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Transcript
Vedanta
For other uses, see Vedanta (disambiguation).
2 Three basic texts
Vedanta (/vædɑːntə/; Hindustani pronunciation: [ʋeːd̪ aːn̪t]̪ ,
Vedānta) or Uttara Mīmāṃsā is one of the six orthodox schools of Hindu philosophy. The term veda
means “knowledge” and anta means “end”, and originally referred to the Upanishads, a collection of foundational texts in Hinduism.[1][note 1] By the 8th century,
it came to mean all philosophical traditions concerned
with interpreting the three basic texts of Hinduist philosophy, namely the Upanishads, the Brahma Sutras and the
Bhagavad Gita,[1] and was eventually recognized as distinct from the other five astika schools. Vedanta is the
most prominent and philosophically advanced of the orthodox schools and the term Vedanta may also be used to
refer to Indian philosophy more generally. There are at
least ten schools of Vedanta,[2] of which Advaita Vedanta,
Vishishtadvaita, Achintya-Bheda-Abheda and Dvaita are
the best known.[3]
All sub-schools of the vedanta propound their philosophy
by interpreting the Prasthanatrayi, literally, three sources,
the three canonical texts of Hindu philosophy, especially
of the Vedanta schools. It consists of:[4]
1. The Upanishads, known as Upadesha prasthana (injunctive texts), and the Śruti prasthāna (the starting
point of revelation)
2. The Brahma Sutras, known as Nyaya prasthana or
Yukti prasthana (logical text)
3. The Bhagavad Gita, known as Sadhana prasthana
(practical text), and the Smriti prasthāna (the starting point of remembered tradition)
The Upanishads consist of twelve or thirteen major texts,
with total 108 texts. The Bhagavad Gītā is part of the
Mahabhārata. The Brahma Sūtras (also known as the
Vedānta Sūtras), systematise the doctrines taught in the
Upanishads and the Gītā.
All major Vedantic teachers, like Shankara, Rāmānuja,
and Mādhvāchārya, have composed often extensive commentaries not only on the Upanishads and Brahma Sutras,
1 Etymology
but also on the Gita. While it is not typically thought of as
a purely Vedantic text, with its syncretism of Samkhya,
Yoga, and Upanishadic thought, the Bhagavad Gita has
The name is a morphophonological form of Veda-anta
played a strong role in Vedantic thought.[5]
= “Veda-end” = “the appendix to the Vedic hymns”. It is
also said that “Vedānta” means “the purpose or goal [end]
of the Vedas”.[note 2] Vedanta can also be used as a noun
to describe one who has mastered all four of the original 3 History
Vedas.
but found
In earlier writings, Sanskrit 'Vedānta' simply referred to Advaita Vedanta existed prior to Shankara, [6]
Of the
its
most
influential
expounder
in
Shankara.
the Upanishads, the most important and philosophical of
Vedanta-school
before
the
composition
of
the
Brahma
the Vedic texts. However, in the medieval period of Hin[7]
[7]
duism, the word Vedānta came to mean the school of phi- Sutras (400–450 CE ) almost nothing is known. Very
little also is known of the period between the Brahlosophy that interpreted the Upanishads.
mansutras and Shankara (first half of the 8th century
Vedānta is also called Uttara Mīmāṃsā, or the 'lat- CE).[7] Only two writings of this period have survived:
ter enquiry' or 'higher enquiry', and is often paired with the Vākyapadīya, written by Bhartṛhari (second half
Purva Mīmāṃsā, the 'former enquiry' or 'primary en- 5th century[8] ), and the Māndūkya-kārikā written by
quiry'. Pūrva Mimamsa, usually simply called Mimamsa, Gaudapada (7th century CE).[7]
deals with explanations of the fire-sacrifices of the Vedic
mantras (in the Samhita portion of the Vedas) and
Brahmanas, while Vedanta explicates the esoteric teach- 3.1 Earliest Vedanta
ings of the Āraṇyakas (the “forest scriptures”), and the
Upanishads, composed from the 9th century BCE until See also: Vedas, Upanishads and Darsanas
modern times.
1
2
3
According to Balasubramanian, the Vedantic philosophy
is as old as the Vedas, since the basic ideas of the Vedanta
systems are derived from the Vedas.[9] During the Vedic
period (1500–600 BCE[9] ) the Rishis formulated their
religio-philosophical and poetical visions, which are further explored in the Upanishads,[10] the jnāna-kānda of
the Vedas.[11] The Upanishads don't contain “a rigorous
philosophical inquiry identifying the doctrines and formulating the supporting arguments”.[12] This philosophical inquiry was performed by the darsanas, the various
philosophical schools.[13]
HISTORY
3.3 Between BrahmaSutras and Shankara
According to Nakamura, “there must have been an enormous number of other writings turned out in this period,
but unfortunately all of them have been scattered or lost
and have not come down to us today”.[7] In his commentaries, Shankara mentions 99 different predecessors
of his Sampradaya.[22] In the beginning of his commentary on the Brhadaranyaka Upanishad Shankara salutes
the teachers of the Brahmavidya Sampradaya.[web 1] PreShankara doctrines and sayings can be traced in the works
Deutsch and Dalvi point out that in the Indian context of the later schools, which does give insight into the detexts “are only part of a tradition which is preserved in its velopment of early Vedanta philosophy.[7]
purest form in the oral transmission as it has been going
The names of various important early Vedanta thinkers
on.”[14] The Upanishads form the basic texts, of which
have been listed in the Siddhitraya by Yamunācārya
Vedanta gives an interpretation.[15]
(c. 1050), the Vedārthasamgraha by Rāmānuja (c.
1050–1157), and the Yatīndramatadīpikā by Śrīnivāsa[7]
[7]
3.2 Bhedabheda
and
Bādarāyana’s dāsa. Combined together, at least fourteen thinkers
are known to have existed between the composition of
Brahma Sutras
the Brahman Sutras and Shankara’s lifetime.[7][note 6]
Main article: Brahma Sutras
The Brahma Sutras of Bādarāyana, also called the
Vedanta Sutra,[11][note 3] are traditionally ascribed to
Bādarāyana,[note 4] and 200 CE.[17] but “are best understood as a group of sutras composed by multiple authors over the course of hundreds of years”.[18] They were
most likely compiled in its present form around 400–450
CE,[19][18] but “the great part of the Sutra must have been
in existence much earlier than that”.[19]
3.4 Gaudapada and Shankara
Main article: Advaita Vedanta
Gaudapada wrote or compiled[23] the Māṇḍukya Kārikā,
also known as the Gauḍapāda Kārikā and as the Āgama
Śāstra.[note 7] Gaudapda took over the Buddhist docThe earliest stratum of sutras in the Brahmasutras is
trines that ultimate reality is pure consciousness (vijñapticoncerned with interpretation of the Upanishads, esmātra)[2] Gaudapada “wove [both doctrines] into a phipecially the differences between the Chandogya Uplosophy of the Mandukaya Upanisad, which was further
anishad, the Brhadanyaka Upanisgad, and the Taitdeveloped by Shankara”.[24]
[18]
tiriya Upanishad.
Later additions were concerned
with the refutation of rival philosophical schools, espe- Adi Shankara (788–820), elaborated on Gaudapada’s
cially Samkhya.[18] According to Nakamura and Das- work, and is considered to be the founder of Advaita
gupta, the Brahmasutras reflect a Bhedabheda point of Vedanta.[2] It was Shankara who succeeded in readview,[18] the most influential school of Vedanta before ing Gaudapada’s mayavada[25][note 8] into Badarayana’s
Brahma Sutras, “and give it a locus classicus",[25] against
Shankara.[18][note 5]
the realistic strain of the Brahma Sutras.[25][note 9][note 10]
Bādarāyana was not the first person to systematise the
His interpretation, including works ascribed to him,
teachings of the Upanishads.[20] He refers to seven
has become the normative interpretation of Advaita
[20]
Vedantic teachers before him:
Vedanta.[27][25]
Although Shankara is often considered to be the founder
of the Advaita Vedanta school, according to Nakamura, comparison of the known teachings of these early
Vedantins and Shankara’s thought shows that most of the
characteristics of Shankara’s thought “were advocated by
someone before Śankara”.[28] Shankara “was the person
who synthesized the Advaita-vāda which had previously
existed before him”.[28] In this synthesis, he was the reThe cryptic aphorisms of the Vedanta Sutras are open to juvenator and defender of ancient learning.[29] He was
a variety of interpretations, resulting in the formation of an unequalled commentator,[29] due to whose efforts and
numerous Vedanta schools, each interpreting the texts in contributions the Advaita Vedanta assumed a dominant
its own way and producing its own sub-commentaries.[21] position within Indian philosophy.[29]
From the way in which Bādarāyana cites
the views of others it is obvious that the teachings of the Upanishads must have been analyzed and interpreted by quite a few before him
and that his systematization of them in 555 sutras arranged in four chapters must have been
the last attempt, most probably the best.[20]
4.2
3.5
Common features
3
Bhakti
Sankara said: “Man is identical with Brahman
or the Eternal Soul,” and established his Kevala
Advaita philosophy.[38]
Main articles: Bhakti and Bhakti movement
Bhedabheda Vedanta schools played an important role
in the rise of bhakti, such as Suddhadvaita, founded by
Vallabha[30] (1479–1531 CE), Achintya Bheda Abheda,
founded by Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (1486–1534)[31] and
Vishishtadvaita founded by Shri Ramanuja (1017–1137
CE).
All schools of Vedanta subscribe to the theory of
Satkāryavāda,[web 6] which means that the effect is preexistent in the cause. But there are two different views
on the status of the “effect”, that is, the world. Most
schools of Vedanta,[26][web 6] as well as Samkhya,[web 6]
support Parinamavada, the idea that the world is a real
transformation (parinama) of Brahman.[26] According to
Nicholson, “the Brahma Sutras also espouse the realist
3.6 Integration of various schools
Parinamavada position, which appears to have been the
view most common among early Vedantins”.[26] In conAccording to Nicholson, already between the 12th and trast to Badarayana, Adi Shankara and Advaita Vedanthe 16th century,
tists hold a different view, Vivartavada, which says that
the effect, the world, is merely an unreal (vivarta) trans... certain thinkers began to treat as a
formation of its cause, Brahman:
single whole the diverse philosophical teachings of the Upanishads, epics, Puranas, and
[A]lthough Brahman seems to undergo a
the schools known retrospectively as the “six
transformation, in fact no real change takes
systems” (saddarsana) of mainstream Hindu
place. The myriad of beings are essentially unphilosophy.[32][note 11]
real, as the only real being is Brahman, that
ultimate reality which is unborn, unchanging,
Both the Indian and the European thinkers who develand entirely without parts.[26]
oped the term “Hinduism” in the 19th century were influenced by these philosophers[32] especially Vijnanabhiksu,
a Bhedabheda Vedantin.[37] Neo-Vedanta too was in4.2
spired by these thinkers.[37]
4
Vedanta philosophy
4.1
Basic questions
The schools of Vedānta seek to answer questions about
the relation between atman and Brahman, and the relation
between Brahman and the world.[1]
The schools of Vedanta are named after the relation they
see between atman and Brahman:[2]
• According to Advaita Vedanta, there is no
difference.[2]
• According to Dvaita the jīvātman is totally different
from Brahman. Even though he is similar to brahman, he is not identical.
• According to Vishishtadvaita, the jīvātman is a part
of Brahman, and hence is similar, but not identical.
Sivananda gives the following explanation:
Madhva said: “Man is the servant of God,”
and established his Dvaita philosophy. Ramanuja said: “Man is a ray or spark of God,”
and established his Visishtadvaita philosophy.
Common features
Even though there are many sub-schools of vedantic philosophy, all these schools share some common features,
that can be called the vedantic core:[39]
• Brahman is the supreme cause of the entire universe and is all pervading and eternal, as found in
the Prasthanatrayi—The Upanishads, the Brahma
Sutras and the Bhagavad Gita.
• Actions are subordinate to knowledge or devotion.
Actions are useful only for preparing the mind for
knowledge or devotion; and once this is achieved,
selfish actions and their rewards must be renounced.
• Bondage is subjection to Saṃsāra, the cycle of death
and rebirth.
• Liberation is deliverance from this cycle.
Traditional Vedānta considers scriptural evidence, or
shabda pramāna, as the most authentic means of knowledge, while perception, or pratyaksa, and logical inference, or anumana, are considered to be subordinate (but
valid).[40][41]
Vedanta rejects ritual in favor of renunciation, which
makes Vedanta irreconcileable with Mimamsa.[42]
4
5 SCHOOLS OF VEDANTA
5
Schools of Vedanta
relation may be regarded as dvaita from one point of view
and advaita from another. In this school, God is visual[50]
The contents of the Upanishads are often couched in ized as Krishna.
enigmatic language, which has left them open to various
interpretations. Over a period of time, various schools of
Vedanta, with different interpretations of the Upanishads 5.1.2 Shuddhādvaita
and the Brahma Sutras arose. There are three,[3] four,[46]
five[30] or six[47][note 12] which are prominent:
• Bhedabheda, as early as the 7th century CE,[48] or
even the 4th century[18]
• Svabhavikabhedabheda or Dvaitādvaita,
founded by Nimbarka[30] in the 13th century
• Suddhadvaita, founded by Vallabha[30] (1479–
1531 CE)
• Achintya Bheda Abheda, founded
Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (1486–1534)[31]
by
• Advaita Vedanta, founded by Gaudapada and Shri
Adi Shankara around 700 CE
• Vishishtadvaita, also a subschool of bhedabheda,
founded by Shri Ramanuja (1017–1137 CE)
• Dvaita, founded by Shri Madhvacharya (1199–1278
CE)
Proponents of other Vedantic schools continue to write
and develop their ideas as well, although their works are
not widely known outside of smaller circles of followers
in India.
5.1
Bhedabheda
Bhedabheda (bheda-abheda), which means “difference and non-difference”,[48] existed as early as the
7th century CE,[48] but Bādarāyaṇa’s Brahma Sūtra
(c. 4th century CE) may also have been written
from a Bhedābheda Vedāntic viewpoint.[48] According to the Bhedābheda Vedānta schools the individual self (jīvātman) is both different and not different from Brahman.[48] Bhakti found a place in later
proponents of this school.[48] Major names of this
school are Bhāskara (8th-9th century),[48] Rāmānuja’s
teacher Yādavaprakāśa,[48] Nimbārka (13th century) who
founded the Dvaitadvaita school,[48] Vallabha (1479–
1531)[48] who founded Shuddhadvaita,[30] Caitanya
(1486–1534) who founded the Achintya Bheda Abheda
school,[48][49] and Vijñānabhikṣu (16th century).[48]
5.1.1
Dvaitādvaita
Dvaitādvaita was propounded by Nimbārka (13th century), based upon Bhedābheda, which was taught by
Bhāskara. According to this school, the jīvātman is at
once the same and yet different from Brahman. The jiva
Vallabhacharya
Shuddhadvaita was propounded by Vallabha (1479–1531
CE). This system also identifies Bhakti as the only means
of liberation, 'to go to Goloka' (lit., the world of cows;
the Sankrit word 'go', 'cow', also means 'star'). The world
is said to be the sport (līlā) of Krishna, who is Sat-ChitAnanda or, “eternal bliss mind”.[50]
5.1.3 Achintya-Bheda-Abheda
Founded by Chaitanya Mahaprabhu[49] (1486–1534).
Achintya-Bheda-Abheda represents the philosophy of inconceivable one-ness and difference,[51] in relation to
the power creation and creator, (Krishna), svayam bhagavan.[52] and also between God and his energies[53]
within the Gaudiya Vaishnava religious tradition. In
Sanskrit achintya means 'inconceivable',[51] bheda translates as 'difference', and abheda translates as 'one-ness’.
It can be best understood as integration of strict dualist (Dvaita) view of Madhvacharya and qualified monism
Vishishtadvaita of Ramanujacharya while rejecting absolute monism Advaita of Adi Sankara.
5.4
5.2
Dvaita
Advaita Vedānta
5
is asserted to have attributes (Saguna brahman), including
the individual conscious souls and matter. Brahman, matter and the individual souls are distinct but mutually inseparable entities. This school propounds Bhakti or devotion to God visualized as Vishnu to be the path to liberation. Māyā is seen as the creative power of God.[50][note 13]
5.4 Dvaita
Dvaita was propounded by Madhwāchārya (1199–1278
CE). It is also referred to as tatvavādā - The Philosophy
of Reality. It identifies God with Brahman completely,
and in turn with Vishnu or his various incarnations like
Krishna, Narasimha, Srinivāsa etc. In that sense it is also
known as sat-vaishnava philosophy to differentiate from
the Vishishtadvaita school known by sri-vaishnavism. It
regards Brahman, all individual souls (jīvātmans) and
matter as eternal and mutually separate entities. This
school also advocates Bhakti as the route to sattvic liberation whereas hatred (Dvesha)-literally 'twoness’) and indifference towards the Lord will lead to eternal hell and
eternal bondage respectively. Liberation is the state of
attaining maximum joy or sorrow, which is awarded to
individual souls (at the end of their sādhana), based on
the souls’ inherent and natural disposition towards good
or evil. The achintya-adbhuta shakti (the immeasurable
Shankaracharya
power) of Lord Vishnu is seen as the efficient cause of
the universe and the primordial matter or prakrti is the
Advaita Vedanta (IAST Advaita Vedānta; Sanskrit: material cause. Dvaita also propounds that all action is
अद्वैत वेदान्त [əd̪ ʋait̪ə ʋeːd̪ ɑːnt̪ə]) was propounded by performed by the Lord energizing every soul from within,
Adi Shankara (early 8th century CE) and his grand-guru awarding the results to the soul but Himself not affected
[50]
Gaudapada, who described Ajativada. It is the[54][55][56] in the least by the results.
sub-school of the Vedānta (literally, end or the goal of the
Vedas, Sanskrit) school of Hindu philosophy.[57] In the
school of Vedānta, Brahman is the only reality, and the
6 Neo-Vedanta
world, as it appears, is illusory. As Brahman is the sole
reality, it cannot be said to possess any attributes whatsoever. An illusory power of Brahman called Māyā causes Main articles: Neo-Vedanta, Hindu nationalism and
the world to arise. Ignorance of this reality is the cause Hindu reform movements
of all suffering in the world and only upon true knowledge of Brahman can liberation be attained. When a per- Neo-Vedanta is a modern interpretation of Vedanta, with
son tries to know Brahman through his mind, due to the a liberal attitude toward the Vedas.[59] It reconciles duinfluence of Māyā, Brahman appears as God (Ishvara), alism and non-dualism,[60] and rejects the “universal
separate from the world and from the individual. In re- illusionism”[61] of Shankara, despite its reference for clasality, there is no difference between the individual soul sical Advaita Vedanta:
jīvātman (see Atman) and Brahman. Liberation lies in
knowing the reality of this non-difference (i.e. a-dvaita,
“non-duality”). Thus, the path to liberation is finally only
Ramakrsna, Svami Vivekananda, and Authrough knowledge (jñāna).[50]
robindo (I also include M.K. Gandhi) have
been labeled “neo-Vedantists,” a philosophy
that rejects the Advaitins’ claim that the world
5.3 Vishishtadvaita
is illusory. Aurobindo, in his The Life Divine,
declares that he has moved from Sankara’s
Vishishtadvaita was propounded by Rāmānuja (1017–
“universal illusionism” to his own “universal
1137 CE) and says that the jīvātman is a part of Brahman,
realism” (2005: 432), defined as metaphysical
and hence is similar, but not identical. The main differrealism in the European philosophical sense of
ence from Advaita is that in Visishtadvaita, the Brahman
the term.[61]
6
7 COMPARISON TO WESTERN PHILOSOPHIES
Mohandas Gandhi endorsed the Jain concept of
Anekantavada,[62] the notion that truth and reality are
perceived differently from diverse points of view, and
that no single point of view is the complete truth.[63][64]
This concept embraces the perspectives of both Vedānta
which, according to Jainism, “recognizes substances but
not process”, and Buddhism, which “recognizes process
but not substance”. Jainism, on the other hand, pays
equal attention to both substance (dravya) and process
(paryaya).[65]
Neo-Vedanta developed in the 19th century, in interaction with and response to colonialism.[59] With the onset of the British Raj, the colonialisation of India by
the British, there also started a Hindu renaissance in the
19th century, which profoundly changed the understanding of Hinduism in both India and the west.[66] Western
orientalist searched for the “essence” of the Indian religions, discerning this in the Vedas,[67] and meanwhile
creating the notion of “Hinduism” as a unified body of
religious praxis[68] and the popular picture of 'mystical
India'.[68][66]
since the late 18th century an exchange of ideas has
been taking place between the western world and Asia,
which also influenced western religiosity.[82] In 1785 appeared the first western translation of a Sanskrit-text.[83]
It marked the growing interest in the Indian culture and
languages.[84] The first translation of Upanishads appeared in two parts in 1801 and 1802,[84] which influenced Arthur Schopenhauer, who called them “the consolation of my life”.[85][note 15] Schopenhauer drew explicit
parallels between his philosophy, as set out in 'The World
as Will and Representation',[86] and that of the Vedanta
philosophy ascribed to Vasya in the work of Sir William
Jones.[87] Early translations also appeared in other European languages.[88]
In 20th century, comparisons between Advaita, western philosophy, and science took a high flight. Brian
David Josephson, Welsh physicist, and Nobel Prize laureate says:[89]
The Vedanta and the Sankhya hold the key
to the laws of the mind and thought process
which are co-related to the Quantum Field, i.e.
the operation and distribution of particles at
atomic and molecular levels.
This idea of a Vedic essence was taken over by the Hindu
reformers, together with the ideas of Universalism and
Perennialism, the idea that all religions share a common
mystic ground.[69] The Brahmo Samaj, who was supported for a while by the Unitarian Church,[70] played an
essential role in the introduction and spread of this new 7.1 Spinoza
understanding of Hinduism.[71] Vedanta came to be regarded as the essence of Hinduism, and Advaita Vedanta Max Müller, in his lectures, noted the striking similarities
came to be regarded as “then paradigmatic example of between Vedanta and the system of Spinoza, saying
the mystical nature of the Hindu religion”.[72]
[T]he Brahman, as conceived in the UpanA major proponent in the popularisation of this Univerishads and defined by Sankara, is clearly the
salist and Perennialist interpretation of Advaita Vedanta
same as Spinoza’s 'Substantia'.”[90]
was Vivekananda,[73] who played a major role in the
revival of Hinduism,[74] and the spread of Advaita
Vedanta to the west via the Ramakrishna Mission. His Helena Blavatsky, a founder of the Theosophical Society,
interpretation of Advaita Vedanta has been called “Neo- also compared Spinoza’s religious thought to Vedanta,
Vedanta”.[75] The popular understanding of Hinduism writing in an unfinished essay
has been dominated by this neo-Vedanta,[68][note 14] in
As to Spinoza’s Deity—natura naturans—
which mysticism,[68] Aryan origins and the unity of
conceived in his attributes simply and alone;
Hinduism[76] have been emphasised.[77][78][79][68]
and the same Deity—as natura naturata or as
These notions also served well for the Hindu nationalists,
conceived in the endless series of modificawho further popularised this notion of Advaita Vedanta
tions or correlations, the direct outflowing reas the pinnacle of Indian religions.[80] It “provided an opsults from the properties of these attributes, it
portunity for the construction of a nationalist ideology
is the Vedantic Deity pure and simple.[91]
that could unite Hindus in their struggle against colonial
oppression”.[81]
The 19th-century German Sanskritist Theodore Goldstücker was one of the early figures to notice the similarities between the religious conceptions of the Vedanta and
7 Comparison to Western philoso- those of the Dutch Jewish philosopher Baruch Spinoza,
writing that Spinoza’s thought was
phies
Similarities between Vedanta and Western philosophical traditions have been discussed by many authorities.
Due to the colonisation of Asia by the western world,
... so exact a representation of the ideas
of the Vedanta, that we might have suspected
its founder to have borrowed the fundamental principles of his system from the Hindus,
7
did his biography not satisfy us that he was
wholly unacquainted with their doctrines [...]
comparing the fundamental ideas of both we
should have no difficulty in proving that, had
Spinoza been a Hindu, his system would in all
probability mark a last phase of the Vedanta
philosophy.[92][93]
8
See also
• Monistic idealism
• List of teachers of Vedanta
• Self-consciousness (Vedanta)
9
Notes
[1] Considered to be the last appendix or final layer of the
Vedic canon
[2] Robert E. Hume, Professor Emeritus of History of
Religions at the Union Theological Seminary, wrote
in Random House's The American College Dictionary
(1966): “It [Vedānta] is concerned with the end of the
Vedas, both chronologically and teleologically.”
[3] The Vedānta-sūtra are known by a variety of names,
including (1) Brahma-sūtra, (2) Śārīraka, (3) Vyāsasūtra, (4) Bādarāyaṇa-sūtra, (5) Uttara-mīmāṁsā and (6)
Vedānta-darśana.[16]
[4] Estimates of the date of Bādarāyana’s lifetime differ between 200 BCE
[5] Nicholson: “Numerous Indologists, including Surendranath Dasgupta, Paul hacker, Hajime Nakamura, and
Mysore Hiriyanna, have described Bhedabheda as the
most influential school of Vedanta before Sankara.”[18]
[6] Bhartŗhari (c. 450–500), Upavarsa (c. 450–500), Bodhāyana (c. 500), Tanka (Brahmānandin) (c. 500–550),
Dravida (c. 550), Bhartŗprapañca (c. 550), Śabarasvāmin
(c. 550), Bhartŗmitra (c. 550–600), Śrivatsānka (c. 600),
Sundarapāndya (c. 600), Brahmadatta (c. 600–700),
Gaudapada (c. 640–690), Govinda (c. 670–720), Mandanamiśra (c. 670–750).[7]
[7] Nakamura notes that there are contradictions in doctrine
between the four chapters.[23]
[8] The term “mayavada” is still being used, in a critical way,
by the Hare Krshnas. See [web 2] [web 3] [web 4] [web 5]
[9] Nicholson: “The Brahmasutras themselves espouse the realist Parinamavada position, which appears to have been
the view most common among early Vedantins.”[26]
[10] B.N.K. Sharma: "[H]ow difficult he himself found the
task of making the Sutras yield a Monism of his conception, is proved by the artificiality and parenthetical irrelevance of his comments in many places, where he seeks
to go against the spirit and letter of the Sutras and their
natural drift of arguments and dialectic [...] he was fighting with all his might and ingenuity against a long line of
realistic commentaries.”[25]
[11] The tendency of “a blurring of philosophical distinctions”
has also been noted by Burley.[33] Lorenzen locates the
origins of a distinct Hindu identity in the interaction between Muslims and Hindus,[34] and a process of “mutual
self-definition with a contrasting Muslim other”,[35] which
started well before 1800.[36]
[12] Sivananda also mentions Meykandar and the Shaiva Siddhanta philosophy.[3]
[13] Sri Lakshmi Visishtadvaita was propounded by Sri
Srinivasa Deekshitulu (950 A.D.). It is primarily related to Vaikhanasa School of thought (based on Taittiriya Aranyaka) based on Badarayana Sariraka Sutras.
It is strictly followed by the original priests of the celebrated ancient Tirumala Hill Shrine even to this day.
It proposes that Brahman can be in sakala and nishkala
forms. To meditate on the nishkala aspect of Brahman,
the starting point is sakala (with attributes). This school
propounds 'Archana' (Worship), supplemented by 'Jnana'
(knowledge) and 'Bhakti' (devotion) to be the path to liberation. In this school of thought the ultimate Brahman is
Lord Vishnu along with goddess Lakshmi. Lord Vishnu
must be worshipped along with Goddess Lakshmi. Tirumala Kshetram is one of the best examples of the implementation of the 'Sri Lakshmi Visishtadvaitam'.[58]
[14] Also called neo-Hinduism[68]
[15] And called his poodle “Atman”.[85]
10 References
[1] Raju 1992, p. 176-177.
[2] Raju 1992, p. 177.
[3] Sivananda 1993, p. 217.
[4] Vepa, Kosla. The Dhaarmik Traditions. Indic Studies
Foundation.
[5] Pasricha, Ashu (2008).
Encyclopaedia of Eminent
Thinkers: The Political Thought of C. Rajagopalachari,
Volume 15. New Delhi: Concept Publishing Company.
p. 95. ISBN 9788180694950.
[6] The seven great untenables: Sapta-vidhā anupapatti. By
John A Grimes. Introduction, p.7. Motilal Banarsidass
1990
[7] Nakamura 2004, p. 3.
[8] Nakamura 2004, p. 426.
[9] Balasubramanian 2000, p. xxix.
[10] Balasubramanian 2000, p. xxix–xxx.
[11] Balasubramanian 2000, p. xxxii.
8
[12] Balasubramanian 2000, p. xxx.
[13] Balasubramanian 2000, p. xxx–xxxi.
10
REFERENCES
[45] Gerald Surya, Review of “A Critique of A. C. Bhaktivedanta” by K. P. Sinha
[46] Raju 1992, p. 175-200.
[14] deutsch 2004, p. 95.
[47] Sivananda 1993, p. 216.
[15] Deutsch 2004, p. 95-96.
[16] Goswāmi, S.D. (1976), Readings in Vedic Literature: The
Tradition Speaks for Itself, , pp. 240 pages, ISBN 0912776-88-9
[48] Internet Encyclopedy of Philosophy,
Vedānta
Bhedābheda
[49] Sivananda 1993, p. 247.
[17] Pandey 2000, p. 4.
[50] Vedanta on Hindupedia, the Hindu Encyclopedia
[18] Nicholson 2010, p. 26.
[51] Gupta 2007, p. 47-52.
[19] Nakamura 1990, p. 436.
[52] Kaviraja year unknown.
[20] Balasubramanian 2000, p. xxxiii.
[21] Nicholson 2010, p. 26-27.
[22] Roodurmum 2002.
[23] Nakamura 2004, p. 308.
[24] Raju 1992, p. 177-178.
[25] Sharma 2000, p. 64.
[26] Nicholson 2010, p. 27.
[27] Nakamura 2004.
[28] Nakamura 2004, p. 678.
[29] Nakamura 2004, p. 679.
[30] Prem Pahlajrai, Asian Languages and Literature, University of Washington, Vedanta: A Comparative Analysis of
Diverse Schools
[31] Sivananda 1993, p. 248.
[32] Nicholson 2010, p. 2.
[33] Burley 2007, p. 34.
[53] Prabhupada 1972.
[54] “Consciousness in Advaita Vedānta” By William M. Indich, Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, 1995, ISBN 97881-208-1251-2.
[55] “Gandhi And Mahayana Buddhism”. Class.uidaho.edu.
Retrieved 2011-06-10.
[56] “The Experience of Hinduism: essays on religion in Maharashtra,” By Eleanor Zelliot, Maxine Berntsen, State
University of New York Press, 1980, ISBN 0-8248-02713.
[57] “Advaita Vedanta: A Philosophical Reconstruction,” By
Eliot Deutsch, University of Hawaii Press, 1988, ISBN
0-88706-662-3
[58] Sri Lakshmi Visishtadvaita Bhashyam by Ubhaya Vedanta
Pravartaka Srinivasa Deekshitiyam; Sri Vaikhanasa Sariraka Sampradaya Prakasakam published by Sri Vikhanas
Trust, Tirumala 2004
[59] King 2001.
[60] Sooklal 1993.
[61] Gier 2013, p. 268-269.
[62] Panicker 2006, p. 190-191.
[34] Lorenzen 2006, p. 24-33.
[63] Dundas 2004, p. 123–136.
[35] Lorenzen 2006, p. 27.
[36] Lorenzen 2006, p. 26-27.
[37] Nicholson 2010.
[38] Sivananda, p. 217.
[39] Sheridan 1985, p. 136.
[40] Puligandla 1997.
[41] Raju 1992.
[64] Koller 2004, p. 400–407.
[65] Burch 1964, p. 68–93.
[66] King 2002.
[67] King & 2002 118.
[68] King 1999.
[69] King 2002, p. =119-120.
[70] Jones 2006, p. 114.
[42] Raju 1992, p. 175-176.
[71] King 2002, p. 123.
[43] Sheridan, Daniel (1986). The Advaitic Theism of the Bhāgavata Purāṇa. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. p. 139. Retrieved 2012-12-12.
[72] King 2002, p. 128.
[44] Sivananda 1993.
[74] Dense 1999, p. 191.
[73] King 2002, p. 135-142.
11.1
Published sources
9
• Deutsch, Eliot; Dalvi, Rohit (2004), The Essential
Vedanta: A New Source Book of Advaita Vedanta,
World Wisdom, Inc.
[75] Mukerji 1983.
[76] King 1999, p. 171.
[77] Muesse 2011, p. 3-4.
• Doniger, Wendy (2010), The Hindus: An Alternative
History, Oxford University Press
[78] Doniger 2010, p. 18.
• Dundas, Paul (2004), Tara Sethia, ed., Ahimsā,
Anekānta, and Jaininsm, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass
Publ, ISBN 81-208-2036-3
[79] Jouhki 2006, p. 10-11.
[80] King 2002, p. 129-130.
[81] King 2002, p. 133.
• Gier, Nicholas F. (2012). “Overreaching to be
different: A critique of Rajiv Malhotra’s Being Different”. International Journal of Hindu
Studies (Springer Netherlands) 16 (3): 259–
285. doi:10.1007/s11407-012-9127-x. ISSN 10224556.
[82] McMahan 2008.
[83] Renard 2010, p. 176.
[84] Renard 2010, p. 177.
[85] Renard 2010, p. 178.
[86] Schopenhauer, Arthur. The World as Will and Representation. Translated from the German by EFJ Payne. Dover
Publications, vol. 1, chap. 1
[87] Jones, Sir William. On the Philosophy of the Asiatics. Sir
William Jones. Asiatic Researches, vol. 4, p. 164
[88] Renard 2010, p. 183-184.
[89] “Synthesis of Science and Spirituality”
[90] Three Lectures on the Vedanta Philosophy.
Muller. Kessinger Publishing, 2003. p123
F. Max
[91] H.P Blavatsky’s Collected Writings, Volume 13, pages
308-310. Quest Books
[92] Literary Remains of the Late Professor Theodore Goldstucker, W. H. Allen, 1879. p32.
• Gupta, Ravi M. (2007), Caitanya Vaisnava Vedanta
of Jiva Gosvami’s Catursutri tika, Routledge, ISBN
0-415-40548-3
• Jones, Constance; Ryan, James D. (2006), Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Infobase Publishing
• Jouhki, Jukka (2006), “Orientalism and India”
(PDF), [email protected] 8/2006
• Kaviraja, K.G. (n.d.), Sri Caitanya-caritamrita.
Bengali text, translation, and commentary by AC
Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, Bhaktivedanta
Book Trust
• King, Richard (1999), Orientalism and Religion:
Post-Colonial Theory, India and “The Mystic East”,
Routledge
[93] The Westminster Review, Volumes 78-79, Baldwin,
Cradock, and Joy, 1862. p1862
• King, Richard (2002), Orientalism and Religion:
Post-Colonial Theory, India and “The Mystic East”,
Taylor & Francis e-Library
11
• Koller, John (2004), (ed.) Tara Sethia, ed., Ahimsā,
Anekānta, and Jaininsm, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass
Publ, ISBN 81-208-2036-3
11.1
Sources
Published sources
• Balasubramanian, R. (2000), Introduction. In: Chattopadhyana (gen.ed.), “History of Science, Philosophy and Culture in Indian Civilization. Volume II
Part 2: Advaita Vedanta”, Delhi: Centre for Studies in Civilizations
• Burch, George Bosworth (1964), “Seven-Valued
Logic in Jain Philosophy”, International Philosophical Quarterly (Bronx, NY) IV (1): 68–93, ISSN
0019-0365
• Burley, Mikel (2007), Classical Samkhya and Yoga:
An Indian Metaphysics of Experience, Taylor &
Francis
• Dense, Christian D. Von (1999), Philosophers and
Religious Leaders, Greenwood Publishing Group
• Lorenzen, David N. (2006), Who Invented Hinduism: Essays on Religion in History, Yoda Press
• Muesse, Mark W. (2011), The Hindu Traditions: A
Concise Introduction, Fortress Press
• Mukerji, Mādhava Bithika (1983), Neo-Vedanta
and Modernity, Ashutosh Prakashan Sansthan
• Nakamura, Hajime (1990), A History of Early
Vedanta Philosophy. Part One, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited
• Nakamura, Hajime (2004), A History of Early
Vedanta Philosophy. Part Two, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited
• Nicholson, Andrew J. (2010), Unifying Hinduism:
Philosophy and Identity in Indian Intellectual History, Columbia University Press
10
12 FURTHER READING
• Pandey, S. L. (2000), Pre-Sankara Advaita. In:
Chattopadhyana (gen.ed.), “History of Science, Philosophy and Culture in Indian Civilization. Volume II
Part 2: Advaita Vedanta”, Delhi: Centre for Studies
in Civilizations
• The System of Vedanta by Paul Deussen. 1912.
Reprint 2007.
• Panicker, P.L. John (2006), Gandhi on Pluralism
and Communalism, ISPCK
• Forgotten Truth:
Huston Smith
• Prabhupada, A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami (1972),
Bhagavad-gita as it is, Bhaktivedanta Book Trust
Los Angeles, California
• Puligandla, Ramakrishna (1997), Fundamentals of
Indian Philosophy, New Delhi: D. K. Printworld (P)
Ltd.
• Raju, P. T. (1992), The Philosophical Traditions of
India, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private
Limited
• Renard, Philip (2010), Non-Dualisme. De directe
bevrijdingsweg, Cothen: Uitgeverij Juwelenschip
• Roodurmum, Pulasth Soobah (2002), Bhāmatī and
Vivaraṇa Schools of Advaita Vedānta: A Critical
Approach, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers
Private Limited
• The Eye of Shiva. New York, William Morrow &
Co. 1981. Amaury de Reincourt
The Primordial Tradition by
• Theology After Vedanta by Francis X. Clooney
• Sankara and Indian Philosophy, by Natalia Isayeva
• A History of Early Vedanta Philosophy by Hajime
Nākāmura
• Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies and “Vedanta
Sutras of Nārāyana Guru” by Karl Potter and Sibajiban Bhattachārya
• Isherwood, Bowles, Vedanta, Wicca, and Me by Lee
Prosser. 2001. ISBN 0-595-20284-5
• The Upanishads by Sri Aurobindo . Sri Aurobindo
Ashram, Pondicherry. 1972.
• Choice Upanishads by Swami Parthasarathy
• Vedanta: A Simple Introduction by Pravrajika Vrajaprana
• Sharma, B. N. Krishnamurti (2000), History of the
Dvaita School of Vedānta and Its Literature: From
the Earliest Beginnings to Our Own Times, Motilal
Banarsidass Publishers
• Swami Bhoomānanda Tirtha Narayanashrama
Tapovanam
• Sivananda, Swami (1993), All About Hinduism, The
Divine Life Society
• Nomenclature of the Vedas by Swamini Atmaprajnananda Saraswati
• Sooklal, Anil (1993), “The Neo-Vedanta Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda” (PDF), Nidan, 5, 1993
11.2
Web-sources
[1] advaita-deanta.org, Advaita Vedanta before Sankaracarya
[2] Swami B.V. Giri, Gaudya Touchstone, Mayavada and
Buddhism – Are They One and the Same?
[3] harekrishnatemple.com, Mayavada Philosophy
[4] harekrsna.com, The Mayavada School
[5] Gaura Gopala Dasa, The Self-Defeating Philosophy of
Mayavada
[6] Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
Vedānta
12
Bhedābheda
Further reading
• Vedanta Treatise:
Parthasarathy
The Eternities by Swami
• Three Upanisads of The Vedanta by J. L. Bansal
11
13
13.1
Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses
Text
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Ganeshk, Ma Baker, Sumedha, Dangerous-Boy, M Alan Kazlev, Graham87, BD2412, FreplySpang, Mana Excalibur, Jorunn, Rjwilmsi,
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