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***SOC 210 - FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE v 12.07.05***
1. Karl Marx suggested the cause of social ills was:
a) capitalism.
b) feudalism.
c) unrestricted migration.
d) intellectual elitism.
2. Amongst the Mundugumor, a New Guinea tribe studied by Margaret Mead:
a) men behave in a feminine manner, according to Western standards.
b) men and women both behave in a mild-mannered style that the Western world associates with
c) men and women both behave in an aggressive manner that the Western world associates with men.
d) men and women behave in the same manner that the Western world expects.
3. The state of a population with a growth rate of zero, achieved when the number of births plus
immigrants is equal to the number of deaths plus emigrants, is called:
a) population equilibrium.
b) population stasis.
c) zero population growth.
d) declining valuation population accumulation.
4. Gerontology is:
a) rule by the elderly.
b) the scientific study of the sociological and psychological aspects of aging and the problems of the
c) a religious cult that worships the aged.
d) a religion formed in Florida that is practiced exclusively by the aged.
5. What is the general term for a marriage in which an individual can have several husbands or
wives at the same time?
a) monogamy
b) polygamy
c) polygyny
d) polyandry
6. Sociologists would likely suggest that new ideas, technological advances, and revolutions all
lead to:
a) postmodern societies.
b) social change.
c) culture lag.
d) adaptive upgrading.
7. C. Wright Mills articulated the concept of the power elite by suggesting that a group of decision
makers are essentially:
a) middle-aged immigrants.
b) racially and ethnically integrated.
c) composed of White males.
d) all of the above
8. Which term was used by Max Weber to refer to the ability to exercise one's will over others?
a) legitimacy
b) politics
c) influence
d) power
9. Which state has the largest public school system in the nation?
a) California
b) New York
c) Texas
d) Illinois
10. Patrilineal descent refers to a:
a) kinship system in which both sides of a person's family are regarded as equally important.
b) kinship system that favors the relatives of the father.
c) pattern of residence in which a married couple lives with the husband's parents.
d) society in which men are expected to dominate family decision making.
11. Which of the following statements is correct concerning the health of the elderly in the United
a) Almost half of older people are affected by arthritis.
b) Alzheimer's is the leading cause of dementia in the U.S.
c) The elderly are three-times more likely to use healthcare services than younger people.
d) all of the above
12. The sandwich generation occurs when:
a) children insist on having peanut butter and jelly sandwiches for school lunch every day.
b) adults try to meet the competing demands of their parents and their own children.
c) adults realize that their parents have died and that they are now the oldest generation.
d) both A and B
13. Émile Durkheim was primarily interested in:
a) the personalities of religious believers.
b) understanding religious behavior within a social context.
c) the role of religion in subjugating the masses.
d) all of the above
14. Affirmative action is defined as:
a) positive efforts to recruit minority group members or women for jobs, promotions, and educational
b) the act of hiring minorities for open positions, regardless of their qualifications.
c) the act of admitting minorities to colleges, regardless of their credentials.
d) all of the above
15. Thomas Robert Malthus suggested that there would be a world population crisis because the:
a) food supply increases arithmetically and the population expands geometrically.
b) food supply increases geometrically and the population expands arithmetically.
c) food supply and the population increase arithmetically.
d) food supply and the population increase geometrically.
16. Which sociological perspective argues that when changes occur in one part of a society,
there must be adjustments in other parts (if these adjustments do not occur, the society's
equilibrium may be threatened and strains will occur)?
a) functionalist perspective
b) conflict perspective
c) interactionist perspective
d) feminist perspective
17. The term fertility refers to:
a) biological potential for reproduction in a society.
b) amount of death.
c) level of reproduction in a society.
d) number of live births per 1,000 population in a given year.
18. Which term is used by sociologists to describe a group that is set apart from others because
of obvious physical differences?
a) ethnic group
b) racial group
c) social group
d) reference group
19. Fads and fashions:
a) are for amusement purposes only.
b) allow people to identify with something different from the dominant institutions and symbols of a
c) always feature a certain amount of acceptance by society, in general, and have a line of historical
d) rarely spring up independently of preceding trends and give rise to successors.
20. A sect is a:
a) generally small, secretive religious group that represents either a new religion or a major innovation of
an existing faith.
b) large, organized religion, not officially linked with the state or government.
c) religious organization that claims to include most or all the members of a society and is recognized as
the national or official religion.
d) relatively small religious group that has broken away from some other religious organization to renew
what it views as the original vision of the faith.
21. Using an analogy to Marx's analysis of class conflict, conflict theorists argue that women are
in a position comparable to that of the:
a) bourgeoisie.
b) proletariat.
c) middle class.
d) upper class.
22. In analyzing the elderly as a minority, one crucial difference between older people and other
subordinate groups is that:
a) old people are not the objects of prejudice and discrimination.
b) membership is not involuntary.
c) if we live long enough, we will all become members of this minority.
d) old people do not marry members of their own group.
23. Functionalists would most likely suggest that:
a) in the central business district, people from all walks of life come together for business purposes and
have relationships with one another.
b) the concentric-zone model of development enables those who are in the working class to live closer to
their jobs and, thereby, save on transportation and housing expenses.
c) the concentric-zone theory of urban development illustrates how people with power can geographically
isolate themselves from those whom they view as undesirable.
d) all of the above
24. The baby boom in the United States began after:
a) World War I.
b) the Depression of the 1930s.
c) World War II.
d) the war in Vietnam.
25. Which of the following plays an important part in gender-role socialization in the United
a) mass media
b) religious institutions
c) educational institutions
d) all of the above
26. Which of the following does the text define as a family?
a) a set of people related by blood, marriage (or some other agreed-upon relationship), or adoption who
share the responsibility for reproducing and caring for members of society
b) a married couple and their unmarried children living together
c) two unrelated adults who have chosen to share each other's lives in a relationship of mutual caring
d) all of the above
27. Which group has a particularly low voter turnout?
a) young adults
b) members of racial and ethnic minorities
c) the poor
d) all of the above
28. Disengagement theory is a:
a) functionalist theory of aging, which contends that elderly people who remain active will be bestadjusted.
b) conflict theory of aging, which argues that society and the aging individual mutually sever many of
their relationships.
c) functionalist theory of aging, which argues that society and the aging individual mutually sever many of
their relationships.
d) theory of United States withdrawal from international involvement.
29. A sick role is defined as:
a) the part of an ill individual in a movie or play.
b) a bagel that has become stale.
c) societal expectations about the attitudes and behavior of a person viewed as being ill.
d) each individual's unique pattern of not feeling well.
30. What was the primary difference between anti-war protests of 2003 and the 1960s?
a) student protest of 2003 were not as long-lasting as in the 1960s
b) the 2003 protests did not originate with the students as in the 1960s
c) some student protests were pro-war in 2003
d) all of the above
31. Capitalism is an economic system in which:
a) the means of production are largely in private hands, and the main incentive for economic activity is
the accumulation of profits.
b) all property is communally owned and no social distinctions are made on the basis of people's ability
to produce.
c) the means of production and distribution are collectively owned.
d) none of the above
32. Mortality rates are the:
a) incidence of diseases in a given population.
b) number of new cases of a specific disorder occurring within a given population during a stated period
of time.
c) incidence of death in a given population.
d) total number of cases of a specific disorder that exist at a given time.
33. Collective behavior is usually:
a) structured and outrageous.
b) structured and well planned.
c) unstructured and spontaneous.
d) unstructured and outrageous.
34. The "teacher-expectancy effect" refers to the impact that:
a) a teacher's expectations about a student's performance may have on the student's actual
b) a student's expectations about a teacher's performance may have on the teacher's actual
c) a student's expectations about other students' performances may have on the performance of those
d) a teacher's expectations about other teachers' performances may have on the performances of those
35. Monogamy refers to a form of marriage in which:
a) one woman and one man are married only to each other.
b) a woman may have several husbands at the same time.
c) a man may have several wives at the same time.
d) two men or two women are married only to each other.
36. Which sociological perspective emphasizes that the common identity and social integration
fostered by education contribute to overall societal stability and consensus?
a) functionalist perspective
b) conflict perspective
c) interactionist perspective
d) global perspective
37. Your sociology final exam is scheduled for this morning and when you arrive for class the
teacher is uncharacteristically late. One of the students says that the instructor's car was not
parked in its usual place and that the exam will probably be canceled. This is an example of a:
a) craze.
b) fad.
c) rumor.
d) public opinion.
38. An individual's assessment of whether he or she is healthy or ill may be related to his or her:
a) gender.
b) age.
c) social class.
d) all of the above
39. Which scientific study draws upon several components of population--including size,
composition, and territorial distribution--in order to understand the social consequences of
a) epidemiology
b) gerontology
c) anthropology
d) demography
40. Which of the following statements about education in the United States is correct?
a) The proportion of people 18 to 25 years of age with a high school diploma increased from 28 percent
in 1960 to 99 percent in 1999.
b) The proportion of people 25 years of age or over with a college degree rose from 8 percent in 1960 to
about 27 percent in 1999.
c) According to projections, in 2080 some 25 million people will be enrolled in some level of education—
about 45 percent of the nation's population.
d) all of the above
41. General practices found in every culture such as dancing, food preparation, interaction with
family, and religion are known as:
a) cultural integration.
b) cultural values.
c) cultural universals.
d) cultural relativity.
42. In comparison with men, women have lower rates of:
a) employment in dangerous occupations.
b) cigarette smoking.
c) consumption of alcohol.
d) all of the above
43. Which term refers to expectations regarding the proper behavior, attitudes, and activities of
males and females?
a) expressiveness
b) gender roles
c) gender schema
d) instrumentality
44. Reductions taken in a company's workforce as part of deindustrialization are called:
a) deindustrialization.
b) downsizing.
c) anomie.
d) alienation.
45. The ordinary and commonplace events of life are classified as:
a) sacred.
b) profane.
c) cultlike.
d) ritualistic.
46. Which sociologists were responsible for developing the disengagement theory?
a) Elisabeth Kübler-Ross and Richard Kalish
b) Elaine Cummings and William Henry
c) Talcott Parsons and Robert Merton
d) Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels
47. An area that residents identify through defined community borders and through a perception
that adjacent areas are geographically separate and socially different is referred to as:
a) defended communities.
b) protected neighborhoods.
c) defended neighborhoods.
d) protected communities.
48. Which term refers to the social institution through which goods and services are produced,
distributed, and consumed?
a) technology
b) industrialization
c) political system
d) economic system
49. In some hunting-and-gathering societies, men are away from home for long periods of time.
As a result, it is not unusual to find that the women are fully responsible for the household and
most of the major family decisions. In these societies, which pattern of authority is evident?
a) egalitarian
b) matriarchal
c) matrilineal
d) matricentric
50. The process by which individuals acquire political attitudes and develop patterns of political
behavior is known as:
a) political efficacy.
b) impression management.
c) values clarification.
d) political socialization.
***SOC 210 - FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE v 12.07.05***