formerly Bacillus stearothermophilus) as the type species. PMID: 11321089 [PubMed - indexed for
MEDLINE]
220. Geobacillus tepidamans Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2004 Nov;54(Pt 6):2361-8. Classification of isolates from locations in Austria and
Yellowstone National Park as Geobacillus tepidamans sp. nov. Schäffer C(1), Franck WL, Scheberl A, Kosma P, McDermott TR,
Messner P. Author information: (1)Center for NanoBiotechnology, University of Applied Life Sciences and Natural Resources, A-1180
Wien, Austria. Two moderately thermophilic, Gram-positive, spore-forming bacteria were isolated from different geographical locations and sources; strain GS5-97(T) from a beet sugar factory in Leopoldsdorf, Lower Austria, and strain YNP10 from a geothermally
heated soil, Yellowstone National Park, USA. The sequences of their 16S rRNA genes were found to be 99.8% identical, and
DNA-DNA hybridization experiments revealed that strains GS5-97(T) and YNP10 share 89.9 mol% similarity to each other, but only
34.3 and 39.2 mol% similarity, respectively, to Geobacillus caldoxylosilyticus DSM 12041(T), which is their closest related type strain.
A polyphasic analysis showed that these two isolates were more similar to each other than to other characterized geobacilli. Their
DNA G+C content was 43.2 and 42.4 mol%, respectively, and they were identical with respect to many phenotypic features (e.g.
T(opt) 55 degrees C; pH(opt) 7.0). Both strains clearly displayed best growth when cultured aerobically. They differed slightly in their
cellular fatty acid profiles and polar lipid pattern, and genotypically they could also be distinguished based on randomly amplified
polymorphic DNA fingerprints and internal transcribed spacer analysis. Freeze-etching experiments revealed oblique surface layer
(S-layer) lattices in both strains, and biochemical analyses of the purified S-layer proteins indicated the occurrence of glycosylation.
Based on the properties of these organisms relative to those currently documented for the genus Geobacillus and for the various sister genera in the Bacillus radiation, a novel species is proposed, Geobacillus tepidamans sp. nov., with GS5-97(T) (=ATCC
BAA-942(T)=DSM 16325(T)) as the type strain. Strain YNP10 has been deposited in the American Type Culture Collection as ATCC
BAA-943. PMID: 15545484 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
221. Geobacillus zalihae BMC Microbiol. 2007 Aug 10;7:77. Geobacillus zalihae sp. nov., a thermophilic lipolytic bacterium isolated from
palm oil mill effluent in Malaysia. Abd Rahman RN(1), Leow TC, Salleh AB, Basri M. Author information: (1)Enzyme and Microbial
Technology Research Group, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang,
Selangor, Malaysia. [email protected] BACKGROUND: Thermophilic Bacillus strains of phylogenetic Bacillus rRNA
group 5 were described as a new genus Geobacillus. Their geographical distribution included oilfields, hay compost, hydrothermal
vent or soils. The members from the genus Geobacillus have a growth temperatures ranging from 35 to 78 degrees C and contained
iso-branched saturated fatty acids (iso-15:0, iso-16:0 and iso-17:0) as the major fatty acids. The members of Geobacillus have similarity in their 16S rRNA gene sequences (96.5-99.2%). Thermophiles harboring intrinsically stable enzymes are suitable for industrial
applications. The quest for intrinsically thermostable lipases from thermophiles is a prominent task due to the laborious processes via
genetic modification. RESULTS: Twenty-nine putative lipase producers were screened and isolated from palm oil mill effluent in Malaysia. Of these, isolate T1T was chosen for further study as relatively higher lipase activity was detected quantitatively. The crude T1
lipase showed high optimum temperature of 70 degrees C and was also stable up to 60 degrees C without significant loss of crude
enzyme activity. Strain T1T was a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, endospore forming bacterium. On the basic of 16S rDNA analysis,
61
strain T1T was shown to belong to the Bacillus rRNA group 5 related to Geobacillus thermoleovorans (DSM 5366T) and Geobacillus
kaustophilus (DSM 7263T). Chemotaxonomic data of cellular fatty acids supported the affiliation of strain T1T to the genus Geobacillus. The results of physiological and biochemical tests, DNA/DNA hybridization, RiboPrint analysis, the length of lipase gene and
protein pattern allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain T1T from its validly published closest phylogenetic neighbors.
Strain T1T therefore represents a novel species, for which the name Geobacillus zalihae sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain
T1T (=DSM 18318T; NBRC 101842T). CONCLUSION: Strain T1T was able to secrete extracellular thermostable lipase into culture
medium. The strain T1T was identified as Geobacillus zalihae T1T as it differs from its type strains Geobacillus kaustophilus (DSM
7263T) and Geobacillus thermoleovorans (DSM 5366T) on some physiological studies, cellular fatty acids composition, RiboPrint
analysis, length of lipase gene and protein profile. PMCID: PMC2000885 PMID: 17692114 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
第十五节
Gracilibacillus
222. Gracilibacillus halotolerans Int J Syst Bacteriol. 1999 Apr;49 Pt 2:821-31. Gracilibacillus gen. nov., with description of Gracilibacillus halotolerans gen. nov., sp. nov.; transfer of Bacillus dipsosauri to Gracilibacillus dipsosauri comb. nov., and Bacillus salexigens to
the genus Salibacillus gen. nov., as Salibacillus salexigens comb. nov. Wainø M(1), Tindall BJ, Schumann P, Ingvorsen K. Author information: (1)Department of Microbial Ecology, University of Arhus, Denmark. A Gram-positive, extremely halotolerant bacterium was
isolated from the Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA. The strain, designated NNT (= DSM 11805T), was strictly aerobic, rod-shaped, motile
by peritrichous flagella and spore-forming. Strain NNT grew at salinities of 0-20% (w/v) NaCl. A distinctive feature of strain NNT was
its optimal growth in salt-free medium. The polar lipid pattern of strain NNT consisted of phosphatidyl glycerol, diphosphatidyl glycerol
and two phospholipids of unknown structure. The G + C content of its DNA was 38 mol%. The morphological, physiological and, particularly, the 16S rDNA sequence data, showed that strain NNT was associated with 'Bacillus group 1'. However, the organisms
showing the greatest degree of sequence similarity to strain NNT were members of the genus Halobacillus and the species Marinococcus albus, Virgibacillus pantothenticus, Bacillus salexigens and Bacillus dipsosauri. On the basis of chemotaxonomic data, strain
NNT was shown to be chemically most similar to B. salexigens and B. dipsosauri, with the greatest degree of similarity being shown
to the latter organism. This was consistent with the 16S rDNA sequence data. Members of the genus Halobacillus comprise a chemically distinct group and can easily be distinguished from all other organisms of 'Bacillus group 1'. On the basis of the 16S rDNA data,
chemotaxonomy and the physiology of strain NNT, it is proposed that this organism is a member of a new species, within a new genus, for which the name Gracilibacillus halotolerans is proposed. It is also proposed that B. dipsosauri be transferred to this genus as
Gracilibacillus dipsosauri comb. nov. and that B. salexigens be transferred to the genus Salibacillus gen. nov., as Salibacillus salexigens comb. nov. Finally, additional data is provided to support the transfer of Bacillus pantothenticus to the genus Virgibacillus, as
Virgibacillus pantothenticus Heyndrickx et al. (1998). PMID: 10319508 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
第十六节
Halobacillus
223. Halobacillus karajensis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2003 Jul;53(Pt 4):1059-63. Halobacillus karajensis sp. nov., a novel moderate
halophile. Amoozegar MA(1), Malekzadeh F, Malik KA, Schumann P, Spröer C. Author information: (1)Department of Biology (Microbiology Unit), Faculty of Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran. A moderately halophilic, gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium
was isolated from surface saline soil of the Karaj region, Iran. The strain, designated MA-2T, was strictly aerobic with rod-shaped
cells that occurred singly, in pairs or short chains. It contained L-Om-D-Asp-type peptidoglycan and the major respiratory lipoquinone
was MK-7. It was non-motile and had an ellipsoidal endospore located centrally or subterminally. Growth occurred at 10-49 degrees
C and in the pH range 6.0-9.6. Strain MA-2T grew at salinities of 1-24% (w/v) NaCl, showing optimal growth at 10% (w/v). The DNA G
+ C content was 41.3 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain MA-2T was associated
with Bacillus rRNA group 1. The micro-organisms showing the closest phylogenetic relationship to strain MA-2T were Halobacillus
litoralis and Halobacillus trueperi. On the basis of phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and DNA-DNA similarity data, it is proposed that strain MA-2T (= DSM 14948T = LMG 21515T) should be placed in the genus
Halobacillus as the type strain of a novel species, Halobacillus karajensis sp. nov. PMID: 12892126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
224. Halobacillus thailandensis Syst Appl Microbiol. 1999 Sep;22(3):360-5. Polyphasic taxonomy of a novel Halobacillus, Halobacillus
62
thailandensis sp. nov. isolated from fish sauce. Chaiyanan S(1), Chaiyanan S, Maugel T, Huq A, Robb FT, Colwell RR. Author information: (1)Center of Marine Biotechnology, Columbus Center, University of Maryland, Baltimore. In order to speed up fish sauce
production, a more complete understanding of the microorganisms associated with the fermentation was needed. This study was
undertaken to meet that need. A bacterium was isolated from a fish sauce production line containing 25% NaCl. It is a Gram-positive,
rod-shaped bacillus with pointed ends, occurring as single cells, pairs, or short chains. Endospores are produced on a low nutrient
medium and, in old cultures, the cells round up, even when undergoing division. The cell wall is relatively amorphous and similar to
that of Gram-positive bacteria in structure and composition. Cells grown in a medium containing 10-20% salt possess thicker cell
walls than those grown in a medium with 3% salt. Based on 16S rRNA sequence and DNA/DNA hybridization data, we conclude that
the bacterium is a species of Halobacillus. This bacterium shares 99.2% and 97.2% 16S rRNA similarity with Halobacillus litoralis and
Halobacillus halophilus respectively and DNA/DNA homology was lower than 70%, considered indicative of species similarity. Three
highly expressed extra-cellular proteolytic enzymes with M(r) of approximately 100 kDa, 42 kDa and 17 kDa, respectively, were detected by gelatin-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Activity of the 100 kDa and 17 kDa proteases was inhibited by phenylmethanesulphonyl fluoride (PMSF), without being affected by L-trans epoxysuccinyl-leucylamide 4-guanidino-butane (E-64), pepstatin,
EDTA, or 1, 10-phenanthroline, leading to the conclusion that these enzymes are serine proteases. The 42-kDa protease was inhibited by EDTA and 1,10-phenanthroline, but not by PMSF, thus, being classified a metalloprotease. The strain has been successfully
employed to improve fermentation in industrial production of fish sauce in Thailand. PMID: 10553288 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
225. Halolactibacillus halophilus Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2005 Nov;55(Pt 6):2427-39. Halolactibacillus halophilus gen. nov., sp. nov.
and Halolactibacillus miurensis sp. nov., halophilic and alkaliphilic marine lactic acid bacteria constituting a phylogenetic lineage in
Bacillus rRNA group 1. Ishikawa M(1), Nakajima K, Itamiya Y, Furukawa S, Yamamoto Y, Yamasato K. Author information:
(1)Department of Fermentation Science, Faculty of Applied Bio-Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture, 1-1 Sakuragaoka 1-chome,
Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8502, Japan. [email protected] Eleven novel strains of marine-inhabiting lactic acid bacteria that were
isolated from living and decaying marine organisms collected from a temperate area of Japan are described. The isolates were motile
with peritrichous flagella and non-sporulating. They lacked catalase, quinones and cytochromes. Fermentation products from glucose
were lactate, formate, acetate and ethanol. Lactate yield as percentage conversion from glucose was affected by the pH of the fermentation medium: approximately 55 % at the optimal growth pH of 8.0, greater than approximately 70 % at pH 7.0 and less than
approximately 30 % at pH 9.0. The molar ratio of the other three products was the same at each cultivation pH, approximately 2 : 1 :
1. Carbohydrates and related compounds were aerobically metabolized to acetate and pyruvate as well as lactate. The isolates were
slightly halophilic, highly halotolerant and alkaliphilic. The optimum NaCl concentration for growth was 2.0-3.0 % (w/v), with a range
of 0-25.5 %. The optimum pH for growth was 8.0-9.5, with a range of 6.0-10.0. The G+C content of the DNA was 38.5-40.7 mol%.
The isolates constituted two genomic species (DNA-DNA relatedness of less than 41 %) each characterized by sugar fermentation
profiles. The cell-wall peptidoglycan of both phenotypes contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. The major cellular fatty acids were
C(16 : 0) and a-C(13 : 0). Comparative sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA genes revealed that these isolates represent novel species constituting a phylogenetic unit outside the radiation of typical lactic acid bacteria and an independent line of descent within the
group composed of the halophilic/halotolerant/alkaliphilic and/or alkalitolerant species in Bacillus rRNA group 1, with 94.8-95.1 % similarity to the genus Paraliobacillus, 93.7-94.1 % to the genus Gracilibacillus and 93.8-94.2 % to Virgibacillus marismortui. On the basis of possession of physiological and biochemical characteristics common to typical lactic acid bacteria within Bacillus rRNA group 1,
chemotaxonomic characteristics and phylogenetic independence, a new genus and two species, Halolactibacillus halophilus gen.
nov., sp. nov. and Halolatibacillus miurensis sp. nov., are proposed. The type strains are Halolactibacillus halophilus M2-2T (=DSM
17073T=IAM 15242T=NBRC 100868T=NRIC 0628T) (G+C content 40.2 mol%) and Halolactibacillus miurensis M23-1T (=DSM
17074T=IAM 15247T=NBRC 100873T=NRIC 0633T) (G+C content 38.5 mol%). PMID: 16280507 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
第十七节
Jeotgalibacillus
226. Jeotgalibacillus alimentarius Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2001 Nov;51(Pt 6):2087-93. Jeotgalibacillus alimentarius gen. nov., sp. nov.,
a novel bacterium isolated from jeotgal with L-lysine in the cell wall, and reclassification of Bacillus marinus Rüger 1983 . as mMrinibacillus marinus gen nov., comb. nov. Yoon JH(1), Weiss N, Lee KC, Lee IS, Kang KH, Park YH. Author information: (1)Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), Yusong, Taejon. A moderately halophilic, round-endospore-forming bacterium (strain YKJ-13T) was isolated from jeotgal, a traditional Korean fermented seafood, and studied by a polyphasic taxonomic approach. This organism was related to the phylogenetic clade comprising members of Bacillus rRNA group 2 and formed a cluster with
Bacillus marinus with a bootstrap fidelity value of 93.6%. The peptidoglycan type was A1alpha linked directly through L-Lys. Based on
63
cell morphology, peptidoglycan type and phylogeny, strain YKJ-13T, together with B. marinus, is considered to be a member of Bacillus rRNA group 2. Strain YKJ-13T was also characterized by having MK-7 and MK-8 as the predominant menaquinones and
iso-C15:0 as the major fatty acid. The DNA G+C content was 44 mol%. Strain YKJ-13T exhibited a 16S rDNA similarity value of 95.7%
with B. marinus DSM 1297T, its closest phylogenetic relative. Levels of 16S rDNA similarity between strain YKJ-13T and other Bacillus spp. were less than 94.2%. Therefore, on the basis of the data presented, the name Jeotgalibacillus alimentarius gen. nov., sp.
nov. is proposed for strain YKJ-13T (= KCCM 80002T = JCM 10872T). It is also proposed that B. marinus be reclassified in Marinibacillus gen. nov. as Marinibacillus marinus comb. nov. PMID: 11760951 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
第十八节
Lentibacillus
227. Lentibacillus salicampi Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2002 Nov;52(Pt 6):2043-8. Lentibacillus salicampi gen. nov., sp. nov., a moderately halophilic bacterium isolated from a salt field in Korea. Yoon JH(1), Kang KH, Park YH. Author information: (1)Microbial Genomics
Laboratory, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), PO Box 115, Yusong, Taejon, Korea. A
Gram-variable, aerobic, endospore-forming, rod-shaped bacterial strain, SF-20(T), which was isolated from a salt field in Korea, was
subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. Cells of this organism were motile by means of single flagella. Strain SF-20(T) grew optimally in the presence of 4-8% NaCl. The cell wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid.
The predominant menaquinone is MK-7. Strain SF-20(T) has a cellular fatty acid profile containing major amounts of branched fatty
acids. The major fatty acids are anteiso-C15:0 and iso-C16:0. The cellular phospholipids are phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol. The G+C content of the DNA is 44 mol%. Strain SF-20(T) is phylogenetically closely related to the genus Bacillus and
some related genera and, particularly, formed a coherent cluster with the genera Salibacillus and Virgibacillus. The clustering fidelity
between strain SF-20(T) and the cluster comprising these two genera was supported by bootstrap analysis at a confidence level of
67.2%. Strain SF-20(T) exhibited levels of 16S rDNA similarity of 93.0-94.7% to the genus Salibacillus and 94.0-94.1% to the genus
Virgibacillus. On the basis of phenotypic and phylogenetic data, strain SF-20(T) should be classified in a novel genus and species, for
which the name Lentibacillus salicampi gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is strain SF-20(T) (= KCCM 41560(T) = JCM
11462(T)). PMID: 12508866 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
第十九节
Lysinibacillus
228. Lysinibacillus boronitolerans Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2007 May;57(Pt 5):1117-25. Proposal of Lysinibacillus boronitolerans gen.
nov. sp. nov., and transfer of Bacillus fusiformis to Lysinibacillus fusiformis comb. nov. and Bacillus sphaericus to Lysinibacillus
sphaericus comb. nov. Ahmed I(1), Yokota A, Yamazoe A, Fujiwara T. Author information: (1)Biotechnology Research Center, University of Tokyo, Yayoi 1-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657, Japan. [email protected] Three strains of a spore-forming,
Gram-positive, motile, rod-shaped and boron-tolerant bacterium were isolated from soil. The strains, designated 10a(T), 11c and 12B,
can tolerate 5 % (w/v) NaCl and up to 150 mM boron, but optimal growth was observed without addition of boron or NaCl in Luria-Bertani agar medium. The optimum temperature for growth was 37 degrees C (range 16-45 degrees C) and the optimum pH was
7.0-8.0 (range pH 5.5-9.5). A comparative analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence demonstrated that the isolated strains were
closely related to Bacillus fusiformis DSM 2898(T) (97.2 % similarity) and Bacillus sphaericus DSM 28(T) (96.9 %). DNA-DNA relatedness was greater than 97 % among the isolated strains and 61.1 % with B. fusiformis DSM 2898(T) and 43.2 % with B. sphaericus
IAM 13420(T). The phylogenetic and phenotypic analyses and DNA-DNA relatedness indicated that the three strains belong to the
same species, that was characterized by a DNA G+C content of 36.5-37.9 mol%, MK-7 as the predominant menaquinone system
and iso-C(15 : 0) (32 % of the total) as a major cellular fatty acid. In contrast to the type species of the genus Bacillus, the strains
contained peptidoglycan with lysine, aspartic acid, alanine and glutamic acid. Based on the distinctive peptidoglycan composition,
phylogenetic analyses and physiology, the strains are assigned to a novel species within a new genus, for which the name Lysinibacillus boronitolerans gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Lysinibacillus boronitolerans is strain 10a(T) (=DSM
17140(T)=IAM 15262(T)=ATCC BAA-1146(T)). It is also proposed that Bacillus fusiformis and Bacillus sphaericus be transferred to
this genus as Lysinibacillus fusiformis comb. nov. and Lysinibacillus sphaericus comb. nov., respectively. PMID: 17473269 [PubMed indexed for MEDLINE]
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229. Lysinibacillus macroides Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2012 May;62(Pt 5):1121-7. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.027995-0. Epub 2011 Jul 1.
Lysinibacillus macroides sp. nov., nom. rev. Coorevits A(1), Dinsdale AE, Heyrman J, Schumann P, Van Landschoot A, Logan NA, De
Vos P. Author information: (1)Laboratory of Biochemistry and Brewing, Faculty of Applied Engineering Sciences, University College
Ghent, Valentin Vaerwyckweg 1, 9000 Ghent, Belgium. [email protected] 'Bacillus macroides' ATCC 12905(T) ( = DSM
54(T) = LMG 18474(T)), isolated in 1947 from cow dung, was not included in the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names and so it lost
standing in bacteriological nomenclature. Reinvestigation of the strain, including DNA-DNA relatedness experiments, revealed that
'Bacillus macroides' is genomically distinct from its closest relatives Lysinibacillus xylanilyticus, Lysinibacillus boronitolerans and
Lysinibacillus fusiformis (as determined by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, with pairwise similarity values of 99.2, 98.8 and
98.5 %, respectively, with the type strains of these species). Further analysis showed that 'Bacillus macroides' shares the A4α
L-Lys-D-Asp peptidoglycan type with other members of the genus Lysinibacillus and can thus be attributed to this genus. These results, combined with additional phenotypic data, justify the description of strain LMG 18474(T) ( = DSM 54(T) = ATCC 12905(T)) as
Lysinibacillus macroides sp. nov., nom. rev. PMID: 21724959 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
230. Lysinibacillus massiliensis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2010 Dec;60(Pt 12):3003. Retraction. Proposal of Lysinibacillus sinduriensis
sp. nov., and transfer of Bacillus massiliensis and Bacillus odysseyi to Lysinibacillus as Lysinibacillus massiliensis comb. nov. and
Lysinibacillus odysseyi comb. nov. with emended descriptions of the genus. [No authors listed] PMID: 21148328 [PubMed - in process]
231. Lysinibacillus sinduriensis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2012 Oct;62(Pt 10):2347-55. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.033837-0. Epub 2011 Nov 18.
Description of Lysinibacillus sinduriensis sp. nov., and transfer of Bacillus massiliensis and Bacillus odysseyi to the genus Lysinibacillus as Lysinibacillus massiliensis comb. nov. and Lysinibacillus odysseyi comb. nov. with emended description of the genus
Lysinibacillus. Jung MY(1), Kim JS, Paek WK, Styrak I, Park IS, Sin Y, Paek J, Park KA, Kim H, Kim HL, Chang YH. Author information: (1)Korean Collection for Type Cultures, Biological Resource Center, KRIBB, 125 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-806,
Republic of Korea. A Gram-positive, rod-shaped, endospore-forming bacterium, designated strain BLB-1(T), was isolated from samples of tidal flat sediment from the Yellow Sea. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis demonstrated that the isolate belonged to the Bacillus rRNA group 2 and was closely related to Bacillus massiliensis CIP 108446(T) (97.4%), Bacillus odysseyi ATCC PTA-4993(T)
(96.7%), Lysinibacillus fusiformis DSM 2898(T) (96.2%) and Lysinibacillus boronitolerans DSM 17140(T) (95.9%). Sequence similarities with related species in other genera, including Caryophanon, Sporosarcina and Solibacillus, were <96.1%. Chemotaxonomic data supported the affiliation of strain BLB-1(T) with the genus Lysinibacillus. The major menaquinone was MK-7, the cell-wall sugars
were glucose and xylose, the cell-wall peptidoglycan type was A4α (L-Lys-D-Asp), the major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol,
phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and several unknown phospholipids, and the major fatty acids were anteiso-C(15:0)
(35.6%), iso-C(15:0) (25.6%) and anteiso-C(17:0) (16.5%). The most closely related species, Bacillus massiliensis and Bacillus odysseyi, were also assigned to this genus based on phylogenetic analysis and phenotypic data. The results of DNA-DNA hybridizations and phenotypic tests supported the differentiation of all three taxa from species of the genus Lysinibacillus with validly published
names. Thus, strain BLB-1(T) ( = KCTC 13296(T) = JCM 15800(T)) represents a novel species, for which the name Lysinibacillus
sinduriensis sp. nov. is proposed. It is also proposed that Bacillus massiliensis CIP 108446(T) ( =4400831(T) = CCUG49529(T)
=KCTC 13178(T)) and Bacillus odysseyi NBRC 100172(T) ( =34hs-1(T) =ATCC PTA-4993(T) =NRRL B-30641(T) =DSM 18869(T)
=CIP 108263(T) =KCTC 3961(T)) be transferred to the genus Lysinibacillus as Lysinibacillus massiliensis comb. nov. and Lysinibacillus odysseyi comb. nov., respectively. PMID: 22140163 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
第二十节
Natronobacillus
232. Natronobacillus azotifigens Extremophiles. 2008 Nov;12(6):819-27. doi: 10.1007/s00792-008-0188-0. Epub 2008 Sep 4. Natronobacillus azotifigens gen. nov., sp. nov., an anaerobic diazotrophic haloalkaliphile from soda-rich habitats. Sorokin ID(1), Zadorina EV,
Kravchenko IK, Boulygina ES, Tourova TP, Sorokin DY. Author information: (1)Winogradsky Institute of Microbiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Prospect 60-let Octyabrya 7/2, 117312, Moscow, Russia. Gram-positive bacteria capable of nitrogen fixation were
obtained in microoxic enrichments from soda soils in south-western Siberia, north-eastern Mongolia, and the Lybian desert (Egypt).
The same organisms were obtained in anoxic enrichments with glucose from soda lake sediments in the Kulunda Steppe (Altai, Russia) using nitrogen-free alkaline medium of pH 10. The isolates were represented by thin motile rods forming terminal round endospores. They are strictly fermentative saccharolytic anaerobes but tolerate high oxygen concentrations, probably due to a high catalase activity. All of the strains are obligately alkaliphilic and highly salt-tolerant natronophiles (chloride-independent sodaphiles).
Growth was possible within a pH range from 7.5 to 10.6, with an optimum at 9.5-10, and within a salt range from 0.2 to 4 M Na(+),
65
with an optimum at 0.5-1.5 M for the different strains. The nitrogenase activity in the whole cells also had an alkaline pH optimum but
was much more sensitive to high salt concentrations compared to the growing cells. The isolates formed a compact genetic group
with a high level of DNA similarity. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S-rRNA gene sequences placed the isolates into Bacillus rRNA
group 1 as a separate lineage with Amphibacillus tropicus as the nearest relative. In all isolates the key functional nitrogenase gene
nifH was detected. A new genus and species, Natronobacillus azotifigens gen. nov., sp. nov., is proposed to accommodate the novel
diazotrophic haloalkaliphiles. PMID: 18769867 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
第二十一节
Oceanobacillus
233. Oceanobacillus caeni Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2008 May;58(Pt 5):1109-13. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.65335-0. Oceanobacillus caeni sp.
nov., isolated from a Bacillus-dominated wastewater treatment system in Korea. Nam JH(1), Bae W, Lee DH. Author information:
(1)Department of Microbiology, Chungbuk National University, 12, Gaeshin-dong, Heungduk-gu, Cheongju 361-763, Republic of Korea. A Gram-positive, rod-shaped, spore-forming bacterium, strain S-11T, was isolated from the activated sludge of a Bacillus-dominated wastewater treatment system in South Korea and was characterized using a polyphasic approach in order to determine its taxonomic position. Cells (0.5-0.6 x 2.0-2.2 microm) were motile by means of a single subpolar flagellum. They bore ellipsoidal endospores that lay in a central position in swollen sporangia. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain S-11T was a member of the genus Oceanobacillus. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values and DNA-DNA relatedness of strain S-11T to the type strains of other Oceanobacillus species were less than 96.2 and 66.0 %, respectively. Strain
S-11T showed distinct differences in the G+C content of the genomic DNA (33.6 mol%). The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C14 :
0, iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0. The major isoprenoid quinone was MK-7. There were also some physiological differences in comparison with the type strains of Oceanobacillus species: tests for production of acetoin and acid production from dulcitol,
erythritol, myo-inositol and sorbitol were positive. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization and physiological and biochemical tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain S-11T from the six Oceanobacillus species and subspecies with validly published names. Strain S-11T therefore represents a novel species, for which the name Oceanobacillus caeni sp. nov. is proposed, with
the type strain S-11T (=KCTC 13061T =CCUG 53534T =CIP 109363T). PMID: 18450698 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
234. Oceanobacillus soja J Gen Appl Microbiol. 2009 Jun;55(3):225-32. Oceanobacillus soja sp. nov. isolated from soy sauce production
equipment in Japan. Tominaga T(1), An SY, Oyaizu H, Yokota A. Author information: (1)Saitama Industrial Technology Center North
Institute, Kumagaya, Japan. [email protected] A Gram-positive, spore-forming, motile rod-shaped bacterium, designated
strain Y27T, was isolated from the bottom of a mold fermenter used in the process of soy sauce production. Phylogenetic analysis of
the 16S rRNA gene sequence from this strain placed it within the genus Oceanobacillus, and further sequence analysis revealed that
this strain has a sequence similarity of 95.0-98.7% to other known species of Oceanobacillus. The DNA-DNA relatedness between
strain Y27T and related type strains of the genus Oceanobacillus is below 43%, indicating that it should be considered a separate
species. Characterization of strain Y27T revealed that the major cellular fatty acid is anteiso-C(15:0), the cell wall contains meso-diaminopimelic acid-type peptidoglycans, the major menaquinone is MK-7, and the major polar lipids are diphosphatidylglycerol
and phosphatidylglycerol. The genomic DNA G+C content of the strain is 38.0 mol%. On the basis of these phylogenetic, physiological and chemotaxonomic data, we propose that this isolate represents a novel species of the genus Oceanobacillus, and propose the
name Oceanobacillus soja sp. nov. The type strain is strain Y27T (= JCM 15792T = NRRL B-59181T = NBRC 105379T = NCIMB
14542T). PMID: 19590150 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
第二十二节
Ornithinibacillus
235. Ornithinibacillus bavariensis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2006 Jun;56(Pt 6):1383-9. Ornithinibacillus gen. nov., with the species Ornithinibacillus bavariensis sp. nov. and Ornithinibacillus californiensis sp. nov. Mayr R(1), Busse HJ, Worliczek HL, Ehling-Schulz M,
66
Scherer S. Author information: (1)Lehrstuhl für Mikrobielle Okologie, Department für Grundlagen der Biowissenschaften, WZW, Technische Universität München, Freising, Germany. A Gram-positive, aerobic, rod-shaped, motile, endospore-forming bacterium was
isolated from pasteurized milk from Bavaria, Germany. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities indicated that strain WSBC 24001(T)
was most closely related to Virgibacillus species (95.3-96.1 %), Oceanobacillus species (95.6-95.7 %), Bacillus firmus IAM 12464(T)
(95.5 %) and Bacillus niacini IFO 15566(T) (95.2 %). However, strain WSBC 24001(T) showed the highest level of sequence similarity to an unnamed strain, MB-9(T) (97.6 %), which was isolated from coastal surface sediments in California. Hence, this strain was
included in our study. The genomic DNA G + C contents of strains WSBC 24001(T) and MB-9(T) were 36.4 mol and 40.8 mol%, respectively. The major respiratory quinone of both strains was menaquinone MK-7 and the peptidoglycan type was A4beta
(L-orn<--D-Asp). The polar lipid profiles of these strains contained a predominance of diphosphatidylglycerol and moderate to minor
amounts of phosphatidylglycerol, an unknown phospholipid and an unknown aminophospholipid. However, strain WSBC 24001(T)
could be distinguished from strain MB-9(T) by the presence of an unknown lipid. The fatty acid profiles of the two strains comprised
mainly iso- and anteiso-branched acids, but showed some significant quantitative differences in the amounts of certain acids. The
DNA-DNA relatedness value (15.5 %) clearly demonstrated that strains WSBC 24001(T) and MB-9(T) are representatives of two different species. On the basis of their phylogenetic position and morphological, physiological and chemotaxonomic properties, a novel
genus is proposed, Ornithinibacillus gen. nov., with two novel species, the type species Ornithinibacillus bavariensis sp. nov. (type
strain WSBC 24001(T) = DSM 15681(T) = CCM 7096(T)) and Ornithinibacillus californiensis sp. nov. (type strain MB-9(T) = DSM
16628(T) = CCM 7237(T)). PMID: 16738118 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
第二十三节
Paenibacillus
236. Paenibacillus agarexedens Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2003 Jul;53(Pt 4):1051-7. Paenibacillus agarexedens sp. nov., nom. rev., and
Paenibacillus agaridevorans sp. nov. Uetanabaro AP(1), Wahrenburg C, Hunger W, Pukall R, Spröer C, Stackebrandt E, de Canhos
VP, Claus D, Fritze D. Author information: (1)University of Campinas, 13084-510 Campinas, SP Brazil. Twenty-two agarolytic, aerobic,
spore-forming strains were characterized taxonomically by DNA-DNA reassociation experiments, riboprint analyses, 16S rDNA sequencing and phenetic similarity analyses. Based on riboprint analyses, the strains formed eight ribogroups, six of which contained
2-6 strains and two encompassed single strains. Within the multi-strain ribogroups, similarities ranged from 91-99%. Phylogenetic
analyses of representatives of the eight groups by 16S rDNA sequence analysis showed that the strains were affiliated to the genus
Paenibacillus, but relatedness to described Paenibacillus species was only moderate (<97.8% sequence similarity). Published
DNA-DNA similarity values for most of the agarolytic strains, supplemented with new data, supported the distinctiveness of the eight
ribogroups. Intragroup DNA-DNA similarity values ranged from 80 to 104%, while intergroup DNA-DNA similarities were <35%. Based
on genomic distinctiveness and supported by the presence of distinguishing phenotypic properties, multi-strain groups 1 and 2 are
proposed as novel species, Paenibacillus agarexedens sp. nov., nom. rev. (type strain, DSM 1327T=CIP 107437T) and Paenibacillus
agaridevorans sp. nov. (type strain, DSM 1355T=CIP 107436T). PMID: 12892125 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
237. Paenibacillus apiarius Int J Syst Bacteriol. 1996 Jul;46(3):688-93. Paenibacillus apiarius sp. nov. Nakamura LK. Author information:
National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Peoria, Illinois 61604, USA. The name "Bacillus
apiarius" Katznelson 1955 was not included on the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names and thus lost standing in bacterial nomenclature. The genetic homogeneity of "B. apiarius" strains was assessed by determining their G+C contents by the buoyant density
method and by measuring the levels of DNA relatedness by spectrophotometric reassociation procedures. The G+C contents of the
15 strains examined, ranged from 52 to 54 mol%. DNA reassociation revealed the presence of two clusters, each with high levels of
intragroup relatedness (60 to 100%). One cluster consisted of six strains highly related to Bacillus thiaminolyticus, and the other consisted of nine strains related to the designated type strain of "B. apiarius." The strains in the second cluster were not closely related
genetically to the type strains of organisms frequently associated with honey bees (namely, Paenibacillus alvei, Paenibacillus larvae,
Bacillus laterosporus, and Paenibacillus pulvifaciens). The "B. apiarius" strains in the second cluster were also phenotypically homogeneous and distinguishable from the previously described species. Comparative analyses of the 16S rRNA gene DNA sequence
showed that the proper phylogenetic position of the second cluster was in the genus Paenibacillus. These findings justify the proposal
of a new species with the name Paenibacillus apiarius. The type strain is NRRL NRS-1438. PMID: 8782677 [PubMed - indexed for
MEDLINE]
238. Paenibacillus azoreducens Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2001 Sep;51(Pt 5):1681-5. Paenibacillus azoreducens sp. nov., a synthetic
azo dye decolorizing bacterium from industrial wastewater. Meehan C(1), Bjourson AJ, McMullan G. Author information: (1)School of
Environmental Studies, University of Ulster, Coleraine, Northern Ireland, UK. An azo-dye-reducing, endospore-forming bacterium
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239.
240.
241.
242.
isolated from textile industry wastewater has been taxonomically studied. Particularly interesting was the ability of this organism to
decolorize the azo dye Remazol Black B by 98% within 24 h. Levels of 16S rRNA similarity between the isolate and Paenibacillus
species ranged from 92.1 to 95.0%. The DNA G+C content was 46.8 mol % and anteiso-branched C15:0 was the major fatty acid.
Based upon the phenotypic properties and the phylogenetic inference, it is proposed that the bacterium should be designated Paenibacillus azoreducens sp. nov. The type strain of Paenibacillus azoreducens is CM1T (= DSM 13822T = NCIMB 13761T). PMID:
11594595 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Paenibacillus brasilensis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2002 Nov;52(Pt 6):2147-53. Paenibacillus brasilensis sp. nov., a novel nitrogen-fixing species isolated from the maize rhizosphere in Brazil. von der Weid I(1), Duarte GF, van Elsas JD, Seldin L. Author information: (1)Instituto de Microbiologia Professor Paulo de Góes, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
Sixteen nitrogen-fixing strains isolated from the rhizosphere of maize planted in Cerrado soil, Brazil, which showed morphological and
biochemical characteristics similar to the gas-forming Paenibacillus spp., were phenotypically and genetically characterized. Their
identification as members of the genus Paenibacillus was confirmed by using specific primers based on the 16S rRNA gene.
SDS-PAGE of whole-cell proteins, API 50CH, morphological and biochemical tests, amplified rDNA-restriction analysis (ARDRA),
DNA-relatedness analyses, denaturing-gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and 16S rRNA gene sequence determinations were
performed to characterize the novel isolates and to compare them to strains of other nitrogen-fixing Paenibacillus spp. Phenotypic
analyses showed that the 16 strains were very homogeneous and shared a high level of relatedness with Paenibacillus polymyxa and
Paenibacillus peoriae. However, none of the novel isolates was able to ferment glycerol (positive test for P. polymyxa), L-arabinose or
D-xylose (positive tests for P. polymyxa and P. peoriae) or utilize succinate (positive test for P. peoriae). Genetic approaches also indicated a high level of similarity among the novel isolates and P. polymyxa and P. peoriae, but the novel strains clearly could not be
assigned to either of these two recognized species. On the basis of the features presented in this study, the 16 novel isolates were
considered to represent members of a novel species within the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus brasilensis is
proposed. The type strain is PB1 72(T) (= ATCC BAA-413(T) = DSM 14914(T)). PMID: 12508882 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Paenibacillus campinasensis Int J Syst Bacteriol. 1998 Jul;48 Pt 3:833-7. Paenibacillus campinasensis sp. nov., a cyclodextrin-producing bacterium isolated in Brazil. Yoon JH(1), Yim DK, Lee JS, Shin KS, Sato HH, Lee ST, Park YK, Park YH. Author information: (1)Korean Collection for Type Cultures (KCTC), Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), Yusong,
Taejon, Korea. An alkaliphilic, endospore-forming bacterium isolated from Brazilian soil was taxonomically studied and is proposed as
a new Paenibacillus species. This organism (strain 324T) was particularly distinguishable from other Paenibacillus species by its ability to grow optimally at pH 10 and 40 degrees C. The DNA G+C content was 5.0 mol%. The diamine acid of the cell-wall peptidoglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid. MK-7 was the predominant menaquinone and anteiso-C15:0 was the major fatty acid. Levels of
16S rDNA similarity between strain 324T and other Paenibacillus species were 90.6-95.9%. Phylogenetically, strain 324T formed an
evolutionary lineage distinct from other species within the evolutionary radiation encompassing the genus Paenibacillus. Based on
phenotyic and chemotaxonomic properties, and phylogenetic inference, it is proposed that strain 324T should be placed in the genus
Paenibacillus as a new species is strain 324T should be placed in the genus Paenibacilus as a new species, Paenibacillus campinasensis. This type strain of the new species is strain 325T (= KCTC 0364BP). PMID: 9734037 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Paenibacillus chinjuensis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2002 Mar;52(Pt 2):415-21. Paenibacillus chinjuensis sp. nov., a novel exopolysaccharide-producing bacterium. Yoon JH(1), Seo WT, Shin YK, Kho YH, Kang KH, Park YH. Author information: (1)Korea Research
Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Yusong, Taejon. A novel exopolysaccharide-producing bacterium (WN9T) was isolated
from Chinju, Korea, and was identified as a member of the genus Paenibacillus on the basis of phenotypic characteristics and phylogenetic inference based on 16S rDNA sequence. This organism is a facultatively anaerobic, endospore-forming rod. The diamino acid
found in the peptidoglycan is meso-diaminopimelic acid. The predominant menaquinone is MK-7. The major cellular fatty acid is anteiso-C15:0. The G+C content is 53 mol%. The phylogenetic tree shows that strain WN9T falls within the radiation of a cluster comprising the Paenibacillus species. The levels of 16S rDNA similarity between strain WN9T and the type strains of validly described
Paenibacillus species are 92.1-95.8%. Strain WN9T is clearly distinguishable from some phylogenetically related Paenibacillus species on the basis of DNA-DNA relatedness data and phenotypic characters. Therefore, on the basis of these data, a novel species of
the genus Paenibacillus, Paenibacillus chinjuensis sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is strain WN9T (= KCTC 8951PT = JCM
10939T). PMID: 11931150 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Paenibacillus daejeonensis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2002 Nov;52(Pt 6):2107-11. Paenibacillus daejeonensis sp. nov., a novel alkaliphilic bacterium from soil. Lee JS(1), Lee KC, Chang YH, Hong SG, Oh HW, Pyun YR, Bae KS. Author information: (1)Korean
Collection for Type Cultures, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, #52 Oun-dong, Yusong-ku, Daejeon 305-333,
Korea. The taxonomy of soil isolates AP-20(T) and AP-37 was examined. These alkaliphilic organisms grew over a wide pH range
(pH 7.0-13.0). The growth rate was higher at pH 8.0-12.0 than at pH 7.0. The G+C composition of these strains averaged 53 mol%.
These strains contained MK-7 as the main respiratory quinone and meso-diaminopimelic acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. The major cellular fatty acid of the isolates was 12-methyltetradecanoic acid. Levels of 16S rDNA similarity between strain AP-20(T), AP-37
and other Paenibacillus species were 94.2-90.2%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA sequence revealed that strains
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243.
244.
245.
246.
247.
AP-20(T) and AP-37 formed an evolutionary lineage distinct from other Paenibacillus species. Based on the evaluation of morphological, physiological and chemotaxonomic characteristics, and on 16S rDNA sequence comparison, the new species Paenibacillus
daejeonensis sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is AP-20(T) ( = KCTC 3745(T) = JCM 11236(T)). PMID: 12508876 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Paenibacillus glycanilyticus Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2002 Sep;52(Pt 5):1669-74. Paenibacillus glycanilyticus sp. nov., a novel
species that degrades heteropolysaccharide produced by the cyanobacterium Nostoc commune. Dasman(1), Kajiyama S, Kawasaki
H, Yagi M, Seki T, Fukusaki E, Kobayashi A. Author information: (1)Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering,
Osaka University, Suita, Japan. A novel bacterial strain, DS-1T, was isolated that degrades heteropolysaccharide produced by the
cyanobacterium Nostoc commune. The isolate was identified by a combination of phenotypic characterization, cellular fatty acid
analysis, DNA base composition, DNA-DNA hybridization and 165 rRNA gene sequence analysis. Phylogenetic analysis placed strain
DS-1T within the Paenibacillus cluster on a phylogenetic tree and the phenotypic characteristics of this strain appear to be similar to
those of Paenibacillus curdlanolyticus IFO 15724T and Paenibacillus kobensis IFO 15729T. The strain was distinguished from P. curdlanolyticus IFO 15724T and P. kobensis IFO 15729T by its ability to degrade the polysaccharide of Nostoc commune, by assimilation of rhamnose, inositol and L-fucose and by its wide range of optimal growth temperature (28-37 degrees C). Like other Paenibacillus species, this strain contains anteiso-C15:0 as a major cellular fatty acid, and it has a DNA G+C content of 50.5 mol %. Based
on these results, it is concluded that this isolate should be placed within a novel species of Paenibacillus, Paenibacillus glycanilyticus
sp. nov., with the type strain DS-1T (= IFO 16618T = JCM 11221T = NRRL B-23455T). PMID: 12361272 [PubMed - indexed for
MEDLINE]
Paenibacillus graminis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2002 Mar;52(Pt 2):607-16. Paenibacillus graminis sp. nov. and Paenibacillus odorifer sp. nov., isolated from plant roots, soil and food. Berge O(1), Guinebretière MH, Achouak W, Normand P, Heulin T. Author information: (1)CEA/Cadarache, DSV-DEVM, Laboratoire d'Ecologie Microbienne de la Rhizosphère, UMR 163 CNRS-CEA,
Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance, France. [email protected] Sixteen gram-positive endospore-forming bacteria previously isolated from soil,
plant rhizospheres, plant roots and pasteurized pureed vegetables were studied to determine their taxonomic positions. The isolates
were formerly identified as Bacillus circulans based on their biochemical characters using API galleries. Two of these strains, RSA19T
and TOD45T, were recently assigned to the genus Paenibacillus based on phylogenetic analysis of their 16S rRNA (rrs) gene sequence. In the present work, the sixteen isolates were assigned to two genomospecies using DNA-DNA hybridization, in agreement
with rrs gene sequence analysis. These genomospecies can also be differentiated on the basis of their cultural and biochemical
characters into two novel species, for which the names Paenibacillus graminis sp. nov. (type strain RSA19T = ATCC BAA-95T = LMG
19080T) and Paenibacillus odorifer sp. nov. (type strain TOD45T = ATCC BAA-93T = LMG 19079T) are proposed. PMID: 11931174
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Paenibacillus granivorans Syst Appl Microbiol. 2000 Oct;23(3):344-8. Paenibacillus granivorans sp. nov., a new Paenibacillus species which degrades native potato starch granules. van der Maarel MJ(1), Veen A, Wijbenga DJ. Author information: (1)Centre for
Carbohydrate Bioengineering TNO-RUG, Haren, The Netherlands. [email protected] From a native potato starch-degrading enrichment culture, strain A30 had been isolated and had tentatively been identified as a member of the Bacillus firmus/lentus group
(Wijbenga et al. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 35, 180-184, 1991). In this paper the isolate A30 is further characterized using phylogentic analysis of the 16S rDNA and determination of a number of additional phenotypic characteristics. These data are compared to
those of Paenibacillus amylolyticus, P. chibensis, and P. thiaminolyticus. It is concluded that strain A30 is a new Paenibacillus species,
for which the name Paenibacillus granivorans is suggested. PMID: 11108012 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Paenibacillus hodogayensis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2005 Mar;55(Pt 2):737-41. Paenibacillus hodogayensis sp. nov., capable of
degrading the polysaccharide produced by Sphaerotilus natans. Takeda M(1), Suzuki I, Koizumi J. Author information: (1)Division of
Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Yokohama National University, Tokiwadai 79-5, Hodogaya,
Yokohama 240-8501, Japan. [email protected] Sphaerotilus natans is a sheathed bacterium often found in activated sludge that has
a bulking problem. A bacterial strain that is able to degrade the extracellular polysaccharide produced by S. natans was isolated. The
isolate was a spore-forming, aerobic, rod-shaped bacterium. The Gram reaction was variable or negative. The optimum growth temperature was 30 degrees C and the optimum pH was 8. The G+C content of the DNA was 55 mol%. The major cellular fatty acid and
respiratory quinone were anteiso-C(15 : 0) and MK-7, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene indicated that
the isolate was a member of the genus Paenibacillus. The nearest relative, with a similarity of 94.2 %, was Paenibacillus koleovorans,
a bacterium capable of degrading the sheath of S. natans. The phenotypic characteristics of the isolate were apparently different from
those of related species in the genus Paenibacillus. It is proposed that the isolate be designated Paenibacillus hodogayensis sp. nov.
The type strain is SG(T) (=JCM 12520(T)=KCTC 3919(T)). PMID: 15774654 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Paenibacillus hongkongensis Mol Pathol. 2003 Feb;56(1):29-35. Pseudobacteraemia in a patient with neutropenic fever caused by
a novel paenibacillus species: Paenibacillus hongkongensis sp. nov. Teng JL(1), Woo PC, Leung KW, Lau SK, Wong MK, Yuen KY.
Author information: (1)Department of Microbiology, The University of Hong Kong, University Pathology Building, Queen Mary Hospital,
Hong Kong. AIMS: To characterise a strain of Gram negative aerobic straight or slightly curved rods (HKU3) isolated from the blood
69
culture of a 9 year old Chinese boy with neutropenic fever and pseudobacteraemia. METHODS: The isolate was phenotypically investigated by standard biochemical methods using conventional biochemical tests, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission
electron microscopy. Genotypically, the 16S rRNA gene of the bacterium was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and
sequenced. The sequence of the PCR product was compared with known 16S rRNA gene sequences in the Genbank by multiple
sequence alignment. The G + C content was determined by thermal denaturation. A phylogenetic tree was constructed by the PileUp
method. RESULTS: The cells of the bacterial strain were aerobic, sporulating, Gram negative straight or slight curved rods. The bacterium grew on horse blood agar as non-haemolytic, grey colonies of 1 mm in diameter after 24 hours of incubation at 37 degrees C
in ambient air. No enhancement of growth was seen in 5% CO(2). It grew at 50 degrees C as pinpoint colonies after 72 hours of incubation, but did not grow at 65 degrees C or on MacConkey agar. It was non-motile. It produced catalase (weakly positive) and cytochrome oxidase. It reduced nitrate, produced beta galactosidase, hydrolysed esculin, and utilised sodium acetate. A scanning electron micrograph of the bacterium showed straight or slightly curved rods. A transmission electron micrograph of the cell wall of the
bacterium revealed multiple electron dense layers, including the outer membrane, middle murein layer, and inner cytoplasmic membrane, compatible with its Gram smear appearance. 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that there were 7.7%, 8.0%, 8.2%, and 8.6%
differences between the 16S rRNA gene sequence of the bacterium and those of Paenibacillus macerans, Paenibacillus borealis,
Bacillus ehimensis, and Paenibacillus amylolyticus, respectively. The mean (SD) G + C content of the bacterium was 47.6 (2.1) mol%.
Phylogenetically, it belongs to the genus paenibacillus (previously called group 3 bacillus). CONCLUSIONS: A bacterium that exhibited phenotypic and genotypic characteristics that are very different from closely related members of paenibacillus was the cause of
pseudobacteraemia in a patient with neutropenic fever. A new species, Paenibacillus hongkongensis sp. nov. is proposed, for which
HKU3 is the type strain. PMCID: PMC1187286 PMID: 12560460 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
248. Paenibacillus illinoisensis Int J Syst Bacteriol. 1997 Apr;47(2):299-306. Emended description of Paenibacillus amylolyticus and
description of Paenibacillus illinoisensis sp. nov. and Paenibacillus chibensis sp. nov. Shida O(1), Takagi H, Kadowaki K, Nakamura
LK, Komagata K. Author information: (1)Research Laboratory, Higeta Shoyu Co., Ltd, Chiba, Japan. [email protected] The
taxonomic position of unidentified group 6 of Bacillus circulans as described by Nakamura and Swezey (L.K. Nakamura and J.
Swezey, Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 33:46-52, 1983) was determined, and the taxonomy of Paenibacillus amylolyticus was reexamined.
The results of PCR amplification of a 16S rRNA gene fragment with a specific primer and comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene
sequences warranted placing the two taxa in the genus Paenibacillus. The levels of DNA reassociation among the strains revealed
four groups (designated groups I, II, III, and 6), each with a high level of intragroup relatedness (> 72%). Clustering based on phenotypic characteristics correlated well with DNA relatedness grouping. P. amylolyticus strains were scattered in groups I, II, and III.
Strains labeled the type strain of P. amylolyticus from different culture collections appeared in groups I and III. Strains found in group I
were identified as P. amylolyticus sensu stricto, and the one strain found in group III was identified as Paenibacillus lautus. Group 6
encompassed strains formerly assigned to B. circulans group 6, and group II contained other strains identified as P. amylolyticus.
Groups 6 and II were phenotypically and genetically distinct taxa that were distinguishable from the previously described species.
These findings showed that groups 6 and II were new species, for which we propose the names Paenibacillus illinoisensis and Paenibacillus chibensis, respectively. PMID: 9103613 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
249. Paenibacillus jamilae Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2001 Sep;51(Pt 5):1687-92. Paenibacillus jamilae sp. nov., an exopolysaccharide-producing bacterium able to grow in olive-mill wastewater. Aguilera M(1), Monteoliva-Sánchez M, Suárez A, Guerra V, Lizama C,
Bennasar A, Ramos-Cormenzana A. Author information: (1)Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Granada,
Spain. Endospore-forming strains were isolated from corn-compost treated with olive-mill wastewater ('alpechin'). The strains were
taxonomically studied and proposed as a novel Paenibacillus species. These organisms (strains B.3T, B.7 and B.9) were particularly
distinguishable from other aerobic spore-forming species by their ability to grow optimally in 100% (v/v) olive-mill wastewater at 30
degrees C and pH 7.0 and concomitant production of an interesting exopolysaccharide. Chemotaxonomic analysis revealed that
MK-7 was the predominant menaquinone, the major fatty acid was anteiso C15:0 and the cell wall contained meso-diaminopimelic
acid. The DNA G+C content was 40.7 mol%. Comparative sequence analysis of 16S rDNA with different reference species from the
genera Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Brevibacillus, Aneurinibacillus, Alicyclobacillus, Halobacillus, Virgibacillus, Amphibacillus, Coprobacillus and Gracilibacillus indicated that the isolated strains were highly related to the genus Paenibacillus. Strain B.3T formed an evolutionary lineage distinct from other species within the evolutionary radiation encompassing the genus Paenibacillus. Strain B.3T was a
close relative of Paenibacillus polymyxa, but DNA-DNA relatedness data with this species was very low (relative binding ratio < 16%).
Based on the morphological and physiological characteristics, as well as on the phylogenetic position determined by 16S rDNA analysis and DNA-DNA relatedness data, it is concluded that these strains should be designated a novel species, for which the name
Paenibacillus jamilae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is B.3T (= CECT 5266T = DSM 13815T). PMID: 11594596 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
250. Paenibacillus koleovorans Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2002 Sep;52(Pt 5):1597-601. Paenibacillus koleovorans sp. nov., able to grow
on the sheath of Sphaerotilus natans. Takeda M(1), Kamagata Y, Shinmaru S, Nishiyama T, Koizumi J. Author information: (1)Division
of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Yokohama National University, Hodogaya, Japan.
70
[email protected] Two bacterial strains that are able to grow specifically on the sheath of a sheathed filamentous bacterium, Sphaerotilus natans, were isolated from soil samples. The sheath-degrading organisms, designated strains TB(T) and TK, are facultatively
anaerobic and form endospores. The Gram reaction was negative at all stages of cultivation. The optimum growth temperature and
pH were 30 degrees C and pH 7. The DNA G+C content was 54.0-55.8 mol%. MK-7 was the predominant menaquinone and anteiso-C15:0 was the major fatty acid. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rDNA sequences revealed that the isolates were
closely related to Paenibacillus chondroitinus, Paenibacillus alginolyticus, Paenibacillus koreensis, Paenibacillus validus, Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae and P. larvae subsp. pulvifaciens. The sequences were found to contain consensus sequences characteristic
of all Paenibacillus species. The isolates were able to lyse and utilize the purified sheath of S. natans as the sole carbon and energy
source. Acid was not produced from common carbon sources, allowing easy distinction from other members of Paenibacillus. It is
concluded that the two strains represent a novel Paenibacillus species, for which the name Paenibacillus koleovorans sp. nov. is
proposed. The type strain is strain TB(T) (= JCM 11186T = IAM 14926T = KCTC 13912T). PMID: 12361261 [PubMed - indexed for
MEDLINE]
251. Paenibacillus kribbensis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2003 Jan;53(Pt 1):295-301. Paenibacillus kribbensis sp. nov. and Paenibacillus
terrae sp. nov., bioflocculants for efficient harvesting of algal cells. Yoon JH(1), Oh HM, Yoon BD, Kang KH, Park YH. Author information: (1)Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), PO Box 115, Yusong, Taejon, Korea. Two strains of
Gram-variable, rod-shaped, endospore-forming, peritrichously flagellated, rod-shaped bacteria were isolated from a soil sample collected in Taejon City, Korea. The two strains (AM49T and AM141T) were found to be members of the genus Paenibacillus, on the basis of the results of phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses. Strains AM49T and AM141T were found to have a cell-wall peptidoglycan
based on meso-diaminopimelic acid, MK-7 as their predominant menaquinone and anteiso-C15:0 as their major fatty acid. The DNA
G + C contents of strains AM49T and AM141T were 48 and 47 mol%, respectively. The two strains formed distinct phylogenetic lineages within the radiation of the cluster comprising Paenibacillus spp. and a coherent cluster with Paenibacillus jamilae, Paenibacillus
polymyxa, Paenibacillus azotofixans and Paenibacillus peoriae. The level of 16S rDNA similarity between strains AM49T and AM141T
was 97.6%, and 16S rDNA similarity values between strains AM49T and AM141T and the type strains of other Paenibacillus spp.
ranged from 90.3 to 98.7%. Levels of DNA-DNA similarity between the two strains and members of the genus Paenibacillus indicated
that strains AM49T and AM141T were distinguishable from each other and from four phylogenetically related Paenibacillus spp.
Therefore, on the basis of their phenotypic properties, phylogeny and genomic distinctiveness, it is proposed that strains AM49T and
AM141T be placed in the genus Paenibacillus as two distinct novel species, Paenibacillus kribbensis (AM49T =KCTC 0766BPT
=JCM 11465T) and Paenibacillus terrae (AM141T =KCCM 41557T =JCM 11466T). PMID: 12656187 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
252. Paenibacillus lactis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2004 May;54(Pt 3):885-91. Paenibacillus lactis sp. nov., isolated from raw and
heat-treated milk. Scheldeman P(1), Goossens K, Rodriguez-Diaz M, Pil A, Goris J, Herman L, De Vos P, Logan NA, Heyndrickx M.
Author information: (1)Ministry of the Flemish Community, Centre for Agricultural Research, Department of Animal Product Quality,
Brusselsesteenweg 370, 9090 Melle, Belgium. [email protected] Endospore-forming bacteria were recovered from individual packages from different processing lines in a dairy plant during a tenacious periodical contamination of their UHT-milk production. Two colony types were seen, one of which was identified as Bacillus sporothermodurans. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene of the
second colony type placed these isolates within the genus Paenibacillus, with Paenibacillus lautus as the closest known relative.
Moreover, over 99 % similarity was observed to the 16S rDNA sequence of MB 2035, a strain isolated previously from raw milk during
a survey at dairy farms for very heat-resistant spore-forming bacteria. Nine other potentially closely related strains among the dairy
farm isolates were found using rep-PCR typing. The taxonomic positions of these 19 isolates were further investigated using 16S
rRNA gene sequencing and DNA-DNA hybridizations of representative strains. All 19 isolates shared a high degree of phenotypic
similarity and were easily distinguished from closely related members of the genus. Anteiso-C(15 : 0), C(16 : 0) and iso-C(15 : 0)
were among the major fatty acids and the genomic DNA G+C content was 51.6-51.7 mol%. Therefore, based on their phenotypic,
phylogenetic and genomic distinctiveness, these 19 strains, isolated from both raw and heat-treated milk, are placed in the genus
Paenibacillus as Paenibacillus lactis sp. nov. The type strain is MB 1871(T) (=LMG 21940(T)=DSM 15596(T)). PMID: 15143040
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
253. Paenibacillus phyllosphaerae Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2005 Mar;55(Pt 2):743-6. Paenibacillus phyllosphaerae sp. nov., a xylanolytic bacterium isolated from the phyllosphere of Phoenix dactylifera. Rivas R(1), Mateos PF, Martínez-Molina E, Velázquez E. Author
information: (1)Departamento de Microbiología y Genética, Edificio Departamental, Campus Miguel de Unamuno, Universidad de
Salamanca, 37007 Salamanca, Spain. [email protected] A bacterial strain, designated PALXIL04(T), was isolated from
the phyllosphere of Phoenix dactylifera. Phylogenetic analysis placed the isolate within the genus Paenibacillus with the closest relatives being Paenibacillus curdlanolyticus and Paenibacillus kobensis. DNA-DNA hybridization measurements showed low DNA relatedness (15-20 %) between the isolate and its closest relatives. Cells were Gram-variable, facultatively anaerobic, motile, sporulating
rods. Catalase and oxidase were produced by the organism. Cellulose, starch, aesculin and xylan were hydrolysed. Growth was
supported by many carbohydrates as the carbon source. MK-7 was the predominant menaquinone and anteiso-C(15 : 0) the major
71
fatty acid. The G+C content of the DNA was 50.7 mol%. Phylogenetic, DNA-DNA relatedness and phenotypic analyses indicated that
strain PALXIL04(T) represents a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus phyllosphaerae sp. nov.
is proposed. The type strain is PALXIL04(T) (=LMG 22192(T)=CECT 5862(T)). PMID: 15774655 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
254. Paenibacillus profundus Nat Prod Commun. 2013 Mar;8(3):381-4. A new antimicrobial and anticancer peptide producing by the
marine deep sediment strain "Paenibacillus profundus" sp. nov. Sl 79. Kalinovskaya NI(1), Romanenko LA, Kalinovsky AI, Dmitrenok
PS, Dyshlovoy SA. Author information: (1)G.B. Elyakov Pacific Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Far-Eastern Branch of the Russian
Academy of Sciences, 690022 Vladivostok, Pr. 100-letiya Vladivostoka 159, Russian Federation. [email protected] A new linear
glyceryl acid derived heptapeptide (1), together with known isocoumarin antibiotic, Y-05460M-A (2), were isolated from the culture of
the deep sea sediment strain SI 79 classified as "Paenibacillus profundus" sp. nov. Their structures were determined by 1D- and 2DNMR techniques and ESI-MS/MS experiments. HPLC analysis of the Marfey derivatives in comparison to their analogs of authentic
amino acids revealed that all amino acids in peptide 1, with an exception of Val, have the D-configuration. The compound 1 showed
inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecium as well as cytotoxic and moderate colony growth inhibitory activity against SK-MEL-28 cell line. PMID: 23678816 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]$$
255. Paenibacillus tyraminigenes Int J Food Microbiol. 2008 Oct 31;127(3):209-14. doi: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2008.07.002. Epub 2008
Jul 4. Paenibacillus tyraminigenes sp. nov. isolated from Myeolchi-jeotgal, a traditional Korean salted and fermented anchovy. Mah
JH(1), Chang YH, Hwang HJ. Author information: (1)Graduate School of Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul, Republic of Korea. A
bacterial strain H3029, a gram-positive, rod-shaped, oxidase-negative, endospore-forming bacterium that characteristically produces
tyramine from tyrosine, was isolated from a Myeolchi-jeotgal, a traditional Korean salted and fermented anchovy (Engraulis japonicus). The H3029 strain showed a high ability to produce 4140 microg/ml of tyramine from the culture broth containing 5000 microg/ml
tyrosine. On the other hand, the strain produced a relatively low level of other putrefactive amines, at 973 microg/ml of putrescine and
147 microg/ml of cadaverine from the media, with each 5000 microg/ml of ornithine hydrochloride and lysine hydrochloride. The
H3029 strain produced no detectable level of histamine (detection limit of 4 microg/ml) from the media containing 5000 microg/ml of
histidine hydrochloride. Meanwhile, tyramine, the main product of the strain, showed the antimicrobial activity at the level of over 1
mg/disk against Staphylococcus aureus by agar diffusion test, and the mutagenicity in Ames test at 0.1 mg/plate using Salmonella
typhimurium TA98 and TA1535. On the basis of the polyphasic taxonomic study, the H3029(T) strain was assigned a novel species of
the genus Paenibacillus as Paenibacillus tyraminigenes sp. nov. The type strain of which is strain H3029(T) (=KCTC 10694BP(T)).
PMID: 18678425 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
第二十四节
Paraliobacillus
256. Paraliobacillus ryukyuensis J Gen Appl Microbiol. 2002 Oct;48(5):269-79. Paraliobacillus ryukyuensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a new
Gram-positive, slightly halophilic, extremely halotolerant, facultative anaerobe isolated from a decomposing marine alga. Ishikawa
M(1), Ishizaki S, Yamamoto Y, Yamasato K. Author information: (1)Department of Fermentation Science, Faculty of Applied
Bio-Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Setagaya-ku, Japan. [email protected] A slightly halophilic, extremely halotolerant, alkaliphilic, and facultatively anaerobic rod bacterium was isolated from a decomposing marine alga collected in Okinawa, Japan. The isolate, designated O15-7(T), was Gram-positive, endospore-forming, catalase-positive, menaquinone-7-possessing bacterium that is motile by peritrichous flagella. The isolate was an inhabitant of marine environments; the optimum NaCl concentration for
growth was 0.75-3.0% (w/v) with a range of 0-22.0%, and the optimum pH was 7.0-8.5 with a range of 5.5-9.5. Catalase was produced in aerobic cultivation but not in anaerobic cultivation. Carbohydrate, sugar alcohol or a related carbon compound was required
for growth. In aerobic cultivation, the isolate produced pyruvate, acetate and CO(2) from glucose, and in anaerobic cultivation, it produced lactate, formate, acetate and ethanol with a molar ratio of approximately 2 : 1 : 1 for the last three products. No gas was produced anaerobically. Lactate yield per consumed glucose was markedly affected by the pH of the fermentation medium: 51% at pH
6.5 and 8% at pH 9.0. The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. Phylogenetically, the isolate occupied an independent lineage within the group composed of the halophilic/halotolerant/alkaliphilic and/or alkalitolerant species in Bacillus rRNA
group 1 with the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 95.2% to the genus Gracilibacillus. For this isolate, Paraliobacillus
ryukyuensis gen. nov., sp. nov. was proposed. The type strain, O15-7(T) (G+C535.6 mol%), has been deposited in the DSMZ, IAM,
72
NBRC, and NRIC (DSM 15140(T)=IAM 15001(T)=NBRC 10001(T)=NRIC 0520(T)). PMID: 12501437 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
第二十五节
Pelagibacillus
257. Pelagibacillus goriensis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2007 Jul;57(Pt 7):1554-60. Pelagibacillus goriensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a moderately halotolerant bacterium isolated from coastal water off the east coast of Korea. Kim YG(1), Hwang CY, Yoo KW, Moon HT, Yoon
JH, Cho BC. Author information: (1)School of Earth and Environmental Sciences and Research Institute of Oceanography, Seoul National University, San 56-1 Shillim-dong, Kwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742, Republic of Korea. A Gram-positive, moderately halotolerant
bacterium, designated CL-GR16(T), was isolated from coastal water off the east coast of Korea. The strain was strictly aerobic,
rod-shaped, motile by means of peritrichous flagella and produced ellipsoidal spores. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA
gene sequences revealed that the isolate represented an independent lineage within Bacillus rRNA group 1, showing 93.6-94.6 %
similarity with respect to the genus Ornithinibacillus, 94.0 % with respect to Paucisalibacillus, 91.0-93.5 % with respect to Virgibacillus,
93.2-93.3 % with respect to Salinibacillus and 92.8-93.2 % with respect to Oceanobacillus. The optimum temperature and pH for
growth were 30 degrees C and pH 7.5. Strain CL-GR16(T) was able to grow at NaCl concentrations from 0 to 14 %, with optimum
growth occurring at 0-2 % NaCl. The strain lacked oxidase. The major fatty acids were anteiso-C(15 : 0) (65.6 %), anteiso-C(17 : 0)
(11.0 %) and iso-C(15 : 0) (9.1 %). The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and an unidentified glycolipid.
The predominant menaquinone was MK-7. The G+C content of the DNA was 43 mol%. On the basis of the results of the polyphasic
analysis, strain CL-GR16(T) represents a novel genus and species, for which the name Pelagibacillus goriensis gen. nov., sp. nov. is
proposed. The type strain is strain CL-GR16(T) (=KCCM 42329(T)=DSM 18252(T)). PMID: 17625193 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
第二十六节
Pontibacillus
258. Pontibacillus chungwhensis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2005 Jan;55(Pt 1):165-70. Pontibacillus chungwhensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a
moderately halophilic Gram-positive bacterium from a solar saltern in Korea. Lim JM(1), Jeon CO, Song SM, Kim CJ. Author information: (1)Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), 52 Oeundong, Yusong, Daejon 305-333, Republic of
Korea. Three moderately halophilic, spore-forming strains, designated BH030062T, BH030049 and BH030080, were isolated from a
solar saltern in Korea. Phylogenetic analyses and comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence studies revealed that the isolates represent
a novel distinct monophyletic lineage within the phyletic group classically defined as the genus Bacillus and are most closely related
to members of the genera Gracilibacillus (93.7-95.1 % similarity), Virgibacillus (93.5-94.8 %), Halobacillus (94.8-95.9 %), Filobacillus
(94.4-94.8 %) and Lentibacillus (93.3-93.7 %). Strain BH030062T was strictly aerobic, rod-shaped, Gram-positive and motile by
means of peritrichous flagella. It grew in the presence of 1-15 % (w/v) NaCl and at temperatures of 15-45 degrees C. The cell wall
peptidoglycan contained A1gamma-meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. The predominant cellular fatty acids
were iso-C(15 : 0), anteiso-C(15 : 0) and iso-C(16 : 0). DNA G+C content was about 41 mol% and the major isoprenoid quinone was
MK-7. On the basis of their physiological and molecular properties, the isolates represent a new genus, Pontibacillus gen. nov., and
novel species, Pontibacillus chungwhensis sp. nov. The type strain is BH030062T (=KCTC 3890T=DSM 16287T). PMID: 15653871
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
第二十七节
Psychrobacillus
259. Psychrobacillus gen. nov. Syst Appl Microbiol. 2010 Nov;33(7):367-73. doi: 10.1016/j.syapm.2010.06.003. Epub 2010 Jul 21. Psychrobacillus gen. nov. and proposal for reclassification of Bacillus insolitus Larkin & Stokes, 1967, B. psychrotolerans Abd-El Rahman
et al., 2002 and B. psychrodurans Abd-El Rahman et al., 2002 as Psychrobacillus insolitus comb. nov., Psychrobacillus psychrotol-
73
erans comb. nov. and Psychrobacillus psychrodurans comb. nov. Krishnamurthi S(1), Ruckmani A, Pukall R, Chakrabarti T. Author
information: (1)Microbial Type Culture Collection & Gene Bank (MTCC), Institute of Microbial Technology, Sector 39A, Chandigarh
160 036, India. The taxonomic status of three Bacillus species, Bacillus insolitus, B. psychrodurans and B. psychrotolerans was
reexamined using a polyphasic approach. In our analysis, these three Bacillus species formed a cluster separate from other members of Bacillus rRNA group 2 [5] and from Bacillus sensu stricto. These three species shared high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities between them (97.8-99.7%) and showed closest sequence similarity (95.3-96.3%) to Paenisporosarcina quisquiliarum gen. nov.,
sp. nov. [18]. Sequence similarities with other related genera ranged between 90.9% and 94.5%. Phylogenetic coherence of the three
species was supported by phenotypic characteristics, such as growth at low temperatures, negative oxidation and assimilation of
many carbohydrates, MK8 as the major isoprenoid quinine and broadly similar polar lipid profiles. All three species had a similar peptidoglycan type of the variation A4β and similar genomic G+C contents (35.7-36.6 mol% [1]). Genomic relatedness among them was
shown to be less than 70% and justified their separate species status [1]. These three species could be differentiated from each other
and from related taxa on the basis of phenotypic, including chemotaxonomic, characteristics and ribotype patterns. On the basis of
our analysis, we propose a new genus Psychrobacillus gen. nov. and to transfer B. insolitus, B. psychrodurans and B. psychrotolerans to the new genus as Psychrobacillus insolitus comb. nov. (type species of the genus; type strain W16B(T)=DSM 5(T)), P. psychrodurans comb. nov. (type strain 68E3(T)=DSM 11713(T)) and P. psychrotolerans comb. nov. (type strain 3H1(T)=DSM 11706(T)).
Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved. PMID: 20650590 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
第二十八节
Rummeliibacillus
260. Rummeliibacillus stabekisii Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2009 May;59(Pt 5):1094-9. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.006098-0. Description of Rummeliibacillus stabekisii gen. nov., sp. nov. and reclassification of Bacillus pycnus Nakamura et al. 2002 as Rummeliibacillus pycnus
comb. nov. Vaishampayan P(1), Miyashita M, Ohnishi A, Satomi M, Rooney A, La Duc MT, Venkateswaran K. Author information:
(1)Biotechnology and Planetary Protection Group, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109,
USA. Strains of aerobic, Gram-positive, rod-shaped, round-spore-forming bacteria were isolated from different geographical locations
and a subsequent polyphasic study was undertaken to clarify the taxonomic position of the round-spore-forming isolates strain
KSC-SF6g(T), strain M32 and strain NBRC 12622. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities demonstrated that these strains were most
closely affiliated with Bacillus pycnus NRRL NRS-1691(T) (98 %), with species of Kurthia (96 %) and Viridibacillus (94-96 %) as the
next nearest relatives. However, while DNA-DNA hybridization studies showed approx. 70 % reassociation among strains
KSC-SF6g(T), M32 and NBRC 12622, DNA-DNA hybridization values between these strains and B. pycnus NRRL NRS-1691(T)
never exceeded 13 %. Differences in the molecular structure of the cell-wall peptidoglycan could not differentiate these strains sufficiently from other closely related genera (Viridibacillus and Kurthia). However, Lys-Asp was present in strains KSC-SF6g(T), M32 and
NBRC 12622, whereas l-Lys-d-Glu was reported in B. pycnus NRRL NRS-1691(T). The menaquinone MK-7 was dominant in strains
KSC-SF6g(T), M32 and NBRC 12622 and members of the genus Kurthia, whereas MK-8 was abundant in Viridibacillus species.
Strains KSC-SF6g(T), M32 and NBRC 12622 exhibited fatty acid profiles consisting of major amounts of anteiso-C(15 : 0) ( approximately 50 %) and iso-C(15 : 0) ( approximately 25 %) and moderate amounts of anteiso-C(17 : 0) ( approximately 7 %), which discriminated them from closely related B. pycnus NRRL NRS-1691(T) and species of Viridibacillus (iso-C(15 : 0); 46-74 %). The authors propose that strains KSC-SF6g(T), M32 and NBRC 12622 and B. pycnus NRRL NRS-1691(T) be reclassified into a separate
genus based on clear-cut differences in discriminative taxonomic markers and the distant placement of B. pycnus and the novel
strains described herein from other species of this clade according to current 16S rRNA gene sequence-based relatedness ( approximately 4 % difference in sequence). We propose the placement of these isolates into the novel genus Rummeliibacillus gen. nov.
For the new taxon comprising strains KSC-SF6g(T), M32 and NBRC 12622, we propose the name Rummeliibacillus stabekisii gen.
nov., sp. nov. (the type species of Rummeliibacillus), represented by the type strain KSC-SF6g(T) (=NRRL B-51320(T) =NBRC
104870(T)). In addition, Bacillus pycnus, which bears traits distinct from other round-spore-forming species [i.e. absence of growth at
high NaCl (7 %), positive reaction for gelatin liquefaction], is reclassified as Rummeliibacillus pycnus comb. nov. (type strain JCM
11075(T) =NRRL NRS-1691(T)) based on phylogenetic affiliations and phenotypic characterization. PMID: 19406799 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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第二十九节
Salinibacillus
261. Salinibacillus aidingensis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2005 Mar;55(Pt 2):949-53. Salinibacillus aidingensis gen. nov., sp. nov. and
Salinibacillus kushneri sp. nov., moderately halophilic bacteria isolated from a neutral saline lake in Xin-Jiang, China. Ren PG(1),
Zhou PJ. Author information: (1)State Key Laboratory of Microbial Resources, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080, China. Three Gram-positive, moderately halophilic, heterotrophic bacterial strains were isolated from a neutral saline lake in the Xin-Jiang area of China. The strains, designated 8-2(T), W11-1 and 25-7(T), were motile, spore-forming, aerobic rods
and contained meso-diaminopimelic acid in their cell walls. Their DNA G+C contents were 37.4, 37.2 and 39.9 mol%, respectively.
The main fatty acids in the cellular membranes of these novel strains were C(15) and C(17) methyl-branched. No species with validly
published names showed 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of more than 95 % with respect to these novel isolates; the most
closely related species was a halophilic denitrifier, Bacillus halodenitrificans (94.6 %). Polyphasic taxonomic studies revealed that
these strains belong to the Bacillaceae and are distantly related to other genera of the family. It is proposed that a new genus,
Salinibacillus, should be created, with Salinibacillus aidingensis (type strain, 25-7(T)=AS 1.3565(T)=JCM 12389(T)) as the type species. Another species, Salinibacillus kushneri, is also proposed, with 8-2(T) (=AS 1.3566(T)=JCM 12390(T)) as the type strain. PMID:
15774690 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
第三十节
Salsuginibacillus
262. Salsuginibacillus kocurii Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2007 Oct;57(Pt 10):2381-6. Salsuginibacillus kocurii gen. nov., sp. nov., a moderately halophilic bacterium from soda-lake sediment. Carrasco IJ(1), Márquez MC, Xue Y, Ma Y, Cowan DA, Jones BE, Grant WD,
Ventosa A. Author information: (1)Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Sevilla, 41012
Sevilla, Spain. A Gram-positive, endospore-forming, alkali-tolerant, moderately halophilic bacterium, designated strain CH9d(T), was
isolated from the sediment of Lake Chagannor in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China. The cells were rod-shaped and motile. Isolate CH9d(T) grew at pH 5.8-10.0 (optimally at pH 8.5), at salinities of 3-20 % (w/v) marine salts (optimally at 10.0 %, w/v) and
between 20 and 50 degrees C (optimally at 37 degrees C). The cell wall contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and the major respiratory isoprenoid quinone was MK-7. The predominant cellular fatty acids of strain CH9d(T) were anteiso-C(15 : 0), anteiso-C(17 : 0),
iso-C(17 : 0) and iso-C(15 : 0) and its polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidyl- glycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidy- lethanolamine and two unknown phospholipids. The G+C content of the DNA was 44.7 mol%. Strain CH9d(T) exhibited a 16S rRNA gene
sequence similarity value of only 91 % with respect to Thalassobacillus devorans DSM 16966(T) and showed values below 91 % with
respect to members of the genera Bacillus, Halobacillus and Marinococcus. Strain CH9d(T) could be clearly differentiated from its
closest phylogenetic neighbours on the basis of several phenotypic, genotypic and chemotaxonomic features. Therefore, data from
the polyphasic study support the placement of strain CH9d (T) in a novel genus and species, for which the name Salsuginibacillus
kocurii gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CH9d(T) (=CCM 7365(T)=CECT 7154(T)=CGMCC 1.6287(T)=DSM
18087(T)). PMID: 17911315 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
第三十一节
Sulfobacillus
263. Sulfobacillus sibiricus Mikrobiologiia. 2003 Sep-Oct;72(5):681-8. [Sulfobacillus sibiricus sp. nov., a new moderately thermophilic
bacterium]. [Article in Russian] Melamud VS(1), Pivovarova TA, Turova TP, Kolganova TV, Osipov GA, Lysenko AM, Kondrat'eva TF,
Karavaĭko GI. Author information: (1)Institute of Microbiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. 60-letiya Oktyabrya 7, k. 2., Moscow,
117312 Russia. In the course of pilot industrial testing of a biohydrometallurgical technology for processing goldarsenic concentrate
obtained from the Nezhdaninskoe ore deposit (East Siberia, Sakha, Yakutiya), a new gram-positive rod-shaped spore-forming moderately thermophilic bacterium (designated as strain N1) oxidizing Fe2+, S0, and sulfide minerals in the presence of yeast extract
(0.02%) was isolated from a dense pulp. Physiologically, strain N1 differs from previously described species of the genus Sulfobacillus in having a somewhat higher optimal growth temperature (55 degrees C). Unlike the type strain of S. thermosulfidooxidans, strain
75
N1 could grow on medium with 1 mM thiosulfate or sodium tetrathionate as a source of energy only within several passages and
failed to grow, in the absence of an inorganic energy source, on media with sucrose, fructose, glucose, reduced glutathione, alanine,
cysteine, sorbitol, sodium acetate, or pyruvate. The G + C content of the DNA of strain N1 was 48.2 mol %. The strain showed 42%
homology after DNA-DNA hybridization with the type strain of S. thermosulfidooxidans and 10% homology with the type strain of S.
acidophilus. The isolate differed from previously studied strains of S. thermosulfidooxidans in the structure of its chromosomal DNA
(determined by the method of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis) which remained stable as growth conditions were changed. According
to the results of the 16S rRNA gene analysis, the new strain forms a single cluster with the bacteria of the species Sulfobacillus
thermosulfidooxidans (sequence similarity of 97.9-98.6%). Based on these genetic and physiological features, strain N1 is described
as a new species Sulfobacillus sibiricus sp. nov. PMID: 14679908 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
第三十二节
Tenuibacillus
264. Tenuibacillus multivorans Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2005 Jan;55(Pt 1):95-9. Tenuibacillus multivorans gen. nov., sp. nov., a moderately halophilic bacterium isolated from saline soil in Xin-Jiang, China. Ren PG(1), Zhou PJ. Author information: (1)State Key Laboratory of Microbial Resources, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080, China. [email protected]
Two Gram-positive, rod-shaped, spore-forming and moderately halophilic bacteria (strains 28-1T, 28-4), isolated from a soil sample
from a neutral salt lake in Xin-Jiang, China, were characterized polyphasically. On the basis of fasta (ungapped) analyses of 16S
rRNA gene sequences, strains 28-1T and 28-4 were shown to belong to the Bacillaceae and to be closely related to Filobacillus
milensis DSM 13259T (97.0 %) and Bacillus haloalkaliphilus DSM 5271T (95.7 %). 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with other
recognized species was not more than 94.1 %. Phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic, physiological and biochemical data supported the
differentiation of these novel strains from F. milensis and B. haloalkaliphilus. Therefore these two previously unidentified strains are
considered to represent a new genus and species, for which the name Tenuibacillus multivorans gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The
type strain is 28-1T (=AS 1.3442T=NBRC 100370T). PMID: 15653860 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
第三十三节
Texcoconibacillus
265. Texcoconibacillus texcoconensis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2013 Sep;63(Pt 9):3336-41. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.048447-0. Epub 2013
Apr 5. Texcoconibacillus texcoconensis gen. nov., sp. nov., alkalophilic and halotolerant bacteria isolated from soil of the former lake
Texcoco (Mexico). Ruiz-Romero E(1), Coutiño-Coutiño Mde L, Valenzuela-Encinas C, López-Ramírez MP, Marsch R, Dendooven L.
Author information: (1) Laboratory of Soil Ecology, Cinvestav, Mexico. A novel Gram-positive, rod-shaped, spore-forming bacterium,
designated 13CC(T) was isolated from soil of the former lake Texcoco. The strain was aerobic, catalase-positive and oxidase-negative. It grew at salinities of 0-26% (w/v) NaCl with an optimum at 9-16% (w/v) NaCl. The cells contain peptidoglycan type
A1γ, A1γ' with glycine instead of l-alanine and three variations of peptidoglycan type A4γ. The only quinone detected was MK-7. The
major fatty acid was anteiso-C(15:0). The polar lipids fraction consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and three different phospholipids. The DNA G+C content was 37.5 mol%. Maximum-likelihood phylogenetic analysis
based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain 13CC(T) was closely related to members of the genus Bacillus and shared
92.35% similarity with Bacillus agaradhaerens, 92.28% with Bacillus neizhouensis and 92.21% with Bacillus locisalis. It is proposed
based on the phenotypic, genotypic and phylogenetic analyses that the novel isolate should be classified as a representative of a
new genus and novel species, for which the name Texcoconibacillus texcoconensis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of
Texcoconibacillus texcoconensis is 13CC(T) ( =JCM 17654(T) =DSM 24696(T)). PMID: 23563229 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]$$
76
第三十四节
Thermobacillus
266. Thermobacillus xylanilyticus Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2000 Jan;50 Pt 1:315-20. Thermobacillus xylanilyticus gen. nov., sp. nov., a
new aerobic thermophilic xylan-degrading bacterium isolated from farm soil. Touzel JP(1), O'Donohue M, Debeire P, Samain E, Breton C. Author information: (1)INRA, Unité de Physicochimie et Biotechnologie des Polymères, Equipe de Fractionnement Enzymatique, Reims, France. [email protected] An aerobic, thermophilic, xylanolytic, spore-forming bacterium, XETP (T = type strain; P =
patent strain), has been isolated from farm soil situated underneath a manure heap in northern France. Strain XETP, which stained
negative in the Gram test, occurs as short rods which sometimes form chains. Its spores are ellipsoidal, central to subterminal and
occur in swollen sporangia. It grows at temperatures up to 63 degrees C and in the pH range 6.5-8.5. When grown on glucose in optimal conditions, its doubling time was found to be 33 min. CO2 was observed to have a growth-stimulating effect at the start of the
culture. In addition to glucose, the isolate utilizes xylose, arabinose, mannose, cellobiose, galactose, maltose, sucrose, xylan and
starch. Growth is inhibited by 5% NaCl. The G+C content of strain XETP is 57.5 mol%. The 16S rDNA sequence analysis indicated
that strain XETP falls into the radiation of the Bacillus-Lactobacillus-Streptococcus subdivision of the Gram-positive phylum. Its three
closest phylogenetic relatives are 'Bacillus viscosus', Paenibacillus curdlanolyticus and Bacillus popilliae with identity values of 91.15,
90.94 and 90.92%, respectively. The major cellular fatty acids are 14-methyl pentadecanoic acid (16:0 iso), hexadecanoic acid (16:0)
and 14-methyl hexadecanoic acid (17:0 anteiso). On the basis of 16S rRNA sequence and chemotaxonomic characteristics, the isolate is different enough for it to be considered as a member of a new genus. It is therefore proposed that this isolate represents a new
genus and species: Thermobacillus xylanilyticus. Strain XETP, the type strain of Thermobacillus xylanilyticus, has been deposited in
the Collection Nationale de Cultures Microbiennes (CNCM I-1017) as a patent strain. PMID: 10826818 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
第三十五节
Tuberibacillus
267. Tuberibacillus calidus Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2006 Nov;56(Pt 11):2545-51. Tuberibacillus calidus gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated
from a compost pile and reclassification of Bacillus naganoensis Tomimura et al. 1990 as Pullulanibacillus naganoensis gen. nov.,
comb. nov. and Bacillus laevolacticus Andersch et al. 1994 as Sporolactobacillus laevolacticus comb. nov. Hatayama K(1), Shoun H,
Ueda Y, Nakamura A. Author information: (1)Division of Integrative Environmental Sciences, Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8572, and Institute of Hyperthermophiles, Motobu-Noge Hospital, Okinawa, Japan. Two thermophilic strains, designated 607T and 606b, were isolated from a compost pile in Japan.
The novel strains were Gram-positive, aerobic, spore-forming rods. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strains 607T and 606b were closely related to Bacillus naganoensis (94.0-94.1% similarity) and separated from clusters
of the related genera Bacillus (<91.9%) and Sporolactobacillus (91.0-92.5%). In addition, some chemotaxonomic and physiological
characteristics of strains 607T and 606b differed from those of B. naganoensis and the two related genera. Several differences in
physiological characteristics and 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer region nucleotide sequences were observed between strains 607T and 606b; however, DNA-DNA hybridization indicated that these two strains belonged to the same species. From
these results, it is proposed that strains 607T and 606b represent the type species of a new genus, Tuberibacillus calidus gen. nov.,
sp. nov., with strain 607T (=JCM 13397T=DSM 17572T) as the type strain. In addition, the results of phylogenetic analyses, as well
as chemotaxonomic and physiological characterization, indicated that B. naganoensis and Bacillus laevolacticus did not belong to the
genus Bacillus. Based on these results, it is proposed that B. naganoensis and B. laevolacticus should be transferred to Pullulanibacillus naganoensis gen. nov., comb. nov. and Sporolactobacillus laevolacticus comb. nov., respectively. PMID: 17082388 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
77
第三十六节
Ureibacillus
268. Ureibacillus suwonensis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2006 Mar;56(Pt 3):663-6. Ureibacillus suwonensis sp. nov., isolated from cotton
waste composts. Kim BY(1), Lee SY, Weon HY, Kwon SW, Go SJ, Park YK, Schumann P, Fritze D. Author information: (1)Korean Agricultural Culture Collection (KACC), Genetic Resources Division, National Institute of Agricultural Biotechnology, Rural Development
Administration (RDA), Suwon 441-707, Korea. The taxonomic position of two spore-forming strains 6T19T and 6T29, isolated from
cotton composts for the cultivation of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus), was investigated by a polyphasic approach. Cells of
strains 6T19(T) and 6T29 were rod-shaped, Gram-negative and strictly aerobic. Sequencing and comparative analyses for the 16S
rRNA genes of these strains clearly showed their phylogenetic affiliation to the genus Ureibacillus. Their closest relatives Ureibacillus
thermosphaericus and Ureibacillus terrenus have sequence similarity of 96.9 and 97.5%, respectively. The isoprenoid quinones of
isolate 6T19T were MK-9, MK-8, MK-7, MK-10 and MK-6 (45:27:18:5:4%), the peptidoglycan type was L-lys<--D-Asp and the main
cellular fatty acid was i-C(16:0). DNA-DNA hybridization experiments resulted in relatedness values of 37% between 6T19T and U.
thermosphaericus DSM 10633T and 41% between 6T19T and U. terrenus DSM 12654T. Based on the polyphasic data, strains
6T19T and 6T29 can be described as members of a novel species of the genus Ureibacillus, for which the name Ureibacillus
suwonenesis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 6T19T (= KACC 11287T = DSM 16752T). PMID: 16514046 [PubMed - indexed
for MEDLINE]
269. Ureibacillus terrenus Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2001 Mar;51(Pt 2):447-55. Ureibacillus gen. nov., a new genus to accommodate Bacillus thermosphaericus (Andersson et al. 1995), emendation of Ureibacillus thermosphaericus and description of Ureibacillus terrenus sp. nov. Fortina MG(1), Pukall R, Schumann P, Mora D, Parini C, Manachini PL, Stackebrandt E. Author information:
(1)Department of Food Science and Microbiology, University of Milan, Italy. [email protected] Erratum in Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2009 May;59(Pt 5):1258. A polyphasic taxonomic study was performed on the type strain of Bacillus thermosphaericus DSM
10633T and three related soil isolates. On the basis of phenotypic characteristics, chemotaxonomic profiles and phylogenetic data a
new genus, Ureibacillus gen. nov., is proposed for the strains in the Bacillus thermosphaericus cluster. Strains of this cluster fall into
two DNA-DNA similarity groups: while one group contains the type strain of Ureibacillus thermosphaericus comb. nov. and a single
soil isolate, the other contains two soil isolates. The two groups differed in the composition of isoprenoid quinones and some phenotypic properties. These data support the description of a novel species of Ureibacillus for which the name Ureibacillus terrenus is
proposed. The type strain of this new species is TH9AT (= DSM 12654T = LMG 19470T). PMID: 11321090 [PubMed - indexed for
MEDLINE]
第三十七节
Virgibacillus
270. Virgibacillus carmonensis Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2003 Mar;53(Pt 2):501-11. Virgibacillus carmonensis sp. nov., Virgibacillus necropolis sp. nov. and Virgibacillus picturae sp. nov., three novel species isolated from deteriorated mural paintings, transfer of the
species of the genus salibacillus to Virgibacillus, as Virgibacillus marismortui comb. nov. and Virgibacillus salexigens comb. nov., and
emended description of the genus Virgibacillus. Heyrman J(1), Logan NA, Busse HJ, Balcaen A, Lebbe L, Rodriguez-Diaz M, Swings
J, De Vos P. Author information: (1)Vakgroep BFM WE10V, Laboratorium voor Microbiologie, Universiteit Gent, K. L. Ledeganckstraat
35, B-9000 Gent, Belgium. [email protected] A group of 13 strains was isolated from samples of biofilm formation on the
mural paintings of the Servilia tomb (necropolis of Carmona, Spain) and the Saint-Catherine chapel (castle at Herberstein, Austria).
The strains were subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study, including (GTG)5-PCR, 16S rDNA sequence analysis, DNA-DNA hybridizations, DNA base ratio determination, analysis of fatty acids, polar lipids and menaquinones and morphological and biochemical
characterization. In a phylogenetic tree based on neighbour-joining of 16S rDNA sequences, the strains are divided in two major
groups, representing three novel species according to DNA-DNA relatedness, that are positioned at approximately equal distances
from Virgibacillus and Salibacillus. After comparison of the novel results with existing data, the transfer of the species of Salibacillus
to Virgibacillus is proposed, with the resulting new combinations Virgibacillus marismortui comb. nov. and Virgibacillus salexigens
comb. nov. Additionally, three novel species are described, for which the names Virgibacillus carmonensis sp. nov., Virgibacillus necropolis sp. nov. and Virgibacillus picturae sp. nov. are proposed. The respective type strains are LMG 20964T (=DSM 14868T), LMG
19488T (=DSM 14866T) and LMG 19492T (= DSM 14867T). Finally, an emended description of the genus Virgibacillus is given.
PMID: 12710619 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
78
271. Virgibacillus proomii Int J Syst Bacteriol. 1999 Jul;49 Pt 3:1083-90. Proposal of Virgibacillus proomii sp. nov. and emended description of Virgibacillus pantothenticus (Proom and Knight 1950) Heyndrickx et al. 1998. Heyndrickx M(1), Lebbe L, Kersters K, Hoste B,
De Wachter R, De Vos P, Forsyth G, Logan NA. Author information: (1)Vakgroep BFM WE10V, Laboratorium voor Microbiologie,
Universiteit Gent, Belgium. A polyphasic study of strains originally received as Bacillus (now Virgibacillus) pantothenticus, along with
strains representing species belonging to Bacillus, Halobacillus and Paenibacillus, was undertaken using amplified rDNA restriction
analysis (ARDRA), fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis, SDS-PAGE of whole-cell proteins and routine diagnostic characters
comprising 61 biochemical tests in the API system and 15 observations of vegetative cell and sporangial morphology. It revealed the
presence within Virgibacillus of an as yet undescribed new species, for which the name Virgibacillus proomii is proposed; V. proomii
can be distinguished from V. pantothenticus and members of Bacillus sensu stricto, and from members of Paenibacillus and other
aerobic endospore-forming bacteria, by routine phenotypic tests. The type strain of Virgibacillus proomii is LMG 12370T. PMID:
10425765 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
272. Virgibacillus siamensis J Gen Appl Microbiol. 2010 Oct;56(5):369-79. Identification of moderately halophilic bacteria from Thai fermented fish ( pla-ra ) and proposal of Virgibacillus siamensis sp. nov. Tanasupawat S(1), Chamroensaksri N, Kudo T, Itoh T. Author
information: (1)Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand. [email protected]
Forty-one isolates of moderately halophilic bacteria were isolated from fermented fish (pla-ra) in Thailand. On the basis of their phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, DNA-DNA relatedness and 16S rRNA gene sequences analyses, they were divided into
six groups. The isolates in Group I to V were Gram-positive rod-shaped bacteria. They contained meso-diaminopimelic acid in the
cell-wall peptidoglycan and menaquinone with seven isoprene units (MK-7). An isolate in Group VI was a Gram-negative rod-shaped
bacterium. The DNA G+C contents of tested strains ranged from 36.5-63 mol%. Ten strains (Group I) were identified as Virgibacillus
dokdonensis, 13 isolates (Group II) as V. halodenitrificans, 14 isolates (Group III) as V. marismortui, 1 isolate (Group IV) as Virgibacillus sp., 2 isolates (Group V) as Bacillus vietnamnensis, and 1 isolate (Group VI) as Chromohalobacter salexigens. Isolate MS3-4 in
Group IV was closely related to V. carmonensis KCTC 3819(T) (95.9%). This strain contained anteiso-C(15:0) (55.8%) and anteiso-C(17:0) (17.7%) as major cellular fatty acids and had phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol and an unidentified glycolipid
as polar lipids. The DNA G+C content of MS3-4 was 38.0 mol%. The strain from Group IV is proposed as Virgibacillus siamensis sp.
nov. and MS3-4(T) is the type strain (JCM 15395(T) =PCU 312(T) =TISTR 1957(T)). PMID: 21099133 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
79
第二章 芽胞杆菌基因组学(Bacillus genomics)
1
2
3
100. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2010 May;76(10):3244-54. doi: 10.1128/AEM.03069-09. Epub 2010 Mar 19.Denitrifying bacteria isolated from terrestrial subsurface sediments exposed tomixed-waste contamination.Green SJ(1), Prakash O, Gihring TM, Akob DM,
Jasrotia P, Jardine PM, Watson DB,Brown SD, Palumbo AV, Kostka JE.Author information: (1)Department of Oceanography, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4470,USA.In terrestrial subsurface environments where nitrate is a critical groundwatercontaminant, few cultivated representatives are available to verify themetabolism of organisms that catalyze denitrification. In this
study, fivespecies of denitrifying bacteria from three phyla were isolated from subsurfacesediments exposed to metal radionuclide
and nitrate contamination as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Challenge(OR-IFRC).
Isolates belonged to the genera Afipia and Hyphomicrobium(Alphaproteobacteria), Rhodanobacter (Gammaproteobacteria), Intrasporangium(Actinobacteria), and Bacillus (Firmicutes). Isolates from the phylumProteobacteria were complete denitrifiers, whereas
the Gram-positive isolatesreduced nitrate to nitrous oxide. rRNA gene analyses coupled with physiologicaland genomic analyses
suggest that bacteria from the genus Rhodanobacter are adiverse population of denitrifiers that are circumneutral to moderatelyacidophilic, with a high relative abundance in areas of the acidic source zone atthe OR-IFRC site. Based on genome analysis,
Rhodanobacter species contain twonitrite reductase genes and have not been detected in functional-gene surveys of denitrifying
bacteria at the OR-IFRC site. Nitrite and nitrous oxide reductasegene sequences were recovered from the isolates and from the terrestrialsubsurface by designing primer sets mined from genomic and metagenomic data andfrom draft genomes of two of the isolates. We demonstrate that a combination ofcultivation and genomic and metagenomic data is essential to the in situcharacterization
of denitrifiers and that current PCR-based approaches are notsuitable for deep coverage of denitrifiers. Our results indicate that thediversity of denitrifiers is significantly underestimated in the terrestrialsubsurface.PMCID: PMC2869116PMID: 20305024 [PubMed
- indexed for MEDLINE]
101. Curr Microbiol. 2010 May;60(5):315-20. doi: 10.1007/s00284-009-9542-4. Epub 2009 Nov 19.Analysis of bacterial and fungal
communities in Japanese- and Chinese-fermentedsoybean pastes using nested PCR-DGGE.Kim TW(1), Lee JH, Park MH, Kim
HY.Author information: (1)Kyung Hee University, Suwon, Republic of Korea .The microbial diversity of Japanese- and Chinese-fermented soybean pastes wasinvestigated using nested PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE).Five Japanese-fermented soybean paste samples and three Chinese-fermented soybeanpaste samples were analyzed for bacteria and fungi.
Extracted DNA was used as atemplate for PCR to amplify 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA genes. The nearly complete 16S rRNA and 18S
rRNA genes were amplified using universal primers, and the resultingproducts were subsequently used as a template in a nested
PCR to obtain suitable fragments for DGGE. Tetragenococcus halophilus and Staphylococcus gallinarum werefound to dominate
the bacterial microbiota in Japanese samples, whereas Bacillus sp. was detected as the predominant species in Chinese samples.
DGGE analysis of fungi in soybean pastes determined the presence of Aspergillus oryzae andZygosaccharomyces rouxii in most of
the Chinese and Japanese samples. Somedifferences were observed in the bacterial diversity of Japanese- andChinese-fermented
soybean pastes.PMID: 19924476 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
102. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D408-14. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp850. Epub 2009 Oct 20.Pathema: a
clade-specific bioinformatics resource center for pathogen research.Brinkac LM(1), Davidsen T, Beck E, Ganapathy A, Caler E,
Dodson RJ, Durkin AS,Harkins DM, Lorenzi H, Madupu R, Sebastian Y, Shrivastava S, Thiagarajan M, OrvisJ, Sundaram JP, Crabtree J, Galens K, Zhao Y, Inman JM, Montgomery R, Schobel S, Galinsky K, Tanenbaum DM, Resnick A, Zafar N, White O, Sutton
G.Author information: (1)J Craig Venter Institute, Rockville, MD 20850, USA.Pathema (http://pathema.jcvi.org) is one of the eight Bioinformatics ResourceCenters (BRCs) funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease(NIAID) designed to serve
as a core resource for the bio-defense and infectiousdisease research community. Pathema strives to support basic research andaccelerate scientific progress for understanding, detecting, diagnosing andtreating an established set of six target NIAID Category
A-C pathogens: Category A priority pathogens; Bacillus anthracis and Clostridium botulinum, and Category B priority pathogens;
Burkholderia mallei, Burkholderia pseudomallei, Clostridiumperfringens and Entamoeba histolytica. Each target pathogen is represented in oneof four distinct clade-specific Pathema web resources and underlying databasesdeveloped to target the specific data
and analysis needs of each scientificcommunity. All publicly available complete genome projects of phylogeneticallyrelated organisms are also represented, providing a comprehensive collection oforganisms for comparative analyses. Pathema facilitates the
scientificexploration of genomic and related data through its integration with web-basedanalysis tools, customized to obtain, display,
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and compute results relevant toongoing pathogen research. Pathema serves the bio-defense and infectious disease research
community by disseminating data resulting from pathogen genomesequencing projects and providing access to the results of inter-genomiccomparisons for these organisms.PMCID: PMC2808925PMID: 19843611 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
103. J Microbiol. 2009 Aug;47(4):466-72. doi: 10.1007/s12275-009-0020-2. Epub 2009 Sep9.Cloning and molecular characterization
of a novel rolling-circle replicatingplasmid, pK1S-1, from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki K1.Li MS(1), Roh JY, Tao X, Yu ZN,
Liu ZD, Liu Q, Xu HG, Shim HJ, Kim YS, Wang Y,Choi JY, Je YH.Author information: (1)State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong AgriculturalUniversity, Wuhan 430070, P. R. China.Bacillus thuringiensis, an entomopathogenic bacterium belonging to the B. cereus group, harbors numerous extra-chromosomal DNA molecules whose sizes range from 2 to 250 kb. In this
study, we used a plasmid capture system (PCS) to clone threesmall plasmids from B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki Kl which were
not found inB. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki HD-1, and determined the complete nucleotidesequence of plasmid pKlS-1 (5.5 kb). Of
the six putative open reading frames(ORF2-ORF7) in pKlS-1, ORF2 (MobKl) showed approximately 90% aa identity with theMob-proteins of pGI2 and pTX14-2, which are rolling circle replicating group VII (RCR group VII) plasmids from B. thuringiensis. In
addition, a putative origin oftransfer (oriT) showed 95.8% identity with those of pGI2 and pTX14-2. ORF3(RepK1) showed relatively
low aa identity (17.8-25.2%) with the Rep protein codedby RCR plasmids, however. The putative double-strand origin of replication
(dso) and single-strand origin of replication (sso) of pKlS-1 exhibited approximately70% and 64% identities with those of pGI2 and
pTX14-2. ORF6 and 7 showed greater than 50% similarities with alkaline serine protease, which belongs to thesubtilase family. The
other 2 ORFs were identified as hypothetical proteins. Todetermine the replicon of pKlS-1, seven subclones were contructed in the
B.thuringiensis ori-negative pHTIK vector and were electroporated into a plasmidcured B. thuringiensis strain. The 1.6 kb region that
included the putative ORF3 (ReplK), dso and ORF4, exhibited replication ability. These findings identifiedpKlS-1 as a new RCR
group VII plasmid, and determined its replication region.PMID: 19763421 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
104. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2009 Oct;299(2):205-13. doi:10.1111/j.1574-6968.2009.01749.x. Epub 2009 Aug 6.Biosynthesis and
transcriptional analysis of thurincin H, a tandem repeatedbacteriocin genetic locus, produced by Bacillus thuringiensis SF361.Lee
H(1), Churey JJ, Worobo RW.Author information: (1)Department of Food Science and Technology, New York State Agricultural ExperimentStation, Cornell University, 630 W North St., Geneva, NY 14456, USA.Thurincin H, a bacteriocin produced by Bacillus thuringiensis SF361 isolated fromhoney, strongly inhibited the growth of Bacillus cereus F4552. The bacteriocinwas purified by 65%
ammonium sulfate precipitation of the culture supernatant,followed by octyl-sepharose CL-4B and reverse-phase HPLC. The molecular mass ofthe bacteriocin was determined to be 3139.51 Da and the 14 amino acids of thebacteriocin at the N-terminus were identified. The complete amino acid sequenceof mature thurincin H was deduced from three structural genes, thnA1, thnA2, and thnA3
found in tandem repeats on the chromosome, all of which encode for the samebacteriocin, thurincin H. The genetic determinants for
thurincin H biosynthesisconsist of 10 ORFs, including three thurincin H structural genes. Northernhybridization elucidated that the
transcription of all three bacteriocinstructural genes was regulated by a putative promoter located upstream of thnA1.PMID:
19732155 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
105. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009 Oct;75(19):6352-60. doi: 10.1128/AEM.00470-09. Epub 2009 Aug 7.Intra- and interspecies conjugal transfer of Tn916-like elements from Lactococcuslactis in vitro and in vivo.Boguslawska J(1), Zycka-Krzesinska J, Wilcks A,
Bardowski J.Author information: (1)Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 02-106Warsaw, Poland.Tetracycline-resistant Lactococcus lactis strains originally isolated from Polishraw milk were analyzed for the ability to transfer
their antibiotic resistancegenes in vitro, using filter mating experiments, and in vivo, using germfreerats. Four of six analyzed L. lactis
isolates were able to transfer tetracycline resistance determinants in vitro to L. lactis Bu2-60, at frequencies ranging from10(-5) to
10(-7) transconjugants per recipient. Three of these four strains couldalso transfer resistance in vitro to Enterococcus faecalis JH2-2,
whereas notransfer to Bacillus subtilis YBE01, Pseudomonas putida KT2442, Agrobacteriumtumefaciens UBAPF2, or Escherichia
coli JE2571 was observed. Rats were initially inoculated with the recipient E. faecalis strain JH2-2, and after a week, the L. lactis
IBB477 and IBB487 donor strains were introduced. The first transconjugantswere detected in fecal samples 3 days after introduction
of the donors. Asubtherapeutic concentration of tetracycline did not have any significant effect on the number of transconjugants, but
transconjugants were observed earlier inanimals dosed with this antibiotic. Molecular analysis of in vivo transconjugantscontaining
the tet(M) gene showed that this gene was identical to tet(M)localized on the conjugative transposon Tn916. Primer-specific PCR
confirmed thatthe Tn916 transposon was complete in all analyzed transconjugants and donors.This is the first study showing in vivo
transfer of a Tn916-like antibioticresistance transposon from L. lactis to E. faecalis. These data suggest that incertain cases food
lactococci might be involved in the spread of antibioticresistance genes to other lactic acid bacteria.PMCID: PMC2753074PMID:
19666731 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
106. J Bacteriol. 2009 Sep;191(18):5775-84. doi: 10.1128/JB.00521-09. Epub 2009 Jun19.Role of the sigmaD-dependent autolysins
in Bacillus subtilis populationheterogeneity.Chen R(1), Guttenplan SB, Blair KM, Kearns DB.Author information: (1)Department of
Biology, Indiana University, 1001 East Third Street, Bloomington,IN 47405, USA.Exponentially growing populations of Bacillus subtilis contain twomorphologically and functionally distinct cell types: motile individuals andnonmotile multicellular chains. Motility differentiation arises because RNApolymerase and the alternative sigma factor sigma(D) activate expression offlagellin in a subpopula-
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tion of cells. Here we demonstrate that thepeptidoglycan-remodeling autolysins under sigma(D) control, LytC, LytD, and LytF,are
expressed in the same subpopulation of cells that complete flagellarsynthesis. Morphological heterogeneity is explained by the expression of LytFthat is necessary and sufficient for cell separation. Moreover, LytC is required for motility but not at the level of cell
separation or flagellum biosynthesis.Rather, LytC appears to be important for flagellar function, and motility wasrestored to a LytC
mutant by mutation of either lonA, encoding the LonA protease,or a gene encoding a previously unannotated swarming motility inhibitor, SmiA. Weconclude that heterogeneous activation of sigma(D)-dependent gene expression issufficient to explain both the
morphological heterogeneity and functionalheterogeneity present in vegetative B. subtilis populations.PMCID: PMC2737971PMID:
19542270 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
107. Infect Genet Evol. 2009 Sep;9(5):1010-9. doi: 10.1016/j.meegid.2009.05.014. Epub 2009 May 27.Phylogenetic understanding
of clonal populations in an era of whole genomesequencing.Pearson T(1), Okinaka RT, Foster JT, Keim P.Author information:
(1)Center for Microbial Genetics and Genomics, Northern Arizona University,Flagstaff, AZ, USA.Phylogenetic hypotheses using
whole genome sequences have the potential forunprecedented accuracy, yet a failure to understand issues associated withdiscovery bias, character sampling, and strain sampling can lead to highlyerroneous conclusions. For microbial pathogens, phylogenies
derived from wholegenome sequences are becoming more common, as large numbers of charactersdistributed across entire genomes can yield extremely accurate phylogenies,particularly for strictly clonal populations. The availability of whole genomesis increasing as new sequencing technologies reduce the cost and time requiredfor genome sequencing. Until entire sample collections
can be fully sequenced,harnessing the phylogenetic power from whole genome sequences in more than asmall subset of fully sequenced strains requires the integration of whole genome and partial genome genotyping data. Such integration involves discoveringevolutionarily stable polymorphic characters by whole genome comparisons, thendetermining allelic states across a wide panel of
isolates using high-throughput genotyping technologies. Here, we demonstrate how such an approach using singlenucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) yields highly accurate, but biased phylogeneticreconstructions and how the accuracy of the resulting tree is
compromised byincomplete taxon and character sampling. Despite recent phylogenetic workdetailing the strengths and biases of
integrating whole genome and partial genomegenotype data, these issues are relatively new and remain poorly understood bymany
researchers. Here, we revisit these biases and provide strategies formaximizing phylogenetic accuracy. Although we write this review with bacterialpathogens in mind, these concepts apply to any clonally reproducing population orindeed to any evolutionarily
stable marker that is inherited in a strictly clonalmanner. Understanding the ways in which current and emerging technologies can be
used to maximize phylogenetic knowledge is advantageous only with a completeunderstanding of the strengths and weaknesses of
these methods.PMID: 19477301 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
108. Mol Biotechnol. 2009 Jul;42(3):341-9. doi: 10.1007/s12033-009-9168-6. Epub 2009Apr 8.Expression of Cry1Ac in transgenic
tobacco plants under the control of awound-inducible promoter (AoPR1) isolated from Asparagus officinalis to controlHeliothis virescens and Manduca sexta.Gulbitti-Onarici S(1), Zaidi MA, Taga I, Ozcan S, Altosaar I.Author information: (1)Department of Biochemistry Microbiology & Immunology, University of Ottawa,Ottawa, ON, K1H 8M5, Canada.Expression of cry1Ac gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) was evaluated underthe control of a wound-inducible AoPR1 promoter from Asparagus officinalis intransgenic
tobacco plants. The leaves of transgenic plants were mechanicallywounded to evaluate the activity of the AoPR1 promoter in driving
the expression of Cry1Ac protein at the wound site. Our results indicate that mechanicalwounding of transgenic plants was effective
in inducing the expression of Cry1Ac protein. As a result of this induction, the accumulated levels of Cry1Ac protein increased during
6-72 h post-wounding period. The leaves of transgenic tobaccoplants were evaluated for resistance against Heliothis virescens and
Manducasexta in insect bioassays in two different ways. The detached tobacco leaves wereeither fed directly to the insect larvae or
they were first mechanically wounded followed by a 72 h post-wounding feeding period. Complete protection ofmechanically
wounded leaves of transgenic plants was observed within 24 h of the bioassay. The leaves of transgenic plants fed directly (without
pre-wounding) to the larvae achieved the same level of protection between 24 and 72 h of thebioassay.PMID: 19353306 [PubMed
- indexed for MEDLINE]
109. J Bacteriol. 2009 May;191(10):3350-8. doi: 10.1128/JB.01728-08. Epub 2009 Mar 20.Identification of a polymyxin synthetase
gene cluster of Paenibacillus polymyxaand heterologous expression of the gene in Bacillus subtilis.Choi SK(1), Park SY, Kim R, Kim
SB, Lee CH, Kim JF, Park SH.Author information: (1)Industrial Biotechnology & Bioenergy Research Center, Korea Research Institute ofBioscience and Biotechnology, 111 Gwahangno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-806,Republic of Korea.Polymyxin, a long-known
peptide antibiotic, has recently been reintroduced inclinical practice because it is sometimes the only available antibiotic for
thetreatment of multidrug-resistant gram-negative pathogenic bacteria. Lack ofinformation on the biosynthetic genes of polymyxin,
however, has limited thestudy of structure-function relationships and the development of improvedpolymyxins. During whole genome
sequencing of Paenibacillus polymyxa E681, aplant growth-promoting rhizobacterium, we identified a gene cluster encodingpolymyxin synthetase. Here, we report the complete sequence of the gene clusterand its function in polymyxin biosynthesis. The gene
cluster spanning the 40.6-kbregion consists of five open reading frames, designated pmxA, pmxB, pmxC, pmxD,and pmxE. The
pmxC and pmxD genes are similar to genes that encode transportproteins, while pmxA, pmxB, and pmxE encode polymyxin synthetases. Theinsertional disruption of pmxE led to a loss of the ability to produce polymyxin.Introduction of the pmx gene cluster into
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the amyE locus of the Bacillus subtilischromosome resulted in the production of polymyxin in the presence ofextracellularly added
L-2,4-diaminobutyric acid. Taken together, our findingsdemonstrate that the pmx gene cluster is responsible for polymyxin biosynthesis.PMCID: PMC2687177PMID: 19304848 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
110. J Mol Biol. 2009 Apr 24;388(1):48-70. doi: 10.1016/j.jmb.2009.03.009. Epub 2009Mar 10.The genome of Bacillus subtilis bacteriophage SPO1.Stewart CR(1), Casjens SR, Cresawn SG, Houtz JM, Smith AL, Ford ME, Peebles CL,Hatfull GF, Hendrix RW,
Huang WM, Pedulla ML.Author information: (1)Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Rice University, Houston, TX 77251,
USA.We report the genome sequence of Bacillus subtilis phage SPO1. The unique genome sequence is 132,562 bp long, and DNA
packaged in the virion (the chromosome) has a 13,185-bp terminal redundancy, giving a total of 145,747 bp. We predict
204protein-coding genes and 5 tRNA genes, and we correlate these findings with theextensive body of investigations of SPO1, including studies of the functions ofthe 61 previously defined genes and studies of the virion structure. Sixty-ninepercent of the encoded proteins show no similarity to any previously knownprotein. We identify 107 probable transcription promoters; most are
members ofthe promoter classes identified in earlier studies, but we also see a new classthat has the same sequence as the host
sigma K promoters. We find three genesencoding potential new transcription factors, one of which is a distant homologueof the host
sigma factor K. We also identify 75 probable transcription terminatorstructures. Promoters and terminators are generally located
between genes andtogether with earlier data give what appears to be a rather complete picture ofhow phage transcription is regulated. There are complete genome sequencesavailable for five additional phages of Gram-positive hosts that are similar toSPO1 in
genome size and in composition and organization of genes. Comparativeanalysis of SPO1 in the context of these other phages
yields insights about SPO1 and the other phages that would not be apparent from the analysis of any onephage alone. These include assigning identities as well as probable functions forseveral specific genes and inferring evolutionary events in the phages'histories. The comparative analysis also allows us to put SPO1 into aphylogenetic context. We see a pattern similar to what has
been noted in phage T4and its relatives, in which there is minimal successful horizontal exchange ofgenes among a "core" set of
genes that includes most of the virion structuralgenes and some genes of DNA metabolism, but there is extensive horizontaltransfer
of genes over the remainder of the genome. There is a correlationbetween genes in rapid evolutionary flux through these genomes
and genes that aresmall.PMCID: PMC2666789PMID: 19285085 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
111. PLoS Genet. 2009 Mar;5(3):e1000416. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1000416. Epub 2009 Mar 13.The complete genome and
proteome of Laribacter hongkongensis reveal potentialmechanisms for adaptations to different temperatures and habitats.Woo
PC(1), Lau SK, Tse H, Teng JL, Curreem SO, Tsang AK, Fan RY, Wong GK, HuangY, Loman NJ, Snyder LA, Cai JJ, Huang JD,
Mak W, Pallen MJ, Lok S, Yuen KY.Author information: (1)State Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases, The University of
HongKong, Hong Kong, Special Administrative Region, People's Republic of China.Laribacter hongkongensis is a newly discovered
Gram-negative bacillus of theNeisseriaceae family associated with freshwater fish-borne gastroenteritis andtraveler's diarrhea. The
complete genome sequence of L. hongkongensis HLHK9,recovered from an immunocompetent patient with severe gastroenteritis,
consistsof a 3,169-kb chromosome with G+C content of 62.35%. Genome analysis revealsdifferent mechanisms potentially important for its adaptation to diverse habitatsof human and freshwater fish intestines and freshwater environments. The genecontents
support its phenotypic properties and suggest that amino acids and fattyacids can be used as carbon sources. The extensive variety
of transporters,including multidrug efflux and heavy metal transporters as well as genes involvedin chemotaxis, may enable L.
hongkongensis to survive in different environmental niches. Genes encoding urease, bile salts efflux pump, adhesin, catalase,superoxide dismutase, and other putative virulence factors-such as hemolysins,RTX toxins, patatin-like proteins, phospholipase
A1, and collagenases-arepresent. Proteomes of L. hongkongensis HLHK9 cultured at 37 degrees C (human bodytemperature) and
20 degrees C (freshwater habitat temperature) showeddifferential gene expression, including two homologous copies of argB,
argB-20,and argB-37, which encode two isoenzymes of N-acetyl-L-glutamate kinase(NAGK)-NAGK-20 and NAGK-37-in the arginine
biosynthesis pathway. NAGK-20 showedhigher expression at 20 degrees C, whereas NAGK-37 showed higher expression at
37degrees C. NAGK-20 also had a lower optimal temperature for enzymatic activities and was inhibited by arginine probably as
negative-feedback control. Similarduplicated copies of argB are also observed in bacteria from hot springs such as Thermus thermophilus, Deinococcus geothermalis, Deinococcus radiodurans, andRoseiflexus castenholzii, suggesting that similar mechanisms
for temperatureadaptation may be employed by other bacteria. Genome and proteome analysis of L. hongkongensis revealed novel
mechanisms for adaptations to survival at different temperatures and habitats.PMCID: PMC2652115PMID: 19283063 [PubMed indexed for MEDLINE]
112. Biophys Chem. 2009 May;141(2-3):203-13. doi: 10.1016/j.bpc.2009.02.003. Epub 2009Feb 20.Statistical scales of order in
DNA.Poland D.Author information: Department of Chemistry, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA. [email protected] the present paper we examine the statistics of occurrence of A-T and C-G base pairs in DNA. We focus on the net
base composition in blocks of base pairs ofvarious sizes. This paper extends our previous work on randomness and order inDNA
sequences and examines order on various scales. For structure on the localscale (10(0)-10(1) bp) we have seen that the net base
composition in given block sizes is fitted very accurately by the discrete binomial distribution for arandom system. If the statistics
were random for larger block sizes then theappropriate distribution would be the standard normal (Gaussian) distributionwhich is the
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continuous analog of the discrete binomial distribution. However, wehave found that at the intermediate scale (10(2)-10(4) bp) the
compositiondistribution is not fit by a standard normal distribution but rather by amodified normal distribution with a standard deviation that is a marked nonrandomfunction of block size. In particular, the standard deviation accurately follows a power law with a
characteristic exponent. This behavior can be interpreted interms of a random walk model due to Mandelbrot that is characterized by
atendency for the walk to persist in direction. The DNA analog of the walk modelis the tendency of blocks of base pairs with a given
net composition to befollowed by blocks of a similar composition (persistence of composition). A modelbased on a generating function constructed from a matrix of conditionalprobabilities (incorporating persistence) explains the overall order in a givengenome at
the intermediate scale. In the present paper we examine the blockstatistics in DNA using the genomes of two organisms, namely
Bacillus anthracisand Escherichia coli both of which have a chain length of slightly over fivemillion base pairs. We find that the distributions in B. anthracis are well fitby a Mandelbrot-like distribution. On the other hand, the distributions in E.coli are not so well fit
by this distribution which is based on two moments.Using the maximum-entropy method we construct an improved distribution for
E.coli based on four moments. Finally we look at the order on the scale of theentire molecule (global scale). Applying the model of a
random walk to thecomplete DNA genome we find that the Mandelbrot distribution on an intermediatelevel cannot explain the global
character of the random walk, there beingstructure to the walk with features on the scale of the total length of themolecule
(10(5)-10(7) bp). To understand the three scales of order (local,intermediate and global) we construct a model sequence based on
the incorporationof Mandelbrot-type order on the intermediate scale in a single size block. Wethen find that the character of the order on the local and global scales follows naturally from this single feature. Thus all three scales of order in DNA areincorporated into our model sequence.PMID: 19254822 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
113. Vaccine. 2009 Mar 10;27(11):1710-6. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.01.034. Epub 2009Feb 4.Whole genome sequence analysis
of Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin(BCG) Tokyo 172: a comparative study of BCG vaccine substrains.Seki M(1),
Honda I, Fujita I, Yano I, Yamamoto S, Koyama A.Author information: (1)Japan BCG Laboratory, Research of Product, 3-1-5 Matsuyama, Kiyose City, Tokyo204-0022, Japan. [email protected] investigate the molecular characteristics of bacillus
Calmette-Guérin (BCG)vaccines, the complete genomic sequence of Mycobacterium bovis BCG Tokyo 172 was determined, and
the results were compared with those for BCG Pasteur and other M.tuberculosis complex. The genome of BCG Tokyo had a length
of 4,371,711bp andcontained 4033 genes, including 3950 genes coding for proteins (CDS). There were 18 regions of difference
(showing differences of more than 20bp), 20 insertion ordeletion (ins/del) mutations of less than 20bp, and 68 SNPs between the
two BCGsubstrains. These findings are useful for better understanding of the geneticdifferences in BCG substrains due to in vitro
evolution of BCG.PMID: 19200449 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
114. DNA Repair (Amst). 2009 May 1;8(5):612-9. doi: 10.1016/j.dnarep.2008.12.011.Characterization in vitro and in vivo of the DNA
helicase encoded by Deinococcus radiodurans locus DR1572.Cao Z(1), Julin DA.Author information: (1)Department of Chemistry
and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park,MD 20742, United States.Deinococcus radiodurans survives extremely high
doses of ionizing and ultravioletradiation and treatment with various DNA-damaging chemicals. As an effort toidentify and characterize proteins that function in DNA repair in this organism, we have studied the protein encoded by locus DR1572. This gene is
predicted toencode a Superfamily I DNA helicase, except that genome sequencing indicated thatit has a one-base frameshift and
would not encode a complete helicase. We havecloned the gene from two different D. radiodurans strains and find that theframeshift
mutation is not present. The corrected gene encodes a 755 residueprotein that is similar to the Bacillus subtilis YvgS protein and to
helicase IV of Escherichia coli. The purified protein (helicase IV(Dr)) has ATP hydrolysisand DNA helicase activity. A truncated protein that lacks 214 residues from theN-terminus, which precede the conserved helicase domain, has greater ATPaseactivity than the
full-length protein but has no detectable helicase activity.Disruption of locus DR1572 in the D. radiodurans chromosome causes
greatersensitivity to hydrogen peroxide and methyl-methanesulfonate compared towild-type cells, but no change in resistance to
gamma and ultraviolet radiationand to mitomycin C. The results indicate that locus DR1572 encodes a completeprotein that contributes to DNA metabolism in D. radiodurans.PMID: 19179120 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
115. BMC Genomics. 2009 Jan 11;10:16. doi: 10.1186/1471-2164-10-16.Conservation in the face of diversity: multistrain analysis of
an intracellularbacterium.Dark MJ(1), Herndon DR, Kappmeyer LS, Gonzales MP, Nordeen E, Palmer GH, Knowles DP Jr, Brayton
KA.Author information: (1)Program in Genomics, Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology, School for Global Animal
Health, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-7040,USA. [email protected]: With the recent completion of numerous sequenced bacterial genomes,notable advances have been made in understanding the level of conservationbetween various species. However, relatively little is known about the genomicdiversity among strains. We determined the complete
genome sequence of theFlorida strain of Anaplasma marginale, and near complete (>96%) sequences for an additional three strains,
for comparative analysis with the previously fullysequenced St. Maries strain genome.RESULTS: These comparisons revealed that
A. marginale has a closed-core genomewith few highly plastic regions, which include the msp2 and msp3 genes, as wellas the aaap
locus. Comparison of the Florida and St. Maries genome sequencesfound that SNPs comprise 0.8% of the longer Florida genome,
with 33.5% of thetotal SNPs between all five strains present in at least two strains and 3.0% ofSNPs present in all strains except
Florida. Comparison of genomes from threestrains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Bacillus anthracis, and Nessieriameningiditis, as
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well as four Chlamydophila pneumoniae strains found that98.8%-100% of SNPs are unique to each strain, suggesting A. marginale,
with76.0%, has an intermediate level of strain-specific SNPs. Comparison of genomesfrom other organisms revealed variation in
diversity that did not segregate with the environmental niche the bacterium occupies, ranging from 0.00% to 8.00% ofthe larger
pairwise-compared genome.CONCLUSION: Analysis of multiple A. marginale strains suggests intracellularbacteria have more variable SNP retention rates than previously reported, and mayhave closed-core genomes in response to the host organism environment and/orreductive evolution.PMCID: PMC2649000PMID: 19134224 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
116. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009 Feb;75(4):1144-55. doi: 10.1128/AEM.02518-08. Epub2008 Dec 19.Characterization of the complete zwittermicin A biosynthesis gene cluster fromBacillus cereus.Kevany BM(1), Rasko DA, Thomas MG.Author information:
(1)Department of Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1550 Linden Drive,Madison, WI 53706, USA.Bacillus cereus
UW85 produces the linear aminopolyol antibiotic zwittermicin A(ZmA). This antibiotic has diverse biological activities, such as suppression of disease in plants caused by protists, inhibition of fungal and bacterial growth, and amplification of the insecticidal activity
of the toxin protein from Bacillusthuringiensis. ZmA has an unusual chemical structure that includes a d amino acidand ethanolamine and glycolyl moieties, as well as having an unusual terminalamide that is generated from the modification of the nonproteinogenic amino acid beta-ureidoalanine. The diverse biological activities and unusual structure ofZmA have stimulated our efforts to
understand how this antibiotic isbiosynthesized. Here, we present the identification of the complete ZmAbiosynthesis gene cluster
from B. cereus UW85. A nearly identical gene cluster isidentified on a plasmid from B. cereus AH1134, and we show that this strain
isalso capable of producing ZmA. Bioinformatics and biochemical analyses of the ZmAbiosynthesis enzymes strongly suggest that
ZmA is initially biosynthesized aspart of a larger metabolite that is processed twice, resulting in the formationof ZmA and two additional metabolites. Additionally, we propose that thebiosynthesis gene cluster for the production of the amino sugar kanosamine iscontained within the ZmA biosynthesis gene cluster in B. cereus UW85.PMCID: PMC2643575PMID: 19098220 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
117. J Bacteriol. 2009 Feb;191(4):1180-90. doi: 10.1128/JB.01058-08. Epub 2008 Dec 12.Complete genome sequence of Macrococcus caseolyticus strain JCSCS5402,[corrected] reflecting the ancestral genome of the human-pathogenicstaphylococci.Baba
T(1), Kuwahara-Arai K, Uchiyama I, Takeuchi F, Ito T, Hiramatsu K.Author information: (1)Department of Microbiology and Infection
Control Science, Juntendo University,2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8421, Japan. [email protected] in
J Bacteriol. 2009 May;191(10):3429.We isolated the methicillin-resistant Macrococcus caseolyticus strain JCSC5402from animal meat in a
supermarket and determined its whole-genome nucleotidesequence. This is the first report on the genome analysis of a macrococcalspecies that is evolutionarily closely related to the human pathogensStaphylococcus aureus and Bacillus anthracis. The essential
biological pathwaysof M. caseolyticus are similar to those of staphylococci. However, the specieshas a small chromosome (2.1 MB)
and lacks many sugar and amino acid metabolismpathways and a plethora of virulence genes that are present in S. aureus. On the
other hand, M. caseolyticus possesses a series of oxidative phosphorylationmachineries that are closely related to those in the family Bacillaceae. We also discovered a probable primordial form of a Macrococcus methicillin resistancegene complex, mecIRAm, on
one of the eight plasmids harbored by the M.caseolyticus strain. This is the first finding of a plasmid-encoding methicillin resistance
gene. Macrococcus is considered to reflect the genome of ancestralbacteria before the speciation of staphylococcal species and
may be closelyassociated with the origin of the methicillin resistance gene complex of thenotorious human pathogen methicillin-resistant S. aureus.PMCID: PMC2632007PMID: 19074389 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
118. J Bacteriol. 2009 Feb;191(3):1120-1. doi: 10.1128/JB.01629-08. Epub 2008 Dec 5.Complete genome sequence of the extremophilic Bacillus cereus strain Q1 withindustrial applications.Xiong Z(1), Jiang Y, Qi D, Lu H, Yang F, Yang J, Chen L, Sun L, Xu
X, Xue Y, Zhu Y, Jin Q.Author information: (1)State Key Laboratory for Molecular Virology and Genetics Engineering, Instituteof
Pathogen Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, 6 Rongjing East Street,BDA, Beijing 100176, People's Republic of China.Bacillus cereus strain Q1 was isolated from a deep-subsurface oil reservoir inthe Daqing oil field in northeastern China. This
strain is able to producebiosurfactants and to survive in extreme environments. Here we report thefinished and annotated genome
sequence of this organism.PMCID: PMC2632077PMID: 19060151 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
119. Plasmid. 2009 Mar;61(2):126-9. doi: 10.1016/j.plasmid.2008.10.001. Epub 2008 Nov 25.An improved tetracycline-inducible
expression vector for Staphylococcus aureus.Corrigan RM(1), Foster TJ.Author information: (1)Department of Microbiology, Moyne
Institute of Preventive Medicine, TrinityCollege, Dublin 2, Ireland.The tetracycline-inducible expression vector pALC2073 allowed
high levelexpression of the cloned sasG gene but repression by uninduced cells was leaky.The -10 box of the tetR promoter was
mutated to the Bacillus subtitlis consensus,which resulted in complete repression of SasG protein expression.Anhydrotetracycline at
1.28 microg ml(-1) gave the same high level of inductionthat was obtained with pALC2073sasG using 160 ng ml(-1) tetracycline, the
highestconcentration that could be used without inhibiting bacterial growth. Thisvariant of pALC2073 thus offers almost complete repression when uninduced andhigh levels of expression when induced.PMID: 18996145 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
120. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009 Jan;37(1):e1. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkn883. Epub 2008 Nov 6.Using shotgun sequence data to find active
restriction enzyme genes.Zheng Y(1), Posfai J, Morgan RD, Vincze T, Roberts RJ.Author information: (1)New England Biolabs, Inc.,
240 County Road, Ipswich, MA 01938, USA.Whole genome shotgun sequence analysis has become the standard method forbegin-
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ning to determine a genome sequence. The preparation of the shotgun sequenceclones is, in fact, a biological experiment. It determines which segments of the genome can be cloned into Escherichia coli and which cannot. By analyzing thecomplete set of sequences from such an experiment, it is possible to identifygenes lethal to E. coli. Among this set are genes encoding restriction enzymeswhich, when active in E. coli, lead to cell death by cleaving the E. coli genome at the restriction enzyme recognition sites. By
analyzing shotgun sequence datasets we show that this is a reliable method to detect active restriction enzymegenes in newly sequenced genomes, thereby facilitating functional annotation.Active restriction enzyme genes have been identified, and their activitydemonstrated biochemically, in the sequenced genomes of Methanocaldococcusjannaschii, Bacillus cereus ATCC 10987 and
Methylococcus capsulatus.PMCID: PMC2615612PMID: 18988632 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
121. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol. 2009;16(1-2):53-68. doi: 10.1159/000142894. Epub 2008Oct 29.Cell physiology and protein secretion of Bacillus licheniformis compared toBacillus subtilis.Voigt B(1), Antelmann H, Albrecht D, Ehrenreich A, Maurer KH, Evers S,
GottschalkG, van Dijl JM, Schweder T, Hecker M.Author information: (1)Institut für Mikrobiologie, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität,
Greifswald, Germany. [email protected] genome sequence of Bacillus subtilis was published in 1997 and since
thenmany other bacterial genomes have been sequenced, among them Bacilluslicheniformis in 2004. B. subtilis and B. licheniformis
are closely related andfeature similar saprophytic lifestyles in the soil. Both species can secretenumerous proteins into the surrounding medium enabling them to usehigh-molecular-weight substances, which are abundant in soils, as nutrientsources. The
availability of complete genome sequences allows for the prediction of the proteins containing signals for secretion into the extracellular milieuand also of the proteins which form the secretion machinery needed for proteintranslocation through the cytoplasmic
membrane. To confirm the predictedsubcellular localization of proteins, proteomics is the best choice. Theextracellular proteomes of
B. subtilis and B. licheniformis have been analyzedunder different growth conditions allowing comparisons of the extracellularproteomes and conclusions regarding similarities and differences of the proteinsecretion mechanisms between the two species.Copyright (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.PMID: 18957862 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
122. J Bacteriol. 2009 Jan;191(1):445-6. doi: 10.1128/JB.01347-08. Epub 2008 Oct 24.The complete genome sequence of Bacillus
anthracis Ames "Ancestor".Ravel J(1), Jiang L, Stanley ST, Wilson MR, Decker RS, Read TD, Worsham P, KeimPS, Salzberg SL,
Fraser-Liggett CM, Rasko DA.Author information: (1)The Institute for Genomic Research, Rockville, Maryland 20850,
[email protected] pathogenic bacterium Bacillus anthracis has become the subject of intensestudy as a result of
its use in a bioterrorism attack in the United States inSeptember and October 2001. Previous studies suggested that B. anthracis
AmesAncestor, the original Ames fully virulent plasmid-containing isolate, was theideal reference. This study describes the complete
genome sequence of thatoriginal isolate, derived from a sample kept in cold storage since 1981.PMCID: PMC2612425PMID:
18952800 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
123. Plasmid. 2009 Jan;61(1):52-64. doi: 10.1016/j.plasmid.2008.09.004. Epub 2008 Oct 26.Bioinformatic and partial functional
analysis of pEspA and pEspB, two plasmidsfrom Exiguobacterium arabatum sp. nov. RFL1109.Jakubauskas A(1), Kriukiene E,
Trinkunaite L, Sapranauskas R,Jurenaite-Urbanaviciene S, Lubys A.Author information: (1)Institute of Biotechnology, Graiciuno g. 8,
Vilnius LT-02241, [email protected] complete nucleotide sequences of two plasmids from Exiguobacterium arabatumsp. nov. RFL1109, pEspA (4563bp) and pEspB (38,945bp), have been determined. FiveORFs were identified in the
pEspA plasmid, and putative functions were assignedto two of them. Using deletion mapping approach, the Rep-independent replication region of pEspA, which functions in Bacillus subtilis, was localized within a0.6kb DNA region. Analysis of the pEspB sequence
revealed 42 ORFs. From these,function of two genes encoding enzymes of the Lsp1109I restriction-modificationsystem was confirmed experimentally, while putative functions of another 18 ORFs were suggested based on comparative analysis. Three functional
regions have been proposed for the pEspB plasmid: the putative conjugative transfer region, theregion involved in plasmid replication and maintenance, and the regionresponsible for transposition of the IS21 family-like transposable elements.PMID: 18848579
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
124. Arch Virol. 2008;153(10):1855-65. doi: 10.1007/s00705-008-0201-z. Epub 2008 Sep20.Isolation, characterization and genome
sequencing of phage MZTP02 from Bacillusthuringiensis MZ1.Liao W(1), Song S, Sun F, Jia Y, Zeng W, Pang Y.Author information:
(1)State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, School of Life Sciences, Institute ofEntomology, Sun Yat-sen Zhongshan University, Guangzhou, People's Republic ofChina. [email protected] lysogenic phage, MZTP02, was produced via induction by mitomycin C
fromBacillus thuringiensis (B. thuringiensis) strain MZ1. Plaques were about 3 mm in diameter with a small inner zone consisting of
new B. thuringiensis colonies.Electron microscopic analysis showed that MZTP02 had a long tail (220 nm x 18 nm)and an icosahedral head (82 nm x 85 nm). MZTP02 was insensitive to organicsolvents such as chloroform, and infected six B. thuringiensis strains.
Itscomplete genome contained 15,717 base pairs (bp) with 37.55% G + C content. Twoinverted terminal repeats consisting of 40 bp
were 65% identical. Twenty putativeopen reading frames (ORFs) were found in the MZTP02 genome, and nine predictedproteins,
including two terminase subunits, portal protein, minor head protein,scaffold protein, two putative membrane proteins, tail component, and minorstructural protein, showed similarity to other phage proteins. But six ORFs were unique. The presence of a terminal
protein at the 5'-terminus was demonstratedusing proteinase K, lambda exonuclease and E. coli exonuclease III to digest the genome DNA. A TMP phylogenetic tree was constructed based on amino acid sequencesfrom ten phages.PMID: 18807113 [Pub-
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125. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2008 Nov;288(2):186-95. doi:10.1111/j.1574-6968.2008.01342.x. Epub 2008 Sep 15.Complete nucleotide
sequencing and analysis of the 65-kb highly conjugativeEnterococcus faecium plasmid pMG1: identification of the transfer-related
region and the minimum region required for replication.Tanimoto K(1), Ike Y.Author information: (1)Laboratory of Bacterial Drug Resistance, Gunma University Graduate School ofMedicine, Maebashi, Gunma, Japan.pMG1 (65.1 kb) is a highly conjugative, pheromone-independent Enterococcusfaecium plasmid that carries a Tn4001-like transposon encoding gentamicinresistance. The complete nucleotide sequence (65 029 bp) of the pMG1 plasmid was determined and 73 ORFs lying in the same transcription orientation
wereidentified. Sixty-one of the 73 ORFs showed a high degree of similarity (90-100% identity at the amino acid level) to the ORFs
of the pHTbeta plasmids. Like thepHTbeta plasmid, 22 of the pMG1 plasmid ORFs showed homology with ORFs present onthe
pXO2 plasmid (96.2 kb), which is the virulence plasmid essential for capsularformation by Bacillus anthracis. Analysis of tra mutants
created by Tn917insertion and Northern analysis of transcripts indicated that ORFs 15-49, lyingin the 31.7 kb region between 13.6
and 45.3 kb on the plasmid map, were relatedto transfer. This region was designated as the Tra I region of pMG1. A 5.9-kbHindIII
fragment that replicates autonomously in Enterococcus faecalis was clonedand analysis of this fragment by deletion and in vitro insertion mutations showedthat ORF10 (rep) and the inverted repeat sequence in the noncoding region betweenORF8 and ORF9
were necessary for pMG1 replication.PMID: 18795955 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
126. J Basic Microbiol. 2008 Dec;48(6):448-54. doi: 10.1002/jobm.200800116.Cloning, sequencing and analysis of dnaK -dnaJ gene
cluster of Bacillusmegaterium.Bao F(1), Gong L, Shao W.Author information: (1)Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Biodiversity and Bioresources, Nanjing NormalUniversity, Nanjing, PR China.The DNA fragment of heat shock genes (hrcA-grpE-dnaK-dnaJ) containing
completehrcA-grpE-dnaK operon and the transcription unit of dnaJ was cloned, sequensedand analyzed from Bacillus megaterium
RF5. The sequence of hrcA, grpE and dnaJwere first time reported, and their coding products exibit 60%, 63% and 81% ofidentities
to the homologs of B. subtilis. A sigmaA-type promoter ofGram-positive bacteria (PA1) and a terminator were located upstream of
the hrcAand downstream of dnaK, and a Controlling inverted repeat of chaperone expressionelement (CIRCE) was identified between PA1 and hrcA. Another sigmaA-type promoter(PA2) and a terminator were found upstream and downstream of dnaJ, indicating B. megaterium has a transcription unit containing a single gene dnaJ. The structure of dnaJ transcription unit is more similar to
that of Listeria monocytogenes thanother species of Bacillus. A partial protein-based phylogenetic tree, derivedfrom Gram-positive
bacteria using HrcA sequence, indicated a closer phylogenetic relationship between B. megaterium and Geobacillus species than
other twoBacillus species.PMID: 18785662 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
127. Proteomics. 2008 Jun;8(12):2477-91. doi: 10.1002/pmic.200700971.Deciphering the proteomic profile of Mycobacterium leprae
cell envelope.Marques MA(1), Neves-Ferreira AG, da Silveira EK, Valente RH, Chapeaurouge A,Perales J, da Silva Bernardes R,
Dobos KM, Spencer JS, Brennan PJ, Pessolani MC.Author information: (1)Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology,
Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1682, USA.The complete sequence of the Mycobacterium leprae genome, an obligateintracellular pathogen, shows a dramatic reduction of functional genes, with acoding capacity of less than 50%. Despite this
massive gene decay, the leprosybacillus has managed to preserve a minimal gene set, most of it shared withMycobacterium tuberculosis, allowing its survival in the host with ensuingpathological manifestations. Thus, the identification of proteins that areactually
expressed in vivo by M. leprae is of high significance in understanding obligate, intracellular mycobacterial pathogenesis. In this
study, ahigh-throughput proteomic approach was undertaken resulting in the identificationof 218 new M. leprae proteins. Of these,
60 were in the soluble/cytosol fraction,98 in the membrane and 104 in the cell wall. Although several proteins wereidentified in more
than one subcellular fraction, the majority were unique toone. As expected, a high percentage of these included enzymes responsible forlipid biosynthesis and degradation, biosynthesis of the major components of themycobacterial cell envelope, proteins involved
in transportation across lipidbarriers, and lipoproteins and transmembrane proteins with unknown functions. Thedata presented in
this study contribute to our understanding of the in vivocomposition and physiology of the mycobacterial cell envelope, a compartmentknown to play a major role in bacterial pathogenesis.PMID: 18563741 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
128. Curr Microbiol. 2008 Jul;57(1):61-5. doi: 10.1007/s00284-008-9153-5. Epub 2008Apr 30.A nonribosomal peptide synthetase
gene tzw1 is involved in zwittermicin Abiosynthesis in Bacillus thuringiensis G03.Shao T(1), Bai L, Zhang J, Wang G, Liu D, Li Z, Liu
J, Song F, Huang D.Author information: (1)State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Institute ofPlant
Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, PR China.A 4.20-kb SspI fragment from Bacillus thuringiensis G03
was cloned and sequenced.Sequencing analysis revealed two complete open reading frames (ORF; tzw1 andtzw2), and one incomplete ORF (tzw3) (GenBank accession no. EU293887). Tzw1encodes a putative nonribosomal peptide synthetase with thiolation andcondensation domains localized at the C-termini, whereas tzw2 and tzw3 encodeacyl carrier protein and Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, respectively. To investigate thefunction of tzw1 in zwittermicin A (ZA) biosynthesis, an in-frame deletion of1,461 bp
within tzw1 was constructed. The mutant abolished ZA production.Complementation of the mutant with cloned tzw1 restored ZA
productivity. Theseresults revealed that tzw1 is required for ZA biosynthesis in B. thuringiensisG03.PMID: 18446411 [PubMed indexed for MEDLINE]
129. J Biol Chem. 2008 Jun 20;283(25):17158-67. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M801461200. Epub 2008Apr 29.Role of Bacillus subtilis RNase
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J1 endonuclease and 5'-exonuclease activities in trp leader RNA turnover.Deikus G(1), Condon C, Bechhofer DH.Author information:
(1)Department of Pharmacology and Systems Therapeutics, Mount Sinai School ofMedicine of New York University, New York, New
York 10029, USA.The 140-nucleotide trp leader RNA, which is formed by transcription terminationunder conditions of high intracellular tryptophan, was used to study RNA turnoverin Bacillus subtilis. We showed in vivo that the amount of endonuclease cleavage
at approximately nucleotide 100 is decreased under conditions where RNase J1concentration is reduced. In addition, under these
conditions the level of3'-terminal RNA fragments, which contain the strong transcription terminatorstructure, increases dramatically.
These results implicated RNase J1 in theinitiation of trp leader RNA decay as well as in the subsequent steps leading to complete
turnover of the terminator fragment. To confirm a direct role for RNase J1, experiments were performed in vitro with various forms of
trp leader RNA and 3'-terminal RNA fragments. Specific endonuclease cleavages, which were restrictedto single-stranded regions
not bound by protein, were observed. Degradation ofthe 3'-terminal fragment by the 5' to 3'-exonuclease activity of RNase J1 wasalso demonstrated, although the presence of strong secondary structure impededRNase J1 processivity to some extent. These results are consistent with a modelfor mRNA decay in Bacillus subtilis whereby the downstream products of RNase J1endonucleolytic
cleavage become substrates for the 5' to 3'-exoribonucleaseactivity of the enzyme.PMCID: PMC2427345PMID: 18445592 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
130. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Apr 15;105(15):5803-8. doi:10.1073/pnas.0800981105. Epub 2008 Apr 11.The genome of Bacillus coahuilensis reveals adaptations essential for survival inthe relic of an ancient marine environment.Alcaraz LD(1), Olmedo G,
Bonilla G, Cerritos R, Hernández G, Cruz A, Ramírez E,Putonti C, Jiménez B, Martínez E, López V, Arvizu JL, Ayala F, Razo F,
Caballero J, Siefert J, Eguiarte L, Vielle JP, Martínez O, Souza V, Herrera-Estrella A,Herrera-Estrella L.Author information:
(1)Laboratorio Nacional de Genómica para la Biodiversidad (Langebio), Departamentode Ingeniería Genética and Departamento de
Biotecnología, Cinvestav, CampusGuanajuato, AP 629 Irapuato, Guanajuato CP36500, México.The Cuatro Ciénegas Basin (CCB)
in the central part of the Chihuahan desert(Coahuila, Mexico) hosts a wide diversity of microorganisms contained withinsprings
thought to be geomorphological relics of an ancient sea. A major questionremaining to be answered is whether bacteria from CCB
are ancient marine bacteriathat adapted to an oligotrophic system poor in NaCl, rich in sulfates, and withextremely low phosphorus
levels (<0.3 microM). Here, we report the completegenome sequence of Bacillus coahuilensis, a sporulating bacterium isolated
fromthe water column of a desiccation lagoon in CCB. At 3.35 Megabases this is thesmallest genome sequenced to date of a Bacillus species and provides insightsinto the origin, evolution, and adaptation of B. coahuilensis to the CCBenvironment. We propose
that the size and complexity of the B. coahuilensisgenome reflects the adaptation of an ancient marine bacterium to a novelenvironment, providing support to a "marine isolation origin hypothesis" that is consistent with the geology of CCB. This genomic adaptation includes theacquisition through horizontal gene transfer of genes involved in phosphorousutilization efficiency and adaptation to
high-light environments. The B.coahuilensis genome sequence also revealed important ecological features of thebacterial community in CCB and offers opportunities for a unique glimpse of amicrobe-dominated world last seen in the Precambrian.PMCID:
PMC2311347PMID: 18408155 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
131. J Bacteriol. 2008 Apr;190(8):2892-902. doi: 10.1128/JB.01652-07. Epub 2008 Feb22.Complete genome sequence of the mosquitocidal bacterium Bacillus sphaericus C3-41and comparison with those of closely related Bacillus species.Hu X(1), Fan W, Han B,
Liu H, Zheng D, Li Q, Dong W, Yan J, Gao M, Berry C, Yuan Z.Author information: (1)Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy
of Sciences, Wuhan 430071, China.Bacillus sphaericus strain C3-41 is an aerobic, mesophilic, spore-formingbacterium that has
been used with great success in mosquito control programsworldwide. Genome sequencing revealed that the complete genome of
thisentomopathogenic bacterium is composed of a chromosomal replicon of 4,639,821 bp and a plasmid replicon of 177,642 bp,
containing 4,786 and 186 potentialprotein-coding sequences, respectively. Comparison of the genome with otherpublished sequences indicated that the B. sphaericus C3-41 chromosome is mostsimilar to that of Bacillus sp. strain NRRL B-14905, a marine
species that, like B. sphaericus, is unable to metabolize polysaccharides. The lack of key enzymesand sugar transport systems in
the two bacteria appears to be the main reason forthis inability, and the abundance of proteolytic enzymes and transport systemsmay endow these bacteria with exclusive metabolic pathways for a wide variety of organic compounds and amino acids. The genes
shared between B. sphaericus C3-41and Bacillus sp. strain NRRL B-14905, including mobile genetic elements,membrane-associated proteins, and transport systems, demonstrated that these two species are a biologically and phylogenetically divergent group. Knowledge of thegenome sequence of B. sphaericus C3-41 thus increases our understanding of thebacilli
and may also offer prospects for future genetic improvement of thisimportant biological control agent.PMCID: PMC2293248PMID:
18296527 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
132. J AOAC Int. 2007 Nov-Dec;90(6):1517-25.Detection and characterization of cry1Ac transgene construct in Bt cotton:multiple
polymerase chain reaction approach.Singh CK(1), Ojha A, Kachru DN.Author information: (1)Industrial Toxicology Research Centre,
Post Box No. 80, M.G. Marg Lucknow-226001 U.P., India.To comply with international labeling regulations for genetically modified
(GM)crops and food, and to enable proper identification of GM organisms (GMOs),effective methodologies and reliable approaches
are needed. The spurious andunapproved GM planting has contributed to crop failures and commercial losses. Toensure effective
and genuine GM cultivation, a methodology is needed to detectand identify the trait of interest and concurrently evaluate the struc-
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tural andfunctional stability of the transgene insert. A multiple polymerase chainreaction (PCR) approach was developed for detection, identification, and genestability confirmation of cry1Ac transgene construct in Bt cotton. As many as 9samples of Bt cotton hybrid seeds comprising 3 approved Bt hybrids, MECH-12Bt,MECH-162Bt, MECH-184Bt, and a batch of 6 nonapproved Bt hybrids
were tested.Initially, single standard PCR assays were run to amplify predominant GM DNAsequences (CaMV 35S promoter, nos
terminator, and npt-II marker gene); ahousekeeping gene, Gossypium hirsutum fiber-specific acyl carrier protein gene(acp1); a
trait-specific transgene (cry1Ac); and a sequence of 7S 3'transcription terminator which specifically borders with 3' region of
cry1Actransgene cassette. The concurrent amplification of all sequences of the entirecassette was performed by 3 assays, duplex,
triplex, and quadruplex multiplex PCRassays, under common assay conditions. The identity of amplicons was reconfirmed by restriction endonuclease digestion profile. The 2 distinct transgenecassettes, cry1Ac and npt-II, of the Bt cotton were amplified using
therespective forward primer of promoter and reverse primer of terminator. Theresultant amplicons were excised, eluted, and purified. The purified ampliconsserved as template for nested PCR assays. The nested PCR runs confirmed thetransgene construct
orientation and identity. The limit of detection asestablished by our assay for GM trait (cry1Ac) was 0.1%. This approach can beadopted as a standard procedure for complete molecular characterization of Btcotton. These assays will be of interest and use to importers, breeders, researchlaboratories, safety regulators, and food processors for detection of cry1Acbearing GMOs.PMID:
18193727 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
133. Proteins. 2008 Jun;71(4):1995-2011. doi: 10.1002/prot.21878.Insights into activation and RNA binding of trp RNA-binding attenuation protein(TRAP) through all-atom simulations.Murtola T(1), Vattulainen I, Falck E.Author information: (1)Laboratory of Physics and Helsinki Institute of Physics, Helsinki University ofTechnology, FI-02015 Espoo, Finland. [email protected] biosynthesis in Bacillus stearothermophilus is regulated by a trp RNA binding attenuation protein (TRAP). It is a ring-shaped 11-mer of
identical 74residue subunits. Tryptophan binding pockets are located between adjacentsubunits, and tryptophan binding activates
TRAP to bind RNA. Here, we reportresults from all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of the system, complementingexisting extensive experimental studies. We focus on two questions. First, welook at the activation mechanism, of which relatively little is
knownexperimentally. We find that the absence of tryptophan allows larger motionsclose to the tryptophan binding site, and we see
indication of a conformationalchange in the BC loop. However, complete deactivation seems to occur on muchlonger time scales
than the 40 ns studied here. Second, we study the TRAP-RNAinteractions. We look at the relative flexibilities of the different bases
in thecomplex and analyze the hydrogen bonds between the protein and RNA. We also studythe role of Lys37, Lys56, and Arg58,
which have been experimentally identified asessential for RNA binding. Hydrophobic stacking of Lys37 with the nearby RNA baseis
confirmed, but we do not see direct hydrogen bonding between RNA and the othertwo residues, in contrast to the crystal structure.
Rather, these residues seemto stabilize the RNA-binding surface, and their positive charge may also play arole in RNA binding.
Simulations also indicate that TRAP is able to attract RNAnonspecifically, and the interactions are quantified in more detail using
bindingenergy calculations. The formation of the final binding complex is a very slowprocess: within the simulation time scale of 40
ns, only two guanine bases becomebound (and no others), indicating that the binding initiates at these positions. In general, our results are in good agreement with experimental studies, andprovide atomic-scale insights into the processes.(c) 2008 Wiley-Liss,
Inc.PMID: 18186477 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
134. Indian J Lepr. 2007 Apr-Sep;79(2-3):151-66.Recent advances in molecular biology of leprosy.Katoch VM(1), Lavania M,
Chauhan DS, Sharma R, Hirawati, Katoch K.Author information: (1)National JALMA Institute for Leprosy and Other Mycobacterial
Diseases (ICMR),Tajganj, Agra, India. [email protected] last three decades have witnessed rapid progress in
understanding themolecular biology of Mycobacterium leprae. Following the availability of completegenome sequence of leprosy bacillus in 2001, things have drastically changed.With the information about genetic structure, several techniques have beendeveloped
for diagnosis, molecular epidemiology and also detection of drugresistance. With the decline in the prevalence of leprosy globally,
there hasbeen some reduction in interest in the molecular methods for diagnosis, yetmolecular techniques for studying the transmission dynamics and detection of drugresistance continue to be relevant. Knowledge about complete genome sequence has made it
possible to undertake studies that can improve our understanding of thestructure and function of this enigmatic organism. Newer information emergingabout biology of M. leprae would provide insight into mechanisms of its survival and persistence in host and is
likely to lead to better diagnostics and alsotherapeutics for mycobacterial infections in general.PMID: 18085172 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
135. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2007 Jan;17(1):15-20.Identification and molecular characterization of novel cry1-type toxin genes
fromBacillus thuringiensis K1 isolated in Korea.Li MS(1), Choi JY, Roh JY, Shim HJ, Kang JN, Kim YS, Wang Y, Yu ZN, Jin BR,
JeYH.Author information: (1)State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong AgriculturalUniversity, Lion Street,
Hongshan District, Wuhan 430070, China.To clone novel cry1-type genes from the Bacillus thuringiensis K1 isolate, about
2.4-kb-long PCR fragments were amplified with two primer sets of ATG1-F/N400-Rand 1BeATG1-F/N400-R. Using PCR-RFLP,
three novel cry1-type genes, cry1-1,cry1-7, and cry1-44, were obtained from B. thuringiensis K1 and the completecoding sequences
of these novel genes were analyzed. The Cry1-1, Cry1-7, andCry1-44 proteins showed maximum similarities of about 78.0%, 99.7%,
and 91.0%with the Cry1Ha1, Cry1Be1, and Cry1Ac2 proteins, respectively. These novelcry1-type genes were expressed using a
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baculovirus expression vector system andtheir insecticidal activities were investigated. Whereas all three novel geneswere toxic to
Plutella xylostella larvae, only Cry1-1 showed insecticidalactivity against Spodoptera exigua larvae.PMID: 18051348 [PubMed indexed for MEDLINE]
136. Microbiology. 2007 Nov;153(Pt 11):3645-59.The orotate transporter encoded by oroP from Lactococcus lactis is required fororotate utilization and has utility as a food-grade selectable marker.Defoor E(1), Kryger MB, Martinussen J.Author information:
(1)Center for Systems Microbiology, BioCentrum-DTU, Building 301, TechnicalUniversity of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark.A new lactococcal plasmid, pDBORO, was isolated from the Lactococcus lactissubsp. lactis biovar diacetylactis strain DB0410.
This plasmid is responsible forthe sensitivity of DB0410 to the toxic pyrimidine analogue 5-fluoroorotate. Thecomplete nucleotide
sequence has been determined and amounts to 16 404 bp. Of 15 ORFs encountered, three were found to be insertion sequence (IS)
elements,identified as two IS946 and one IS982. Two ORFs are incomplete due to theinsertion of an IS element in their C-terminal
region. Homologues for four ORFswere found in the IL1403 sequence: the copB gene, coding for acopper-potassium-transporting
ATPase B, and the ysbA, ysbB and ysbC genes. Thestructural organization of the pDBORO replication region is highly similar
toother theta-replicating plasmids in both the cis- (repA) and trans-acting (repBand orfX) sequences. By plasmid deletion analysis
and molecular cloning, a singlelocus on pDBORO was found to confer sensitivity to 5-fluoroorotate. It wasidentified as ysbC, but renamed oroP in order to reflect its function. The oroPgene was found to be essential for the utilization of orotate as the solepyrimidine
source in a strain deficient in pyrimidine de novo synthesis. Theamino acid sequence encoded by the ORF showed the characteristic features of amembrane protein. Therefore, oroP most probably encodes an orotate transporter.Surprisingly, homologues of oroP
could be identified in the genomes of both L.lactis MG1363 and L. lactis IL1403 despite the fact that these strains wereunable to
significantly utilize orotate. Cloning of oroP in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis showed that the orotate transport phenotype
could betransformed to both organisms. The findings presented indicate that oroP can beused as a powerful, food-grade selection/counterselection marker in manydifferent organisms.PMID: 17975072 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
137. Plant Cell Rep. 2008 Feb;27(2):251-9. Epub 2007 Oct 13.Application of Arabidopsis AGAMOUS second intron for the engineered ablation offlower development in transgenic tobacco.Wang HZ(1), Hu B, Chen GP, Shi NN, Zhao Y, Yin QC, Liu JJ.Author
information: (1)Key Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Hangzhou Normal University,Hangzhou 310018, China.
[email protected] explore a new approach to generating reproductive sterility in transgenicplants, the barnase gene from Bacillus
amyloliquefaciens was placed under thecontrol of an 1853-bp nucleotide sequence from the 3'end of the second intron of Arabidopsis AGAMOUS and CaMV 35S (-60) minimal promoter [AG-I-35S(-60)::Barnase], and was introduced into tobacco through transformation mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. All AG-I-35S (-60)::Barnase transgenic plantsshowed normal vegetative growth
and 28% of the transgenic lines displayedcomplete ablation of flowering. Two transgenic lines, Bar-5 and Bar-15, were 98.1and 98.4%
sterile, respectively, as determined by seed production andgermination. When controlled by AG-I-35S (-60) chimeric promoter, barnase mRNAwas detected in the reproductive tissues of transgenic tobacco plants, but not invegetative parts. This study presents the
first application of an AG intronsequence in the engineered ablation of sexual reproduction in plants. TheAG-I-35S (-60)::Barnase
construct can be useful in diminishing pollen and seedformation in plants, providing a novel bisexual sterility strategy forinterception
of transgene escape and has other potentially commercial use fortransgenic engineering.PMID: 17934737 [PubMed - indexed for
MEDLINE]
138. J Bacteriol. 2007 Dec;189(23):8616-25. Epub 2007 Oct 5.The yydFGHIJ operon of Bacillus subtilis encodes a peptide that induces the LiaRStwo-component system.Butcher BG(1), Lin YP, Helmann JD.Author information: (1)Department of Microbiology, 370
Wing Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY14853-8101, USA.The Bacillus subtilis LiaRS two-component system (TCS) responds to
perturbations of the cell envelope induced by lipid II-interacting antibiotics, such asvancomycin, ramoplanin, nisin, and bacitracin.
Here, we characterizeTn7-generated mutations that induce the liaRS TCS. In addition to insertions inliaF, a known negative regulator of the LiaRS TCS, we identified two disruptions in the last two genes of the yydFGHIJ operon. This operon is predicted to encode
a 49-amino-acid peptide (YydF), a modification enzyme (YydG), a membrane-embeddedprotease (YydH), and an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter (YydIJ). Genomesequence comparisons suggest that the yydFGHIJ operon may have been acquired byhorizontal transfer. Inactivation of the YydIJ transporter resulted in increased expression from the LiaR-dependent P(liaI) promoter only
in the presence of theyydFGH genes. Cells harboring the complete yydFGHIJ operon induced LiaR activity in cocultured cells lacking either this transporter or the complete operon. Theseresults suggest that this operon is involved in the synthesis and export of
amodified peptide (YydF*) that elicits cell envelope stress sensed by the LiaRSTCS.PMCID: PMC2168931PMID: 17921301
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
139. J Appl Microbiol. 2008 Jan;104(1):60-9.Changes in the properties of Bacillus thuringiensis after prolonged culture in a rich medium.Bizzarri MF(1), Bishop AH, Dinsdale A, Logan NA.Author information: (1)School of Science, University of Greenwich, Chatham
Maritime, UK.AIM: To investigate the effect of repeated culture in a rich medium on certaingenetic, metabolic, pathogenic and structural characteristics of fresh isolatesof Bacillus thuringiensis.METHODS AND RESULTS: Four strains of B. thuringiensis, which had
been isolated invegetative form from leaf surfaces, were grown for 500 generations in batchculture in a rich medium. One of the
strains, S4g, differed from the parent inthe following respects: greater cell width; changed plasmid profile; completeloss of ability to
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produce delta-endotoxins; loss of ability to producebeta-exotoxin and disruption of vip3 gene; radically different fatty acidcomposition;
and altered metabolic activity. Two of the other evolved strains(S1g and S6g) showed differences in fatty acid profiles compared
with theparents. Genetic finger-printing showed that there were also mutations in the crygenes of two of the evolved strains (S1g
and S2g). The delta-endotoxins of strainS6g were significantly less toxic to the larvae of Pieris brassica compared with those of the
parent and it also differed in the plasmid content.CONCLUSION: Radical and unpredictable changes can occur in fresh isolates of
B.thuringiensis when subjected to growth in the laboratory.SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: This is the first analysis
of a Grampositive and biotechnologically significant bacterium after repeated laboratoryculture. It is of great relevance to the biotechnological exploitation of B.thuringiensis that prolonged growth of environmental isolates on laboratoryculture media can have
profound effects on their structure, genome and virulence determinants.PMID: 17850315 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
140. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007 Nov;73(21):6939-44. Epub 2007 Sep 7.Mutated cadherin alleles from a field population of Helicoverpa armigera conferresistance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Cry1Ac.Yang Y(1), Chen H, Wu Y, Yang Y, Wu S.Author information: (1)Department of Entomology, College of Plant Protection, Nanjing AgriculturalUniversity, Nanjing 210095, China.The cotton
bollworm Helicoverpa armigera is the major insect pest targeted bycotton genetically engineered to produce the Bacillus thuringiensis toxin(transgenic Bt cotton) in the Old World. The evolution of this pest's resistance to B. thuringiensis toxins is the main
threat to the long-term effectiveness oftransgenic Bt cotton. A deletion mutation allele (r(1)) of a cadherin gene(Ha_BtR) was previously identified as genetically linked with Cry1Ac resistancein a laboratory-selected strain of H. armigera. Using a biphasic screen
strategy,we successfully trapped two new cadherin alleles (r(2) and r(3)) associated with Cry1Ac resistance from a field population
of H. armigera collected from theYellow River cotton area of China in 2005. The r(2) and r(3) alleles,respectively, were created by
inserting the long terminal repeat of aretrotransposon (designated HaRT1) and the intact HaRT1 retrotransposon at thesame position in exon 8 of Ha_BtR, which results in a truncated cadherincontaining only two ectodomain repeats in the N terminus of Ha_BtR.
This is thefirst time that the B. thuringiensis resistance alleles of a target insect of Bt crops have been successfully detected in the
open field. This study alsodemonstrated that bollworm larvae carrying two resistance alleles can completedevelopment on Bt cotton.
The cadherin locus should be an important target forintensive DNA-based screening of field populations of H. armigera.PMCID:
PMC2074965PMID: 17827322 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
141. Nat Biotechnol. 2007 Sep;25(9):1007-14. Epub 2007 Aug 19.Comparative analysis of the complete genome sequence of the
plantgrowth-promoting bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42.Chen XH(1), Koumoutsi A, Scholz R, Eisenreich A, Schneider K,
Heinemeyer I,Morgenstern B, Voss B, Hess WR, Reva O, Junge H, Voigt B, Jungblut PR, Vater J,Süssmuth R, Liesegang H,
Strittmatter A, Gottschalk G, Borriss R.Author information: (1)Bakteriengenetik, Institut für Biologie, Humboldt Universität,
Chausseestrasse117, D-10115 Berlin, Germany.Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 is a Gram-positive, plant-associated bacterium,
which stimulates plant growth and produces secondary metabolites that suppresssoil-borne plant pathogens. Its 3,918-kb genome,
containing an estimated 3,693protein-coding sequences, lacks extended phage insertions, which occurubiquitously in the closely
related Bacillus subtilis 168 genome. The B.amyloliquefaciens FZB42 genome reveals an unexpected potential to producesecondary metabolites, including the polyketides bacillaene and difficidin. More than 8.5% of the genome is devoted to synthesizing antibiotics and siderophoresby pathways not involving ribosomes. Besides five gene clusters, known from B.subtilis to mediate nonribosomal synthesis of secondary metabolites, weidentified four giant gene clusters absent in B. subtilis 168. The pks2 genecluster encodes the components to synthesize the macrolactin core skeleton.PMID: 17704766 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
142. Virology. 2007 Nov 25;368(2):405-21. Epub 2007 Jul 30.Complete genomic sequence and mass spectrometric analysis of
highly diverse,atypical Bacillus thuringiensis phage 0305phi8-36.Thomas JA(1), Hardies SC, Rolando M, Hayes SJ, Lieman K, Carroll CA, WeintraubST, Serwer P.Author information: (1)Department of Biochemistry, The University of Texas Health Science Center,
7703Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78229-3900, USA.To investigate the apparent genomic complexity of long-genome bacteriophages, we have sequenced the 218,948-bp genome (6479-bp terminal repeat), and identifiedthe virion proteins (55), of Bacillus
thuringiensis bacteriophage 0305phi8-36.Phage 0305phi8-36 is an atypical myovirus with three large curly tail fibers. An accurate
mode of DNA pyrosequencing was used to sequence the genome and massspectrometry was used to accomplish the comprehensive virion protein survey.Advanced informatic techniques were used to identify classical morphogenesisgenes. The 0305phi8-36
genes were highly diverged; 19% of 247 closely spacedgenes have similarity to proteins with known functions. Genes forvirion-associated, apparently fibrous proteins in a new class were found, inaddition to strong candidates for the curly fiber genes.
Phage 0305phi8-36 hastwice the virion protein coding sequence of T4. Based on its genomic isolation,0305phi8-36 is a resource for
future studies of vertical gene transmission.PMCID: PMC2171028PMID: 17673272 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
143. Microbiology. 2007 Aug;153(Pt 8):2553-9.Development of an intermolecular transposition assay system in Bacillus subtilis 168
using IS4Bsu1 from Bacillus subtilis (natto).Takahashi K(1), Sekine Y, Chibazakura T, Yoshikawa H.Author information:
(1)Department of Bioscience, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Sakuragaoka, Tokyo156-8502, Japan.Most of the spontaneous
poly-gamma-glutamate (gamma-PGA)-deficient mutants ofBacillus subtilis (natto) appear to have resulted from the insertion of
IS4Bsu1exclusively into the comP gene. However, complete genomic analysis of B. subtilis168, a close relative of B. subtilis (natto),
revealed no IS4Bsu1 insertion.Preliminary experiments using a transformable 'natto' strain indicated that thefrequency of transposi-
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tion of IS4Bsu1 was exceptionally high undercompetence-developing conditions. On the other hand, such
high-frequencytransposition was not observed when cells were grown in a rich medium, such as LBmedium, suggesting that there
must be suitable environmental conditions that giverise to the transposition of IS4Bsu1. To assess the behaviour of IS4Bsu1 andexplore any host factors playing roles in IS transposition, an intermoleculartransposition assay system was constructed using a modified IS4Bsu1 element in B.subtilis 168. Here, the details of the intermolecular transposition assay system are given, and the increase in transposition frequency observed underhigh-temperature and competence-inducing conditions is described.PMID:
17660419 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
144. Microbiology. 2007 Aug;153(Pt 8):2541-52.FlhF, a signal recognition particle-like GTPase, is involved in the regulation offlagellar arrangement, motility behaviour and protein secretion in Bacilluscereus.Salvetti S(1), Ghelardi E, Celandroni F, Ceragioli M,
Giannessi F, Senesi S.Author information: (1)Dipartimento di Patologia Sperimentale, Biotecnologie Mediche, Infettivologia ed Epidemiologia, Università di Pisa, via San Zeno 37, 56127 Pisa, Italy.Flagellar arrangement is a highly conserved feature within bacterial species.However, only a few genes regulating cell flagellation have been described inpolar flagellate bacteria. This report
demonstrates that the arrangement offlagella in the peritrichous flagellate Bacillus cereus is controlled by flhF.Disruption of flhF in B.
cereus led to a reduction in the number of flagella from10-12 to 1-3 filaments per cell in the insertion mutant MP06. Moreover, compared to the parental strain, MP06 exhibited: (i) shorter smooth swimming phases,causing reduced swimming motility but not affecting chemotaxis; (ii) completeinhibition of swarming motility, as differentiated swarm cells were neverdetected; (iii) an increased
amount of extracellular proteins; and (iv)differential export of virulence determinants, such as haemolysin BL
(HBL),phosphatidylcholine-preferring phospholipase C (PC-PLC) and non-haemolyticenterotoxin (NHE). Introduction of a plasmid
harbouring flhF (pDGflhF) into MP06 completely restored the wild-type phenotype in the trans-complemented strainMP07. B. cereus
flhF was found to constitute a monocistronic transcriptional unitand its overexpression did not produce abnormal features in the
wild-typebackground. Characterization of a B. cereus mutant (MP05) carrying a partial flhFdeletion indicated that the last C-terminal
domain of FlhF is involved in proteinexport while not required for flagellar arrangement and motility behaviour. Takentogether, these
data suggest that B. cereus FlhF is a promising candidate forconnecting diverse cellular functions, such as flagellar arrangement,
motilitybehaviour, pattern of protein secretion and virulence phenotype.PMID: 17660418 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
145. FEMS Yeast Res. 2007 Oct;7(7):1197-205. Epub 2007 Jul 26.A novel vector element providing multicopy vector integration in
Arxulaadeninivorans.Steinborn G(1), Gellissen G, Kunze G.Author information: (1)Leibniz Institut für Pflanzengenetik und Kulturpflanzenforschung, Gatersleben,Germany.An Arxula adeninivorans vector element has been identified that providesmulticopy integration in an atrp1 host strain. The element consists of the ATRP1 selection marker fused to a newly generated truncated ALEU2
promoter of 53 bp. Inthe described example eight copies of an amyA expression vector encodingheterologous alpha-amylase from
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens are integrated in the genome of the recombinant strain instead of a single copy observed when using
theATRP1 element with the complete promoter. The high copy number results in strainsof superior productivity for a secreted recombinant alpha-amylase. The vectordesign enables the integration of a small vector fragment that consists of yeast DNA only
providing high transformation frequencies and a high mitotic stability.PMID: 17655689 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
146. J Biosci Bioeng. 2007 May;103(5):457-63.Molecular cloning and characterization of thermostable beta-lactam acylase withbroad substrate specificity from Bacillus badius.Rajendhran J(1), Gunasekaran P.Author information: (1)Department of Genetics,
Centre for Excellence in Genomic Sciences, School ofBiological Sciences, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai, India.The gene
(pac) encoding beta-lactam acylase from Bacillus badius was cloned andexpressed in Escherichia coli. The pac gene was identified
by polymerase chainreaction (PCR) using degenerated primers, on the basis of conserved amino acidresidues. By using single specific primer PCR (SSP-PCR) and direct genomesequencing, a complete pac gene with its promoter region was obtained. The ORFconsisted of 2415 bp and the deduced amino acid sequence indicated that theenzyme is synthesized as a preproenzyme with a
signal sequence, an alpha-subunit,a spacer peptide and a beta-subunit. The pac gene was expressed with its ownpromoter in different E. coli host strains and a maximum recombinant PAC (1820 U l(-1)) was obtained in E. coli DH5alpha. The recombinant PAC
was purified byNi-NTA chromatography and the purified PAC had two subunits with apparentmolecular masses of 25 and 62 kDa.
This enzyme exhibited a high thermostabilitywith a maximum activity at 50 degrees C. This enzyme showed stability over a widepH
range (pH 6.0-8.5) with a maximum activity at pH 7.0 and activity on a widebeta-lactam substrate range. The K(m) values obtained
for the hydrolysis ofpenicillin G and a chromogenic substrate, 6-nitro-3-phenylacetylamidobenzoicacid, from B. badius PAC were 39
and 41 microM, respectively. The PAC activitywas competitively inhibited by PAA (K(i), 108 microM) and noncompetitively by6-APA
(K(i), 17 mM). The constitutive production of B. badius PAC in E. coli and its easier purification together with the advantageous
properties, such asthermostability, pH stability and broad substrate specificity, make this as anovel enzyme suitable for beta-lactam
industry.PMID: 17609162 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
147. J Clin Immunol. 2007 Sep;27(5):490-6. Epub 2007 May 21.Two patients with complete defects in interferon gamma receptor-dependentsignaling.Noordzij JG(1), Hartwig NG, Verreck FA, De Bruin-Versteeg S, De Boer T, VanDissel JT, De Groot R, Ottenhoff TH, Van Dongen JJ.Author information: (1)Department of Immunology, Erasmus MC/University Medical Center Rotterdam,Rotterdam, The Netherlands.Unusual susceptibility to mycobacterial infections can be caused by deleteriousmutations in genes
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that encode the interferon-gamma receptor 1 chain. Suchmutations hamper the activation of macrophages by a type 1 immune response andresult in enhanced survival of intracellular pathogens. We here report twopatients with unusual mycobacterial infections,
both diagnosed with homozygousdeleterious interferon-gamma receptor 1 gene mutations. Patient 1 became illafter Bacillus
Calmette-Guérin vaccination at the age of 9 months and died at theage of 18 months. She carried a homozygous C71Y mutation in
the extracellularpart of the mature interferon-gamma receptor 1 protein, resulting in the lack of detectable protein expression and
absence of interferon-gamma dependentsignaling. Patient 2 became ill at the age of 3 years, is still alive at 19 yearsof age, and has
suffered from five successive infection episodes with atypicalmycobacteria. A homozygous splice-site mutation in intron 3 was identified,resulting in the deletion of exon 3 at the mRNA level and consequently atruncated interferon-gamma receptor 1 protein with
absence of the transmembranedomain. Protein expression and interferon-gamma dependent signaling were notdetectable.PMID:
17514500 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
148. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007 Jun;73(12):3803-13. Epub 2007 Apr 20.Plant cell wall degradation by saprophytic Bacillus subtilis
strains: geneclusters responsible for rhamnogalacturonan depolymerization.Ochiai A(1), Itoh T, Kawamata A, Hashimoto W, Murata
K.Author information: (1)Laboratory of Basic and Applied Molecular Biotechnology, Graduate School ofAgriculture, Kyoto University,
Uji, Kyoto 611-0011, Japan.Plant cell wall degradation is a premier event when Bacillus subtilis, a typical saprophytic bacterium, invades plants. Here we show the degradation system ofrhamnogalacturonan type I (RG-I), a component of pectin from the plant cell
wall,in B. subtilis strain 168. Strain 168 cells showed a significant growth on plant cell wall polysaccharides such as pectin, polygalacturonan, and RG-I as a carbon source. DNA microarray analysis indicated that three gene clusters(yesOPQRSTUVWXYZ,
ytePQRST, and ybcMOPST-ybdABDE) are inducibly expressed instrain 168 cells grown on RG-I. Cells of an industrially important
bacterium, B. subtilis strain natto, fermenting soybeans also express the gene clusterincluding the yes series during the assimilation
of soybean used as a carbonsource. Among proteins encoded in the yes cluster, YesW and YesX were found to benovel types of
RG lyases releasing disaccharide from RG-I. Genetic and enzymatic properties of YesW and YesX suggest that strain 168 cells secrete YesW, whichcatalyzes the initial cleavage of the RG-I main chain, and the resultantoligosaccharides are converted to disaccharides through the extracellular exotypeYesX reaction. The disaccharide is finally degraded into its constituentmonosaccharides
through the reaction of intracellular unsaturated galacturonylhydrolases YesR and YteR. This enzymatic route for RG-I degradation
in strain 168differs significantly from that in plant-pathogenic fungus Aspergillus aculeatus.This is, to our knowledge, the first report
on the bacterial system for complete RG-I main chain degradation.PMCID: PMC1932723PMID: 17449691 [PubMed - indexed for
MEDLINE]
149. Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao. 2007 Feb;47(1):17-21.[Cloning and characterization of gerM gene involved in germination in Bacillusthuringiensis].[Article in Chinese]Yan XH(1), Liu G, Tan HR.Author information: (1)Center for Microbial Genetics and Metabolic
Engineering, Institute ofMicrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080, [email protected] Bacilli, gerM
is a very conservative gene. Primers were designed according to the gerM gene sequence of Bacillus cereus, and a 640bp DNA
fragment was obtained from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kustaki 1. 175 by PCR. Using this fragment as a probe, a 4.5kb DNA
fragment was cloned from the partial DNA library of Bacillusthuringiensis subsp. kustaki 1.175. Sequence analysis showed that the
fragmentcontains one complete open reading frame (ORF) that encodes a 349-amino acid (aa)protein, which has high homology
with GerM protein from Bacillus subtilis. Thisgene was designated gerM (GenBank Accession No. DQ537381 ) . RT-PCR analysisshowed that gerM gene was only expressed in the process of sporulation,suggesting gerM is not required for the vegetative
growth. The function of thegerM gene was studied by a strategy of gene disruption, and the resulting gerMdisruption mutant did
show normal growth and sporulation. However, gerMdisruption mutant spores germinate slower than wild-type spores when triggered byL-alanine or inosine, indicating that gerM is required for the spore normalgermination initiated by L-alanine or inosine in Bacillus thuringiensis.PMID: 17436617 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
150. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2007 Jul;75(6):1309-17. Epub 2007 Apr 11.Recombinant expression and characterization of XynD
from Bacillus subtilis subsp.subtilis ATCC 6051: a GH 43 arabinoxylan arabinofuranohydrolase.Bourgois TM(1), Van Craeyveld V,
Van Campenhout S, Courtin CM, Delcour JA, RobbenJ, Volckaert G.Author information: (1)Laboratory of Gene Technology,
Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, KasteelparkArenberg 21, 3001 Leuven, Belgium. [email protected] complete genome sequence of Bacillus subtilis reveals that sequences encodingseveral hemicellulases are co-localised with a gene (xynD) encoding a putativefamily 43 glycoside hydrolase that has not yet been characterised. In this work, xynD has been isolated from genomic DNA of B. subtilis subsp. subtilis ATCC 6051 and cloned for cytoplasmatic expression in Escherichia coli. Recombinant
XynD(rXynD) was purified using ion-exchange chromatography and gel permeationchromatography. The enzyme had a molecular
mass of approximately 52 kDa, a pIabove 9.0 and releases alpha-L-arabinose from arabinoxylo-oligosaccharides aswell as arabinoxylan polymers with varying degree of substitution. Usingpara-nitrophenyl-alpha-L-arabinofuranoside as substrate, maximum activity wasobserved at pH 5.6 and 45 degrees C. The enzyme retained its activity over alarge pH range, while activity was lost after
pre-incubation above 50 degrees C. Gas-liquid chromatography and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometryanalysis indicated that rXynD specifically releases arabinofuranosyl groups from mono-substituted C-(O)-2 and C-(O)-3 xylopyranosyl residues
on the xylanbackbone. As rXynD did not display endoxylanase, xylosidase or arabinanaseactivity and was inactive on arabinan, we
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conclude that this enzyme is bestdescribed as an arabinoxylan arabinofuranohydrolase.PMID: 17426966 [PubMed - indexed for
MEDLINE]
151. J Bacteriol. 2007 Jun;189(12):4384-90. Epub 2007 Apr 6.Identification of the sigmaB regulon of Bacillus cereus and conservation ofsigmaB-regulated genes in low-GC-content gram-positive bacteria.van Schaik W(1), van der Voort M, Molenaar D, Moezelaar
R, de Vos WM, Abee T.Author information: (1)Wageningen Centre for Food Sciences, P.O. Box 557, 6700AN Wageningen,
TheNetherlands.The alternative sigma factor sigma(B) has an important role in the acquisition ofstress resistance in many
gram-positive bacteria, including the food-bornepathogen Bacillus cereus. Here, we describe the identification of the set ofsigma(B)-regulated genes in B. cereus by DNA microarray analysis of thetranscriptome upon a mild heat shock. Twenty-four genes
could be identified asbeing sigma(B) dependent as witnessed by (i) significantly lower expressionlevels of these genes in mutants
with a deletion of sigB and rsbY (which encodethe alternative sigma factor sigma(B) and a crucial positive regulator ofsigma(B) activity, respectively) than in the parental strain B. cereus ATCC 14579and (ii) increased expression of these genes upon a heat shock.
Newly identified sigma(B)-dependent genes in B. cereus include a histidine kinase and two genesthat have predicted functions in
spore germination. This study shows that thesigma(B) regulon of B. cereus is considerably smaller than that of othergram-positive
bacteria. This appears to be in line with phylogenetic analyseswhere sigma(B) of the B. cereus group was placed close to the ancestral form ofsigma(B) in gram-positive bacteria. The data described in this study and previousstudies in which the complete sigma(B) regulon of the gram-positive bacteriaBacillus subtilis, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus weredetermined
enabled a comparison of the sets of sigma(B)-regulated genes in thedifferent gram-positive bacteria. This showed that only three
genes (rsbV, rsbW, and sigB) are conserved in their sigma(B) dependency in all four bacteria,suggesting that the sigma(B) regulon
of the different gram-positive bacteria has evolved to perform niche-specific functions.PMCID: PMC1913364PMID: 17416654
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
152. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Mar 27;104(13):5602-7. Epub 2007 Mar 19.Genome and proteome of long-chain alkane degrading Geobacillusthermodenitrificans NG80-2 isolated from a deep-subsurface oil reservoir.Feng L(1), Wang W, Cheng J, Ren Y,
Zhao G, Gao C, Tang Y, Liu X, Han W, Peng X,Liu R, Wang L.Author information: (1)TEDA School of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Nankai University, Tianjin 300457, China.The complete genome sequence of Geobacillus thermodenitrificans NG80-2,
athermophilic bacillus isolated from a deep oil reservoir in Northern China,consists of a 3,550,319-bp chromosome and a 57,693-bp
plasmid. The genome revealsthat NG80-2 is well equipped for adaptation into a wide variety of environmental niches, including oil
reservoirs, by possessing genes for utilization of a broad range of energy sources, genes encoding various transporters for efficientnutrient uptake and detoxification, and genes for a flexible respiration systemincluding an aerobic branch comprising five terminal oxidases and an anaerobicbranch comprising a complete denitrification pathway for quick response todissolved