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Transcript
Defining protected areas –
implication of revising the IUCN
categories to protected areas in the
United Kingdom
IUCN undertook a long period of consultation to agree revised
guidance to its protected area definition and categories
The new edition of the IUCN guidance on protected area
categories was published just over a year ago at the World
Conservation Congress in Barcelona
IUCN definition
One key change: a new definition
• A clearly defined geographical space, recognised,
dedicated and managed, through legal or other effective
means, to achieve the long-term conservation of nature
with associated ecosystem services and cultural values
IUCN categories
Categories remain broadly the same but with different interpretations
In particular, Category IV is no longer defined by being a
protected area maintained by active management
intervention to a protected area for habitats and species
For example, many small, un-managed protected areas
have a place in the WDPA,
whereas
before
they
not2006
Canadian
Council on
Ecological
Areas did
– October
IUCN categories
Strict nature reserve: strictly protected areas set aside to protect
biodiversity and also possibly geological/geomorphological features
Ia
Wilderness area: usually large unmodified or slightly modified areas,
Ib
retaining their natural character and influence
National parks: large natural or near natural areas set aside to protect
II
large-scale ecological processes … which also provide … spiritual,
scientific, educational, recreational and visitor opportunities
Natural monument or feature: set aside to protect a specific natural
III
monument
Habitat/species management area: aim to protect particular species or
IV
habitats and management reflects this priority
Protected landscape/seascape: area where the interaction of people and
V
nature over time has produced an area of distinct character with significant
ecological, biological, cultural and scenic value:
Protected area with sustainable use of natural resources: conserve
ecosystems and habitats, together with associated cultural values and
traditional natural resource management systems
VI
IUCN sees protected areas being defined by both management
objectives (category) and governance type
Governance
type
C. Private protected areas
D. Community
conserved areas
Declared and run by
local communities
Declared and run
byindigenous peoples
Declared and run by forprofit individuals
Declared and run by
non-profit organisations
Declared and run by
private individual
VI – Protection and
sustainable
resource use
Collaborative
management (pluralist
management board
V – Protection of
landscapes or
seascapes
Collaborative
management (various
pluralist influences)
IV – Protection of
habitats and
species
Transboundary
protected area
III – Natural
monument
B. Co-managed protected
areas
Management delegated
by the government (e.g.
To an NGO)
II – Ecosystem
protection and
recreation
Local ministry or agency
in charge
I – Strict nature
reserve or
wilderness areas
Federal or national
ministry or agency in
charge
IUCN category
(management
objective)
A. Protected areas
managed by the
government
Information on protected areas, including their category, is loaded onto
the World Database on Protected Areas, based at the UNEP World
Conservation Monitoring Centre in Cambridge
Two questions
Should the UK engage with the new
categories and if so how?
What are the implications of the new definition and the
revised categories for protected areas in the UK?
Categories
Formal request from Nik Lopoukhine, the chair of
the IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas
Key component of the Convention on Biological Diversity’s
Programme of Work on Protected Areas
Definition
Questions about the UK’s definition of protected
areas were at the heart of the categories debate
Different parts of the government define
protected areas in different ways
Rethinking protected area
categories and the new paradigm
The 1994 guidelines to the IUCN categories were quite specific…
Table: Matrix of management objectives and IUCN protected area management
categories
Management objective
Ia
Ib
II
III
IV
V
VI
Scientific research
1
3
2
2
2
2
3
Wilderness protection
2
1
2
3
3
-
2
Preservation of species and genetic diversity
1
2
1
1
1
2
1
Protection of specific natural / cultural features
-
-
2
1
3
1
3
Tourism and recreation
-
2
1
1
3
1
3
Education
-
-
2
2
2
2
3
Sustainable use of resources from natural ecosystems
-
3
3
-
2
2
1
Maintenance of cultural / traditional attributes
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
Key:
1 Primary objective
2 Secondary objective
3 Potentially applicable objective
- Not applicable
The new definition and principles have switched
this around…
Principles….
“For IUCN, only those areas where the
main objective is conserving nature can
be considered protected areas; this can
include many areas with other goals as
well, at the same level, but in the case
of conflict, nature conservation will be
the priority”