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Transcript
The Annie E. Casey Foundation
Juvenile Detention Alternatives Initiative
JDAI
Council of State Governments
May 17, 2009
Rand Young, WA State JDAI Coordinator
rand_young@msn.com
509-624-4924
Rapid Growth of JDAI Nationally
100 jurisdictions - 25 states & District of Columbia
●
County site
State site
JDAI Goals
• Reduce Detention for low-risk youth
• Develop community-based alternatives to detention
• Improve the effectiveness of the juvenile justice system
• Reduce racial disparities for youth in Detention
• Maintain or improve public safety
High - Risk Youth
Low – Risk Youth
• Murder
• Minor theft
• Rape/Sex Offenses
• Alcohol violations
• Robbery
• Minor drug charges
• Burglary
• Disorderly Conduct
• Weapons charges
• Truancy
• Assault
• Runaways
• Physical injury crimes
• Probation Violations
• Bomb Threats
• Many Warrants
Reducing Detention is Good Public Policy
• Maintains or improves public safety
• Cost-effective for taxpayers
• Produces better outcomes
What we have learned about detaining youth
• Reducing detention for low-risk youth has not increased crime
• Detention is the most expensive crime reduction strategy
• Detention is not particularly effective in reducing crime
• Low-risk youth can be negatively influenced by high-risk youth
• Detention interrupts school – youth fall further behind and dropout
• Detention can pull youth deeper into the criminal justice system
• Detained youth are more likely to reoffend than youth not detained
Less Detention – No increase in Crime
JDAI Site
Washington State
5 Cities
State of Virginia
Reduction in Detention ADP
-- 34%
-- 22 %
8 Cities
Chicago, IL
-- 35 %
Santa Cruz, CA
-- 52 %
Albuquerque, N.M
-- 31%
State of New Jersey
-- 43 %
5 Cities
Detention is the most expensive crime reduction strategy
Cost Per Day
$200
$180
$160
$140
$120
$100
$80
$60
$40
$20
$0
$200
$35
Detention
Alternative
Programs
Cost Savings/Avoidance - Reduced Liability
Seattle, Washington
• Reduced detention population from 180 – 90
• Avoided new construction costs
• Saved $3.9 - $5.4 million per year over a 20 year period
Tacoma, Washington
• Reduced detention population from 158 to 65
• Reduced liability by closing an unsafe detention unit
• Shifted savings & staff to community-based alternatives
Spokane, Washington
• Reduced detention population from 65 – 40
• Reduced Liability - eliminated unsafe “double-bunking”
• Transferred detention staff to alternative programs
Detention is not particularly effective in reducing crime
$1.00 invested = $ ____ Crime Reduction Benefit
$13.36
$14.00
$12.00
$10.82
$10.00
$7.68
$6.81
$8.00
$6.00
$4.00
$2.00
$1.98
$1.01
$0.00
Boot Camps
Detention
Functional
Family Therapy
Mentoring
Aggression
Replacement
Training
Multi-Systemic
Therapy
WA State Institute of Public Policy: Recommendations to Improve Cost-Effectiveness in the Juvenile Justice
Most Detained Youth are not risks to public safety
Felony
Misdemeanor
Shoplifting
Drug Possession
Alcohol Violations
Disorderly Conduct
38.6%
32.3%
29.1%
Status Offenses
Probation Violations
Warrants
Assault
Robbery
Arson
Weapons
7%
19%
5%
New Felony
New Misdemeanor
Court Ordered
Detention
Truancy, Runaway
Abuse & Neglect
15%
Probation Violations
Warrants
14%
40%
JDAI Strategies
1) System-wide Collaboration
2) Reliance on Data
3) Objective Admissions Screening
4) Alternatives to Secure Detention
5) Expedited Case Processing
6) Warrant & Probation Violation Options
7) Reduce Racial Disparities
8) Regular Detention Facility Inspections
System-wide Collaboration
• Leaders work together to improve juvenile justice
County Council
Prosecutors
Schools
State Government
Defense Attorneys
Social Services
Law Enforcement
Probation
Churches
Judges
Detention
Community
• Implement the Eight JDAI strategies
Reliance on Data
Data drives decisions & policy
Measure current outcomes & costs
• Number low-risk youth detained
• Juvenile arrest rates
• Cost of Detention
Develop plan based on data
•
•
•
•
Reduce low-risk youth detained
Develop alternative programs
Monitor arrest rates
Reduce costs – redirect to alternatives
Objective Admission Criteria
Risk Assessment Tool to Detain the Right Youth
• Identify & detain high-risk youth
• Reduce detaining low-risk youth
• Standardize decisions
– fairness
– consistency
Alternatives to Secure Detention
• Community Service Work Projects
• House Arrest & Electronic Monitoring
• Weekend Programs
• Day & Evening Reporting Centers
• Foster & Shelter Care Programs
Expedited Case Processing
• Youth learn best with a swift consequence
• Improve coordination:
Prosecutor, Defense & Probation
• Reduce court case continuances
• Identify stalled cases & problem solve
Probation Violation Options
• Consistent sanctions for all youth
• Match sanction with the seriousness of violation
• Develop immediate informal sanctions
• Use Alternative Programs
• Make Detention the last resort
Warrant Options – Minimize FTAs
• Expedite court process
• Court Hearing Reminder Calls
• In-Person Reminder Contacts
• Verify notice of hearing was received
Reduce Racial Disparities
• Prioritize reducing racial disparities
• Measure rates of racial disparities at decision points
•
•
•
•
Detention
Sentencing
Sanctioning
Transfers to Adult System
• Adopt “standardized” methods of decision making
• Detention Risk Assessment Tool
• Standardize Probation Violation Sanctions
Regular Detention Facility Inspections
• Annual Self-Inspections
• Measure compliance with JDAI Standards
• Update policies and make improvements
JDAI Technical Assistance
•
Small grants for travel & coordination
• Technical Assistance Providers
• Tools, Guides, Publications
• jdaihelpdesk.org
• Model Site Visits
• JDAI National Conferences
“The daily detention population in our facility
has greatly reduced but without a resultant
compromise in community safety.
In fact, just the opposite: we have the
lowest rates of reoffense that we’ve ever
had.”
Amy Holmes Hehn
Multnomah County District Attorney