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Name of subject: Ancient History J151
Qualification: GCSE
Examination breakdown (paper number, length of exam, requirements)
All Papers 1hr 15 min – 80 marks
All units have a translations book and textbook which are available from me in hard copy
or on Edmodo for electronic copies.
Paper 1…
Unit A031: The Greeks at war
Option 1: The Greeks defend themselves, 499–479 BC
Paper 2…
Unit A032: The rise of Rome
Option 1: The origins of Rome: The kings, 753–508 BC
Paper 3…
Unit A033: Women in ancient politics
Option 1: Cleopatra and her impact on Roman politics, 69–30 BC
Key topics to revise
Unit A031: The Greeks at war
1. Context
Greek relations with the Persians under Darius and Xerxes
• Expansion of the Persian Empire into Ionia;
• Power within the Persian Empire;
• The Ionian revolt.
Themes
The battle of Marathon • Connections between the Ionian Revolt and the campaign at
Marathon; Persian preparations for an expedition against Greece in 492BC and 490BC; The
Battle of Marathon: the role of Hippias, the Plataeans and the Spartans, the progress of the
battle, reasons for the Persian defeat,the roles of Miltiades and Callimachus; The
significance of the battle of Marathon for the Athenians and the other Greeks.
The battles of Artemisium, Thermopylae, Salamis, Plataea and Mycale, including the
relative contributions of different Greek states and the military organisation of the Greeks
and Persians
• Reasons for Xerxes’ expedition against the Greeks;
• The Hellenic League
• The battles at Artemisium, Thermopylae, Salamis, Plataea and Mycale: the course of each
battle and reasons for their outcome;
• The relative roles of Athens and Sparta in defending the Greeks against the Persians;
• Military tactics, armour and weaponry used by the Persians and Greeks in each battle;
• The ships of the Greeks and Persians;
• Reasons for the failure of Xerxes’ expeditions.
The importance and contribution of key individuals in this period
• Miltiades;
• Leonidas;
• Themistocles;
• Xerxes.
Sources
Herodotus’ qualities as a historian and factors that affect how he writes history
• Herodotus’ aims and interests as a historian;
• The nature of Herodotus’ sources and his use of them;
• The role Herodotus ascribes to individuals;
• How to evaluate Herodotus as an historian.
2.
Context
Geography of Rome and the indigenous peoples of Latium
• The position of Rome, and the advantages of its site for trading and the development of
the state;
• The peoples of Latium and their relationship with the early Romans;
• Etruscans and Greek city states and their relationship with the early Romans.
Themes
Identity of the Romans; conflicting versions of the origins of Rome
• The myth of Aeneas and the connection with Troy;
• The myth of Romulus and Remus;
• The myth of Evander and Hercules;
• The Sabines and their connection with Rome.
The character and reigns of the kings • The nature of kingship in early Rome and its
development under each king; • The character and reign of: Romulus, Numa,
Tarquinius Priscus, Servius and Tarquinius Superbus;
• The death of Romulus and his subsequent deification.
The constitutional, religious and economic development of the Roman state under the
kings
• The establishment of Rome under Romulus;
• The development of religion under Numa;
• The distinctive nature of the Tarquins and
their effect on the development of Rome;
• Reasons for the removal of the kings.
Sources
Livy and Virgil as sources and factors that affect how they write
• Livy’s own statements on his work in the Preface and their significance;
• The presentation of foundation myths by Livy and Virgil;
• Livy’s sources and his use of them;
• Attitudes towards kingship in Livy and Virgil’s writing.
3…
Context
The expansion of Rome into Egypt • The idea of client kingdoms in the Roman
Empire;
• The Ptolemies as a dynasty and their position in Egypt at the time of Cleopatra’s
birth;
• Relations between Egypt and Rome in the 60s and 50s BC.
Themes
Development of Egypt under Ptolemy Auletes and Cleopatra, including her political,
domestic and foreign policies
• Civil war in Egypt and Caesar’s role in its resolution;
• The expansion of Egyptian power under Cleopatra;
• The effect of Cleopatra’s relations with Rome on the expansion of Egyptian power.
Life, character and death of Cleopatra; her accession and relationships with members of
the
Egyptian Royal household
• Family and Greek heritage of Cleopatra;
• The death of Ptolemy Auletes and Cleopatra’s accession to power;
• Relationship with her brothers as co-rulers;
• The character of Cleopatra as presented in Roman and other sources;
• Method of Cleopatra’s suicide and reasons for her actions.
Cleopatra’s relationships with Julius Caesar and Mark Antony and their political
significance
• Cleopatra’s initial contact with Julius Caesar and the development of their relationship,
including the significance of Caesarion;
• Cleopatra’s visit to Rome, its significance and her departure on the murder of Julius
Caesar;
• The significance of Mark Antony in Roman politics after the murder of Julius Caesar;
• The development of the relationship between Mark Antony and Cleopatra and its
political significance for both Rome and Egypt;
• The battle of Actium and its significance.
Sources
The nature of the sources on Cleopatra and the manipulation of her image under Augustus
• The political manipulation of the image of Cleopatra in Augustan poetry;
• Plutarch and Suetonius as biographers and their reliability as historical sources;
• Roman attitudes towards the East and their impact on the sources.
Key vocabulary to revise
Names from each section of key individuals
Places described in syllabus of events and wars
See detail of course above.
Useful web links
Unit A031: The Greeks at war
Option 1: The Greeks Defend Themselves, 499-479 BC
Primary Sources
These are suggested as background reading, the set sources to be studied for each option
(as outlined in the specification) are in translation by OCR, to be downloaded from the OCR
website, Edmodo or from me in hard copy.
Option 1: The Greeks defend themselves, 499–479 BC
Candidates should have a detailed knowledge of the following set sources:
• Herodotus, The Histories Book 1, sections 1–5
• Herodotus, The Histories Book 6, sections 98–118
• Herodotus, The Histories Book 7, sections 5–7, 23–24, 32–41, 101–104, 138, 206–228
• Herodotus, The Histories Book 8, sections 78–112
• Relief sculpture of Crown Prince Xerxes standing behind King Darius (Oriental Institute of
University of Chicago)
• Red figure amphora – Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY, Rogers Fund, 06.1021.117
Extracts printed on the question paper will be taken from these set sources. Candidates
may study the literary sources in any complete translation.
Candidates should have a basic knowledge of the background context in order to
contextualise their study of the themes and set sources.
Further Primary Sources but not set text
Aeschylus, The Persians, trans. Vellacott, P. in Prometheus Bound and Other Plays, Penguin
Classics 1973, ISBN 9780140441123
Brosius, M. The Persian Empire from Cyrus II to Artaxerxes, London Association of
Classical Teachers 2000, ISBN 9780903625289. (This contains extracts from original
source material in translation).
Herodotus, The Histories, trans. Marincola, Penguin Classics 2003, ISBN 9780140449082
Plutarch, Themistocles and Aristides, trans. Scott-Kilvert, I. in The Rise and Fall of Athens,
Penguin Classics 1973, ISBN 9780140441024
Secondary Material
Books:
Buckley, T. Aspects of Greek History, 750-323 BC: A Source-based Approach, Routledge 1996,
ISBN 9780415099585
Cassin-Scott, J. The Greek and Persian Armies, 500-323 B.C. Osprey 1977, ISBN
9780850452716
De Souza, P. The Greek and Persian Wars 499-386 BC (Essential Histories) Osprey 2003, ISBN
9781841763583
Fields, N. Thermopylae 480 BC, Osprey 2007, ISBN 9781841761800
Morrison, J., Coates, J. and Rankov, N. The Athenian Trireme: The History and Reconstruction
of
an Ancient Greek Warship, Cambridge University Press 2000, ISBN 9780521564564#
Strauss, B. Salamis: The Greatest Naval Battle of the Ancient World, 480 BC Arrow 2005, ISBN
9780099451921
Weins, J., Marincola, J. and Dewald, C. The Cambridge Companion to Herodotus (Cambridge
Companions to Literature), Cambridge University Press 2006, ISBN 9780521536837#
# some pupils with guidance.
DVDs:
300 (DVD 2 Disc Special edition) (Warner Home Video)
The 300 Spartans (DVD) (MGM Entertainment)
The Greek and Persian Wars (DVD) (Cromwell Productions)
Websites:
Persia:
Darius: http://www.livius.org/da-dd/darius/darius_i_0.html (useful links)
Xerxes: http://www.livius.org/x/xerxes/xerxes.html (useful links)
Greece:
The hoplite: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hoplite
The trireme: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trireme
Themistocles: http://www.livius.org/th/themistocles/themistocles.html
Ionian Revolt:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ionian_Revolt (some useful links for individual states)
http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A9902298
Marathon: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Marathon (detailed article)
http://www.the-art-of-battle.350.com/The_Battles.htm (Powerpoint animation for
discussion)
http://www.livius.org/man-md/marathon/marathon.html (useful discussion with
photographs)
http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A10083395
Persian Wars 480-79 BC:
Thermopylae: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Thermopylae
http://www.battle-of-thermopylae.eu/
http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/history/inourtime/inourtime_20040205.shtml (In Our Time
discussion)
Artemisium: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Artemisium
Salamis: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Salamis
http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A13114748
Plataea: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Plataea
http://www.livius.org/man-md/mardonius/mardonius.html (focus on Mardonius)
http://www.livius.org/pi-pm/plataea/battle.html
http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A13169153
Mycale: http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A13208302
http://www.livius.org/a/turkey/mycale/mycale.html
Unit A032: The Rise of Rome
Option 1: The Kings, 753-508 BC
Primary Sources
These are suggested as background reading, the set sources to be studied for each option
(as outlined in the specification) are in translation by OCR, to be downloaded from the OCR
website, Edmodo or from me in hard copy.
Candidates should have a detailed knowledge of the following set sources:
• Livy, The History of Rome Preface
• Livy, The History of Rome 1.3–29, 1.39–40, 1.49–59
• Virgil, Aeneid Book 1, 1–11; Book 6, 752–859; Book 8, 626–651
• Bronze she-wolf with (later addition of) twins from the Capitoline museum
Extracts printed on the question paper will be taken from these set sources. Candidates
may study the literary sources in any complete translation.
Candidates should have a basic knowledge of the background context in order to
contextualise their study of the themes and set sources.
Further Primary Sources but not set text.
Livy, The History of Rome from Its Foundation: The Early History of Rome, Books I-V, trans. De
Selincourt, A. Penguin Classics 2002, ISBN 9780140448092
Virgil, Aeneid trans. West D. Penguin 2003, ISBN 9780140449327
Livy:
http://etext.virginia.edu/toc/modeng/public/Liv1His.html
Virgil:
http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text.jsp?doc=Perseus:text:1999.02.0054
or
http://www.users.globalnet.co.uk/~loxias/aeneid1.htm
Secondary Material
Boardman, J., Griffen, J. and Murray O. The Oxford Illustrated History of the Roman World,
Oxford University Press 2001, ISBN 9780192854360 (Chapter 1)
Boatwright, T., Gargola, D. and Talbert, J. The Romans from Village to Empire, Oxford
University Press 2004, ISBN 9780195118766
Cornell, T. The Beginnings of Rome, 753-264 B.C. Routledge 1995, ISBN 9780415015967
McCaughrean, G. Romulus and Remus, Hachette Children’s Books 2000, ISBN
9781841218854.
(Children’s story book with re-tellings of stories from Roman mythology. May provide a
good
introduction to the myths).
MacKay, C. Ancient Rome: A Military and Political History, Cambridge University Press 2007,
ISBN 9780521711494 (Part 1)
Scullard, H. A History of the Roman World, 753-146 BC, Routledge 2002, ISBN 9780415305044
Sekunda, N. Early Roman Armies, Osprey 1995, ISBN 9781855325135
Websites
http://www.unrv.com/empire/roman-history.php (Roman History website with lots of
helpful
sections)
http://www.vroma.org
Unit A033: Women in ancient politics
Option 1: Cleopatra and her Impact on Roman Politics, 69-30 BC
Primary Sources
These are suggested as background reading, the set sources to be studied for each option
(as outlined in the specification) are in translation by OCR, to be downloaded from the OCR
website, Edmodo or from me in hard copy.
Candidates should have a detailed knowledge of the following set sources:
• Plutarch, Life of Mark Antony 24–37, 51–69, 72–86
• Suetonius, Julius Caesar 52
• Propertius, Elegies 4.6
• Horace, Odes 1.37
• Virgil, Aeneid 8.675–688
• Velleius Paterculus, The Roman History 2.82–87
• Coin of Ptolemy Auletes, British Museum
• Coin of Cleopatra, with distinctive hairstyle and hooked nose, British Museum
• Head of Cleopatra as a young woman , British Museum
• Portrait reliefs of Cleopatra and Caesarion from the British Museum
• Cleopatra as the goddess Isis from the wall of the temple at Dendera in Upper Egypt,
British Museum
• Silver denarius of 32 BC, with heads of Antony and Cleopatra, British Museum
Extracts printed on the question paper will be taken from these set sources. Candidates
may study the literary sources in any complete translation.
Candidates should have a basic knowledge of the background context in order to
contextualise their study of the themes and set sources.
Futher Primary Sources bout not set text
Plutarch, The Fall of the Roman Republic, trans. Warner, R. Penguin Classics 2006, ISBN
9780140449341
Plutarch, The Makers of Rome, trans. Scott-Kilvert, I. Penguin 1975, ISBN 9780140441581
Suetonius, The Twelve Caesars, trans. Graves, R. Penguin Classics 2007, ISBN
9780140455168
Treggiari, S. Cicero’s Cilician Letters London Association of Classical Teachers 1996, ISBN
9780903625258
Secondary Material
Bradford, E. Cleopatra, Penguin 2000, ISBN 9780141390147 (a good account of her life and
times, following Plutarch and other sources)
Grant, M. Cleopatra, Orion Publishing 2000, ISBN 9781898799696 (a well-researched and
readable account)
Jones, P. Cleopatra: A Sourcebook, University of Oklahoma press 2006, ISBN 9780806137414
Preston, D. Cleopatra and Antony, Corgi Books 2009, ISBN 9780552155687
Shotter, D. The Fall of the Roman Republic, Routledge 2005, 9780415319409 (good short
account of the period for students)
Southern, P. Cleopatra, Tempus Publishing 2000, ISBN 9780752414942 [good for teachers;
contains the archaeological material from the set sources for this option]
Goldsworthy, A. Antony and Cleopatra, Weidenfeld & Nicolson 2010, ISBN 9780297845676
Scullard, H. H. From the Gracchi to Nero, Routledge 1988, ISBN 9780415025270
Walker, S. Cleopatra Re-assessed, British Museum Press 2003, ISBN 9780861591039
Wiedemann, T. Cicero and the end of the Roman Republic, Bristol Classical Press 1998, ISBN
9781853991936 (useful account of the period for students and teachers)
Websites:
http://www.tyndale.cam.ac.uk/Egypt/ptolemies/cleopatra_vii.htm
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/asbook09.html (Internet Ancient History Source
Book: Rome)
http://www.pbs.org/empires/romans/special/library.html (sources on a variety of issues)
http://www.channel4.com/history/microsites/H/history/n-s/roman.html (Channel 4 site for
topics)
http://www.channel4.com/history/microsites/H/history/rome/cleopatra.html
http://www.channel4.com/history/microsites/H/history/rome/cleopatrafindout.html (links)
http://www.livius.org/ps-pz/ptolemies/ptolemies.htm (historical accounts)
http://www.houseofptolemy.org/ (links and material for Ptolemies)
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/romans/ (links and material for aspects of Roman
history)
http://www.vroma.org/~bmcmanus/antony_sources.html (Antony, Octavian And
Cleopatra resources)
http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/home.html (Lacus Curtius: translations of
Plutarch, Cassius Dio, Suetonius, Velleius Paterculus among others)
http://www.pbs.org/empires/romans/special/library.html
(a selection of sources from Juvenal, Seneca, Tacitus, Petronius, Suetonius etc. on these
issues)
http://www.bbc.co.uk/drama/rome/ (information and clips of the series Rome 1 and 2. see
also http://www.hbo.com/rome/ )
http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0056937/ (information for the film Cleopatra 1963 + gallery
and clips)
Revision sessions
Ancient History Revision
Wednesday 3.45 – 4.45 Room 13 Parkside Campus
Feb
6
13
20
27
March
6
13
20
27
April
3
10
17
24
May
1
8
15
Darius and Marathon
HALF TERM
Thermopylae
Thermistocles
Xerxes
Rome Origins
Romulus and Remus
Tarquins
EASTER
EASTER
Livy
Caesar and Cleopatra
Political Influence
Antony and Cleopatra
Actium
If students are unable to attend they could look at the types of questions but topic of
paper and type of question
Ancient Greece
2010
1. Darius
2. Marathon - Miltiades
3. Xerxes - Attack
4. Thermopylae
5. Xerxes - Planning
2011
1. Marathon
2. Xerxes - Hellespont
3. Salamis
4. Army
5. Thermistocles
2012
1. Thermopylae
2. Persian Invasion
3. Xerxes Relationships and Character
4. Hellenic League
5. Spartans
Ancient Rome
2010
1. Numa
2. Tullus
3. Rome Origins / Virgil
4. Livy – Praise of Rome
5. Foundations of Rome
2011
1. Aeneas
2. Romulus and Remus
3. Romulus – Virgil and Livy
4. Livy – Just a story
5. Numa and Tullus
2012
1. Servius Tullius
2. Origins – Hercules and Evander
3. Numa
4.Tarquins
5. Aeneas
Cleopatra
2010
1. Death of Cleopatra
2. Actium
3. Cleopatra – Influence and Political Character
4. Cleopatra responsible for Mark Antony’s failure
5. Political Influence main motive for relationships
2011
1. Cleopatra politically important
2. Actium – Escape and End
3. Influence on Mark Antony / Behaviour towards political leaders
4. Cleopatra Doomed
5. Significance of Actium
2012
1. Actium
2. Caesar and Cleopatra (Treatment)
3. Antony and Cleopatra (Attraction)
4. Cleo as Political leader
5. Influence on Roman Leaders
Who to ask for more help
Mr McKeand or Ms Parker