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Ms. Cannistraci
Document 1
Name:________________________________________ Date:_____
What were his ideas on evolution?
Charles Darwin
Document 2
How would you explain his idea of Social Darwinism?
Herbert Spencer
Document 3
According to Thomas Malthus what were the preventative checks for population growth?
Thomas Malthus
According to Thomas Malthus what were the positive checks for population growth?
Document 4
What are the main ideas of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in section A?
Karl Marx and
Friedrich Engels
What are the main ideas of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in section B?
What are the main ideas of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in section C?
What are the main ideas of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in section D?
Document 5
Karl Marx and
Friedrich Engels
According to Marx and Engels, what are two ideas that characterize Marxist
Ms. Cannistraci
Name:_______________________________ Date:______
Document 1 Charles Darwin, On Origin of Species by Means of Natural
Charles Darwin (1809-1882), an English biologist was one of a number of
scientists considering theories of evolution. He published On the Origin of
Species, in 1859 and set forth his theory that animals evolved through variation
and natural selection of those most fit to survive in particular environments.
Darwin came to believe that species survived through a process called "natural
selection," where species that successfully adapted to meet the changing
requirements of their natural habitat thrived, while those that failed to evolve
and reproduce died off.
Document 2 Modern History Sourcebook: Herbert Spencer: Social Darwinism,
1857 [adapted]
Herbert Spencer (18201903) was thinking about ideas of evolution and progress
before Charles Darwin published The Origin of Species (1859). Nonetheless, his
ideas received a major boost from Darwin's theories and the general application
of ideas such as "adaptation" and "survival of the fittest" to social thought is
known as "Social Darwinism. Social Darwinism is an application of the theory of
natural selection to social, political, and economic issues. In its simplest form,
Social Darwinism follows the idea of "the strong survive," including human
issues. [This form of justification was enthusiastically adopted by
many businessmen as scientific proof of their superiority.] Spencer also applied
Darwinian Theory to human development, arguing that wealth and power were
signs of fitness and that mankind benefited from intense competition and
removal of the weak and unfit. According to Social Darwinism, those with
strength (economic, physical, technological) flourish and those without are
destined for extinction. It is important to note that Darwin did not extend his
theories to a social or economic level, nor are any credible evolutionists
subscribing to the theories of Social Darwinism
Document 3 Thomas Malthus’s Essay on Population
Thomas Malthus believed that natural rates of human reproduction, when
unchecked, would lead to geometric increases in population: population would
grow in a ratio of 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 and so on. However, he believed that food
production increased only in arithmetic progression: 2, 4, 6, 8, 10. It seemed
obvious to him that something had to keep the population in check to prevent
wholesale starvation. He said that there were two general kinds of checks that
limited population growth: preventative checks and positive checks.
Preventative checks reduced the birth rate; positive checks increased the death
rate. Moral restraint, vice and birth control were the primary preventative
checks. Moral restraint was the means by which the higher ranks of humans
limited their family size in order not to dissipate their wealth among larger
numbers of heirs. For the lower ranks of humans, vice and birth control were the
means by which their numbers could be limited - but Malthus believed that
these were insufficient to limit the vast numbers of the poor. The positive checks
were famine, misery, plague and war; because preventative checks had not
limited the numbers of the poor, Malthus thought that positive checks were
essential to do that job.
The Communist Manifesto is an 1848 political pamphlet by German
philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels
Choose one section of the text and explain the ideas of Karl Marx and Friedrich
Engels in your own words.
A The history of…society is the history of class struggles. Throughout history,
there have been conflict between the haves and the have nots, between those
who hold economic power and those whose labor is exploited. In ancient times,
this conflict was between freeman and slave, between aristocrat and commoner.
In the Middle Ages, it was between the lord and serf…Here in the industrial Age,
there is a constant class warfare between the proletariat [worker] and the
bourgeoisie [factory owner/employer]…
B At one time, capitalism was beneficial to society. It enabled people to
produce goods on a large scale. The machines and technical skills introduced by
capitalism created unlimited opportunities for people to improve themselves.
But now capitalism has outlived its usefulness…The workers…are forced to work
long hours under miserable conditions. They receive little [money] in return for
their labor [work]. Although the workers produce the goods, the profits go to
the capitalists. Capitalism has brought great wealth to the bourgeoisie [factory
owner/employer] and grinding poverty to the worker.
C What is the solution? Communist theory is summed up in a single sentence:
Abolish private property (property owned by individuals, and not the state
[country]). Bring all the means of production [land, factory, machine, resources]
into the hands of the state [country]; that is, the workers organized as the ruling
class. When this happens, the class struggle will be over. In place of the
capitalist society with its opposing classes, we will have a classless society, [a
society without different social classes], in which everyone will be equal.
D The immediate aim of the communists is…to organize the proletariat [the
workers]. Aroused and united by the communist…the workers will rise up and
overthrow their capitalist oppressors…They will take over the means of
production and seize political power.
Let the ruling class tremble at a communist revolution. The proletarians have
nothing to lose but their chains. They have a world to win.
Workingmen of all countries unite!
Adapted from: Bertram L. Linder, et al, A World history (Chicago, Ill: Science
Research Associates, 1979), p. 459
Document 5 Manifesto of the Communist Party, 1848 II. Proletarians and
Communists . . .The immediate aim of the Communists is the same as that of all
the other proletarian parties: Formation of the proletariat into a class, overthrow
of bourgeois supremacy, conquest of political power by the proletariat. . . . The
distinguishing feature of Communism is not the abolition of property generally,
but the abolition of bourgeois property. But modern bourgeois private property
is the final and most complete expression of the system of producing and
appropriating products that is based on class antagonisms, on the exploitation of
the many by the few. . . .Source: Marx and Engels, Manifesto of the Communist Party, International Publishers
Quiz Ms. Cannistraci
Name:_______________________ Date:__________
1._____ 2._____ 3._____ 4._____ 5._____
1. What is a major belief associated with Marxism?
(1) The proletariat would rise up and overthrow the
(2) Religion should be more important than political
(3) Private ownership of property should be
2. Where did Karl Marx predict a revolution of the
proletariat would occur first?
(1) industrial Europe
(2) independent Latin America
(3) colonial Africa
(4) agricultural Russia
(4) Peasants would gain control of overseas markets.
3. During the 1800s, the writings of Marx, Engels,
4. “Famine seems to be the last, the most dreadful
and Dickens focused attention on the problems
faced by
resource of nature. The power of population is so
superior to the power in the earth to provide
subsistence for man, that premature death must in
some shape or other visit the human race. . . .”
(1) factory owners (3) farm laborers
(2) investment bankers (4) industrial workers
— Thomas Malthus, “Essay on Population,” 1798
This prediction proved to be wrong in part because
of increases in
(1) ethnic cleansing
(2) farm productivity
(3) the number of wars
(4) the number of droughts
Base your answers to questions 6 and 7 on the speakers’ statements below and on your knowledge of social
Speaker A: Government should not interfere in relations between workers and business owners.
Speaker B: The workers will rise up and overthrow the privileged class.
Speaker C: Private property will cease to exist. The people will own the means of production.
Speaker D: A favorable balance of trade should be maintained by the use of tariffs.
5. Which two speakers represent Karl Marx’s ideas of communism?
(1) A and B (3) B and D
(2) B and C (4) C and D
7 Which speaker is referring to laissez-faire capitalism?
(1) A (3) C
(2) B (4) D