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Transcript
Spread of Industrialization
• Britain – produced
one half of the world’s
coal and
manufactured goods
• Cotton industry alone
in 1850 was equal in
size to the industries
of all other European
countries combined
Steam Engine
• James Watt, Scottish
Engineer
• Made changes that
enabled the steam
engine to drive
machinery
• Did not need to be
located near rivers,
Cotton cloth Britain’s
most valuable product
Food Supply
• More farmland
• Good weather
• Better transportation
• New crops - Potato
• Many rivers for
transporting raw
materials and finished
products
• Abundant supply of
coal and iron ore
Labor
• Population grows
• Enclosure movement
– large landowners
could fence off
common lands
• Peasants are forced
to move to towns and
work in factories
Capital
• Wealthy British
entrepreneurs
sought new business
opportunities
• Capital – to invest in
new industrial
machines and
factories
Cotton Production!
Two steps
1. Spinners made cotton
thread from raw cotton
2. Weavers wove the
thread into cloth on
looms
*Cottage industry –
usually done in
people’s homes
Spinning Jenny
• 1768, James
Hargreaves invents
Spinning Jenny
• Spinning process
becomes much faster
• Thread produced
faster than weavers
could use it
Flying Shuttle
• Makes weaving faster
• Could produce cloth
at a faster rate
• However, needed a
way to produce more
thread from spinners
Europe
• Spreads to Belgium,
France, German
States
• Governments
encourage
development
• Funds for roads,
canals, railroads
Railroads
• 1804, first steam powered
locomotive ran in Britain
(5 mph!)
• THE ROCKET! – 1830 –
32 miles from Liverpool to
Manchester (20 mph!)
• Within 20 years able to
reach 50 mph
• 1850 – 6,000 miles of
railroad track
Europe: Social Impact
Pop Growth – 1750 – 140
million
1850 – 266 million
• Decline in death rates,
wars and diseases
• Increase in food supply,
people resistant to
disease
Cities
• Britain, 1800 Pop of 1
million
• 1850, 2,363,000
• Over half the
population lived in
towns and cities
• *led to awful living
conditions
Railroads
Laissez-faire
Adam Smith
Capitalism
Socialism
Karl Marx
communism
Capitalism
• Ownership of the means of
production (capital) by
private investors
• Laissez-faire – gov’t
shouldn’t be involved in the
economy
• Individual worker is more
important - Competition
Adam Smith
Socialism
• the state owns the means
of production (capital)
• Gov’t should be in total
control & make sure wealth
is distributed evenly
• Society as a whole is more
important - cooperation
Friedrich Engels & Karl Marx
Karl Marx Effect
• Marx writes The Communist Manifesto – 1848
• “World History is a history of class struggles.”
• Believes the proletariat (working class) is divided
against the bourgeoisie (middle class)
• After a proletariat victory, a dictator (single ruler with
absolute power) will take control.
• Theory of socialism – theory in which society, in the
form of government, owns the means of production
(government owns factories, mills, etc.) One form is
known as Communism
• 1875 – Germany – German Social Democratic Party
begins to take hold of German parliament.
Karl Marx
• Socialist Parties and Trade
Unions emerged in 1870
• Theory on which they
were based developed in
1848 by Karl Marx as
written in…
• The Communist Manifesto
Karl Marx
Two classes: Bourgeoisie & Proletariat
– middle class, including
merchants, industrialists, professional
people ARE THE OPPRESSORS
•
Oppressors – owned (land, raw
materials, money, factories, etc.)
means of production
•
controlled government and
society
– the working class,
WERE THE OPPRESSED
• Oppressed – depended on the
owners of the means of
production (people who worked
for the oppressors)
* Bourgeoisie and Proletariat
‘stood in constant opposition to
one another’
• Struggle would result in a
violent overthrow of the
bourgeoisie by the
proletariat
• Economic differences would
wither away
• Classless society would
develop, State withers away
Karl Marx
• Appalled at the horrible
conditions in factories
• According to Marx,
Capitalism was the
problem
• “All of world history is a
history of ‘class struggle’”
Karl Marx & Friedrich Engels
Trade Unions in Great Britain
• 1870s – win the right
to strike
• Leads to higher wages
(more pay), better
conditions, and
collective bargaining
(negotiations between
union workers and
employers)
Trade Unions
• Some Marxists just wanted
reform
• Labor Unions used strikes
(work stoppage) to raise
wages, better working
conditions, gain the right to
collective bargaining
• Negotiations between
union workers and
employers