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Unit 1: European Colonization of America Lesson 2: Columbian Exchange Standards • Strand: History • Topic: Colonization to Independence • European countries established colonies in North America as a means of increasing wealth and power. As the English colonies developed their own governments and economies, they resisted domination by the monarchy, rebelled and fought for independence. • Content Statement: 2 • North America, originally inhabited by American Indians, was explored and colonized by Europeans for economic and religious reasons. Columbian Exchange Essential Question • What was the global impact of Columbus’ voyages? Columbus’ Legacy • While Columbus may have failed to achieve his main goal of finding a shorter sea route to Asia, his voyages were extremely influential to the world • His success inspired other nations to hire other explorers in search of new wealth, knowledge, land, and faster sea routes. America • In 1501, Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci sailed with a fleet that landed on the coast of present-day South America • He was amazed with the many varieties of animals and plants that he saw. • Mapmakers labeled the new continents America, after him Ferdinand Magellan Opening of the Atlantic • After European explorers like Columbus and Magellan, the Atlantic ocean became a gateway to Africa, India and the Americas. • The “opening of the Atlantic” altered trade routes between European countries. • Portugal and Spain specifically benefited from these routes across the Atlantic and Pacific Positives of a shift in trade + Spanish and Portuguese traders made more profits + Increase influence in foreign affairs + Other European countries began becoming involve in trade Negatives of the shift in trade - Traditional overland trade routes were less important - Asia and Venice lost power and control in trade The Columbian Exchange • Columbian Exchange – The transfer of plants, animals, and diseases from the Americas to Asia, Africa, Europe and vice versa. • It is called the “Columbian Exchange” because it resulted from Christopher Columbus’ explorations • It had a tremendous impact on the entire world economy and trade. From the Americas to Europe • Corn, tomatoes, potatoes, peppers • Tobacco, cocoa, • Turkey, llama, guinea pig From Europe to the Americas • Horses, cattle, pigs, sheep, chicken • Wheat, barley, rice, bananas European Diseases • Europeans also accidentally brought over deadly diseases such as measles, smallpox, typhus • Most Europeans had developed natural resistance to these diseases. • Native Americans had never been exposed to these diseases, so they easily became sick and died from them. • Hundreds of thousands of Native Americans died from the spread of European diseases. Measles • Infection of the respiratory system • Symptoms– Fever, cough, red eyes, rashes – Can also lead to further complications and infections Smallpox • Infectious disease that creates fluid filled blisters on the skin • Symptoms: fever, headache, vomiting, legions on the skin • Can cause blindness and death Typhus • Highly fatal disease transmitted through the blood • Easily spread by lice • Symptoms: Chills, cough, high fever, rash Delirium, stupor, muscle pain, death Northwest Passage • Spain and Portugal explored Central and South America • Other European countries focused on North America • Northwest Passage – a path that would allow ships to sail around or through North America – Would connect the Atlantic and Pacific oceans – Was not found during this time Searching for the Northwest Passage • Giovanni da Verrazano – Italian sailor sent to find NWP • Jacques Cartier – French sailor; led French explorations of NA • Samuel de Champlain – French sailor; founded Quebec – Helped France become established in Canada • Henry Hudson – Dutch hired, English sailor sent to find NWP – Sailed to present-day New York • Battled bitter colds while exploring north • Crew mutinied against him • What was the global impact of Columbus’ voyages?