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Information manager\ manager responsible for designing and implementing
systems to gather, organize, and distribute information.
Information management\ internal operations for arranging a firm's information
resources to support business performance and outcomes.
Data\ raw facts and figures.
Information\ meaningful, useful interpretation of data.
Information system(IS)\ system for transforming raw data into information that can
be used in decision making.
Electronic information technologies(EIT)\ information-systems applications, based
on telecommunications technologies, that use networks of appliances or devices to
communicate information by electronic means.
Fax machine\ machine for transmitting copies of documents (text and graphics)
over telephone lines.
Voice mail\ computer-based system for receiving and delivering incoming telephone
Electronic mail(e-mail)\ computer system that electronically transmits letters,
reports, and other information between computers.
Electronic conferencing\ computer-bases system that allows people to
communicate simultaneously with each other from different locations via computer,
telephone, or video.
Groupware\ software that connects members of a group for shared e-mail
distribution, electronic meetings, appointments, and group writing.
Data communication network\ technology that carries streams of digital data back
and forth over telecommunication systems.
Internet\ global data communication network serving millions of computer with
information on a wide array of topics and providing communication flows among
certain private networks.
Internet service provider(ISP)\ commercial firm that maintains a permanent
connection to the net and sells temporary connections to subscribers.
World wide web\ subsystem of computers providing access to the internet and
offering multimedia and linking capabilities.
Web server\ dedicated workstation customized for managing, maintaining, and
supporting web sites.
Browser\ software supporting the graphics and linking capabilities necessary to
navigate the world wide web.
Search engine\ tool that searches web pages containing the use's search terms and
then displays that math.
Intranet\ private network of internal web sites and other sources of information
available to a company's employees.
Firewall\ software and hardware system that prevents outsiders form accessing a
company's internal network.
Extranet\ internet allowing outsiders limited access to a firm's internal information
Mass-customization\ flexible production process that generates customized
products in high volumes at low cost.
Enterprise resource planning(ERP)\ large information system for integrating all the
activities of a company's business units.
Knowledge worker\ employee who uses information and knowledge as raw
materials and who on information technology to design new products or business
Transaction processing system(TPS)\ information-processing application for routine
business activities involving well-defined processing steps.
System operations personnel\ information-systems employees who run a
company's computer equipment.
Computer-aided design(CAD)\ computer-based electronic technology that assists in
designing products by simulating areal product and displaying in three-dimensional
Computer-aided manufacturing(CAM)\ computer system used to design and control
equipment needed in the manufacturing process.
Management information system(MIS)\ system used for transforming data into
information for use in decision making.
Decision support system(DSS)\ interactive computer-based system that locates and
presents information needed to support decision making.
Executive support system(ESS)\ quick-reference information-system application
designed specially for instant access by upper-level managers.
Artificial intelligence(AI)\ computer-system application that imitates human
behavior by performing physical tasks, using thought processes, sensing, and
Robotics\ combination of computers and industrial robots use in manufacturing
Expert system\ form of artificial intelligence that attempts to imitate the behavior of
human experts in a particular field.
Computer network\ all the computer and information technology devices that, by
working together, drive the flow of digital information throughout a system.
Hardwar\ physical components of a computer system.
Input device\ part of the computer system that enters data into it.
Central processing unit(CPU)\ part of the computer system where data processing
takes place.
Main memory\ part of the computer CPU that houses the memory of programs that
the CPU need to operate.
Program\ set of instruction used by a computer to perform specified activities.
Output device\ part of a computer system that present results, rather visually or in
printed form.
Software\ programs that instruct a computer what to do.
System program\ software that tells the computer what resources to use and how
to use them.
Application program\ software (such as word for windows) that processes data
according to use's special needs.
Graphical user interface(GUI)\ software that provides a visual display to help users
select applications.
Icon\ small image in a GUI that enables users to select application or functions.
Database\ centralized, organized collection of related data.
Word-processing program\ applications program that allows computers to store,
edit, and print letters and numbers for documents created by users.
Electronic spreadsheet\ applications program with a row-and-column format that
allows users to store, manipulate, and compare numeric data.
Database management program\ applications program for creating, storing,
searching, and sorting an organized collection of data.
Computer graphics program\ applications program that converts numeric and
character data into pictorial information, such as graphs and charts.
Presentation graphics software\ applications that enable users to create visual
presentations that can include animation and sound.
Desktop publishing\ process of combining word-processing and graphics capability
to produce virtually typeset-quality text from personal computers.
Multimedia communication system\ connected network of communication
appliances(such as faxes or TVs) that may be linked to forms of mass media (such as
print publications or TV programming)
Broadband channel\ type of data transmission wire that can carry several different
media signals at once.
Wide area network(WAN)\ network of computers and workstation located far from
one another and linked by telephone wires, microwave signals, or satellite
Local area network (LAN)\ network of computers and workstation, usually within a
company, that are linked together by cable.
Client-server network\ information-technology system consisting of clients (users)
that are electronically linked to share network resources provided by a server, such
as a host computer.