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• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • What were two common approaches to comparative psychology by studying animal behavior? Make a table comparing and contrasting these two approaches. How are they different? How are they the same? Which researchers are associated with each approach? What are Tinburgen’s four questions? Which ones are “proximate”? Which ones are “ultimate”? Be able to identify and categorize a question if given to you. What is a fixed action pattern behavior? Provide evidence and an example of how genes are linked to behavior. Provide another example where science has shown that environment plays a role in the expression of a behavior. What is the “ancient contract”? Provide a definition of domestication where you differentiate it from taming What is the “recipe” for evolution? What are some common misconceptions about evolution? What is the naturalistic fallacy (as defined simply by Mike)? What is a genotype and phenotype? How is genotypic and phenotypic variation generated? How do evolutionary biologists document whether natural selection has occurred? What are some things that you need to rule out? What is the relationship between microevolution, macroevolution, speciation, and time. Provide an example of speciation. How can a behavioral trait contribute to speciation? Define co-evolution. How is it different than mutualism? What do you have to demonstrate in order to show that it has happened? Provide an example of co evolution, using the following terms: salamander, snake, TTX, arms-race, evolutionary trade-off. How did researchers demonstrate that natural selection had taken place for each species? How did researchers demonstrate that natural selection had taken place in response to each species adaptation? The above interaction could be considered a predator-prey relationship. Provide some other examples of co-evolution that are in different categories. Why do some researchers study • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Provide an argument for or against whether we have co-evolved with domestic animals. Be able to recount some basic information about the Sami and reindeer, and the Banu tribes and honeyguides. Are these examples of domestication? Support your answer. What are the 6 attributes of domestication according to Jared Diamond? Be prepared to provide an example of these. How can a mutation of a single gene, result in a dramatic morphologic change in an animal? Define pedomorphism and peramorphism. Provide an example of each. What is an axlotl? What does this have to do with dog domestication? What are the 4 field approaches to Anthrozoology according to Franz Boas? Are we born with culture? What is cultural relativism, from an anthropologic perspective? Compare and contrast bands and tribes Provide one interesting descriptive fact about the Nuer people and their cattle. What is ethics? Why study ethics? If given a statement, be able to identify a fact versus a value statement. A descriptive statement from a normative statement. Science and anthropology informs ethics, but cannot tell us what we ought to do…for that we need ethical ________________ Provide an argument against naïve ethical relativism What is an ethical dilemma? How do ethical theories help us decide? What are some simple steps (six) that can go into analyzing an ethical claim or even a policy based on ethical decisions. Make a diagram of the different components of an ethical decision. Now attach various ethical theories to these components, in terms of what each ethical theory emphasizes. Define moral agent. What is the circle of moral concern? What happens as we expand the circle to extend moral consideration? What is the relationship between intrinsic value, direct and indirect duties, and the moral https://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=7PcteKRA3zs cleaner fish also socially clever social parasite: complex behaviors in animals Jared Diamond’s six criteria for domestication consideration 1. Flexible diet: carnivores more difficult, avoid species that compete for human food 2. Fast growth rate: Any slow-growing animal is a huge drain on its human keepers. That's one reason elephants haven't been domesticated. They take fifteen years to come to maturity. 3. Able to be captive bred: Territorial breeding is a problem 4. Good disposition: Zebras become mean in captivity 5. Calm temperament: Deer are flighty. Sheep also are flighty, but they tend to flock, thus reducing their panic response. 6. Social Structure: Animals like horses, dogs, cattle, and sheep create their own hierarchies. A human can enter that social structure as its chief. Cats, although domesticated, are not submissive in the same way.