Download regional latin forum 2007

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Roman temple wikipedia, lookup

Ancient Greek architecture wikipedia, lookup

Temple of Artemis wikipedia, lookup

North Acropolis, Tikal wikipedia, lookup

Architecture of Mesopotamia wikipedia, lookup

Architecture of Kathmandu wikipedia, lookup

Hindu temple architecture wikipedia, lookup

Buddhist temples in Japan wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
REGIONAL LATIN FORUM 2007
CLASSICAL ART
1. The entrance way depicted here is
called the
a. Parthenon
b. Propylaea
c. Opisthodomos
d. Erechtheum
The site depicted in the picture to the
right is the acropolis of Athens. The only
entrance to the Acropolis is the Propylaea.
A) The Parthenon is a
temple built for the Greek
goddess Athena built in the
5th century BC on the Acropolis of Athens. It is the most important surviving
building of Classical Greece, generally considered to be the culmination of the
development of the Doric order. The Parthenon replaced an older temple of Athena,
called the Pre-Parthenon or Older Parthenon, that was destroyed in the Persian
invasion of 480 BC. Like most Greek temples, the Parthenon was used as a treasury,
and for a time served as the treasury of the Delian League, which later became the
Athenian Empire. In the 6th century AD, the Parthenon was converted into a
Christian church dedicated to the Virgin. After the Ottoman conquest, it was
converted into a mosque in the early 1460s. On September 28, 1687, an Ottoman
ammunition dump inside the building was ignited by Venetian bombardment. The
resulting explosion severely damaged the Parthenon and its sculptures. In 1806,
Thomas Bruce, 7th Earl of Elgin removed some of the surviving sculptures, with
Ottoman permission. These sculptures, now known as the Elgin or Parthenon
Marbles, were sold in 1816 to the British Museum in London, where they are now
displayed. The most important buildings visible on the Acropolis today, the
Parthenon, the Propylaia, the Erechtheion and the temple of Athena Nike, were
erected during this period. The Parthenon was built under the general supervision
of the sculptor Phidias, who also had charge of the sculptural decoration. The
architects, Iktinos and Kallikrates, began in 447 BC, and the building was
substantially completed by 432, but work on the decorations continued until at least
431. Some of the financial accounts for the Parthenon survive and show that the
largest single expense was transporting the stone from Mount Pentelicus, about 16
kilometers from Athens, to the Acropolis. The funds were partly drawn from the
treasury of the Delian League, which was moved from the Panhellenic sanctuary at
Delos to the Acropolis in 454 BC. ome studies of the Acropolis, including the
Parthenon, conclude that many of its proportions approximate the golden ratio. The
Parthenon's facade as well as elements of its facade and elsewhere can be
circumscribed by golden rectangles.[4]
Measured at the top step, the dimensions of the base of the Parthenon are 69.5
meters by 30.9 meters (228.0 x 101.4 ft). The cella was 29.8 metres long by 19.2 metres
wide (97.8 x 63.0 ft), with internal Doric colonnades in two tiers, structurally
necessary to support the roof. On the exterior, the Doric columns measure 1.9 meters
(6.2 ft) in diameter and are 10.4 meters (34.1 ft) high. The corner columns are slightly
larger in diameter. The Parthenon had 46 outer pillars and 19 inner pillars in total.
The stylobate has an upward curvature towards its center of 60 millimeters (2.36 in)
on the east and west ends, and of 110 millimeters (4.33 in) on the sides.
The Parthenon, an octostyle, peripteral Doric temple with Ionic architectural
features, housed the chryselephantine statue of Athena Parthenos sculpted by
Phidias and dedicated in 439/438 BC. The decorative stonework was originally
highly coloured.[5] The temple was dedicated to the Athena at that time, though
construction continued until almost the beginning of the Peloponnesian War in 432.
By the year 438, the sculptural decoration of the Doric metopes on the frieze above
the exterior colonnade, and of the Ionic frieze around the upper portion of the walls
of the cella, had been completed. The richness of the Parthenon's frieze and metope
decoration is in agreement with the function of the temple as a treasury. In the
opisthodomus (the back room of the cella) were stored the monetary contributions of
the Delian League of which Athens was the leading
member.
B) The word propylaea (propylaeum is the Latin
version) is the union of the prefix pro (before or in
front of) plus the plural of the Greek pylon or pylaion
(gate), meaning literally that which is before the gates,
but the word has come to mean simply gate building.
The monumental gateway to the Acropolis, the
Propylaea was built under the general direction of the
Athenian leader Pericles, but Phidias was given the
responsibility for planning the rebuilding the
Acropolis as a whole at the conclusion of the Persian
Wars. The building was designed by the architect Mnesicles. Construction began in
437 BC and was terminated in 432, when the building was still unfinished.
The Propylaea was constructed of white Pentelic marble and gray Eleusinian marble
or limestone, which was used only for accents. The structure consists of a central
building with two adjoining wings on the west (outer) side, one to the north and
one to the south. The core is the central building, which presents a standard sixcolumned Doric façade both on the West to those entering the Acropolis and on the
east to those departing. The columns echo the proportions (not the size) of the
columns of the Parthenon.
C) An opisthodomos was the room
present at the rear of some Greek
temples. It was located behind the naos.
balancing the pronaos at the front of the
the addition of an opisthodomos could
a symmetrical design.
Opisthodomos are present in the layout






By
temple
create
of:
Temple of Zeus at Olympia
Parthenon on the Acropolis in Athens.
Temple of Athena Lindia at Lindos
Temple of Dionysus at Teos
Temple of Athena Aphaea at Aegina
Temple of Poseidon at Cape Sounion
D) Erechtheum
The Erechtheum is an ancient Greek temple on the north side of the Acropolis of
Athens in Greece. The temple as seen today was built between 421 and 407 BCE. Its
architect may have been Mnesicles, and it derived its name from a shrine dedicated
to the legendary Greek hero Erichthonius. Some have suggested that it may have
been built in honour of the legendary king Erechtheus, who is said to have been
buried nearby. Erechtheus and Erichthonius were often syncretized. It is believed to
have been a replacement for an older temple destroyed by the Persians in 480 BCE.
The need to preserve multiple adjacent sacred precincts likely explains the complex
design. The main structure consists of up to four compartments, the largest being
the east cella, with an Ionic portico on its east end. The entire temple is on a slope,
so the west and north sides are about 3 m (9 ft) lower than the south and east sides.
It was built entirely of marble from Mount Pentelikon, with friezes of black
limestone from Eleusis which bore sculptures executed in relief in white marble. It
had elaborately carved doorways and windows, and its columns were ornately
decorated (far more so than is visible today); they were painted, gilded and
highlighted with gilt bronze and multi-colored inset glass beads. The building is
known for early examples of egg-and-dart, and guilloche ornamental moldings. On
the north side, there is another large porch with columns, and on the south, the
famous "Porch of the Maidens", with six draped female figures (caryatids) as
supporting columns, each sculpted in a manner different from the rest and
engineered in such a way that their slenderest part, the neck, is capable of
supporting the weight of the porch roof whilst remaining graceful and feminine.
The porch was built to conceal the giant 15-ft beam needed to support the southwest
corner over the Kekropion, after the building was drastically reduced in size and
budget following the onset of the Peloponnesian war.
2. The smaller structure, in the upper right of the picture (the first one), is the
Temple of
a. Athena Nike.
b. Olympian Zeus. c. Apollo.
d. Artemis.
A) Almost all the buildings on the acropolis are
dedicated to Athena.
The temple in question is the temple of Athena
Nike.
Nike means "Victory" in Greek, and Athena was worshiped in this form, as goddess
of victory, on the Acropolis, Athens. Her temple was the earliest Ionic temple on the
Acropolis was compensated by its prominent position on a steep bastion at the
south west corner of the Acropolis, to the right of the entrance (propylaea). There the
citizens worshipped the goddess in hope of a prosperous outcome in the long war
fought on land and sea against the Spartans and their allies. The Temple of Athena
Nike was an expression of Athens' ambition to be the leading Greek city state in the
Peloponnese.
The Temple sits within the sanctuary of Athena Nike, atop a bastion on the south
flank of the great stair to the Athenian Acropolis. In contrast to the Acropolis
proper, a walled sanctuary entered through the Propylaia, the Nike Sanctuary was
open, entered from the Propylaia's southwest wing and from a narrow stair on the
north. The sheer walls of its bastion were protected on the north, west, and south by
a parapet, the famed "Nike Parapet", named for its frieze of Nikai celebrating victory
and sacrificing to their patroness, Athena.
B)
The Temple of Olympian Zeus, also known as the Olympieion, is a colossal ruined
temple in the centre of the Greek capital Athens that was formerly dedicated to
Zeus, king of the Olympian gods. The temple is located about 500 m (1640 feet)
south-east of the Acropolis, and about 700 m (2,300 feet) south of the centre of
Athens, Syntagma Square. Its foundations were laid on the site of an ancient
outdoor sanctuary dedicated to Zeus. An earlier temple had stood there, constructed
by the tyrant Pisistratus around 550 BC. The building was demolished after the
death of Pisistratus and the construction of a colossal new Temple of Olympian
Zeus was begun around 520 BC by his sons, Hippias and Hipparchos.
They sought to surpass two famous contemporary temples, the Heraion of Samos
and the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus, which was one of the Seven Wonders of the
Ancient World. Designed by the architects Antistates, Callaeschrus, Antimachides
and Porinus, the Temple of Olympian Zeus was intended to be built of local
limestone in the Doric style on a colossal platform measuring 41 m (134.5 feet) by
108 m (353.5) feet. It was to be flanked by a double colonnade of eight columns
across the front and back and twenty-one on the flanks, surrounding the cella.
The work was abandoned when the tyranny was overthrown and Hippias was
expelled in 510 BC. Only the platform and some elements of the columns had been
completed by this point, and the temple remained in this state for 336 years. The
Temple of Olympian Zeus was badly damaged during the Herulian sack of Athens
in 267. It is unlikely to have been repaired, given the extent of the damage to the rest
of the city. Assuming that it was not abandoned it would certainly have been closed
down in 425 by the Christian emperor Theodosius II when he prohibited the
worship of the old Roman and Greek gods. Material from the (presumably now
ruined) building was incorporated into a basilica constructed nearby during the 5th
or 6th century AD.
D)
The Temple of Artemis (Greek: Ἀρτεμίσιον Artemision, Latin: Artemisium), also
known less precisely as Temple of Diana, was a temple dedicated to Artemis
completed in its most famous phase, around 550 BC at Ephesus (in present-day
Turkey) under the Achaemenid dynasty of the Persian Empire. All but nothing
remains of the temple, which was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.
The Temple of Artemis was not the first on its site, where evidence of a sanctuary
dates as early as the Bronze Age.
The architect of this temple:
a. Ictinus
b. Callicrates
c. Mnesicles
d. Hippodamus
Which best describes the architectural plan of this temple?
a. amphiprostyle
pseudoperipteral
b. peripteral
c. hexastyle
d.
1. Pottery like this vase was common in ______ around _______.
a. Crete, 1500 B.C.
b. Athens, 800 B.C.
c. Corinth, 500 B.C.
d. Delos, 300 B.C.
2. Potters from this area also produced a style called
a. white-ground.
b. bucchero.
c. kamares.
d. orientalizing.
3. This statue is called the
a. Venus de Milo
c. Capitoline Venus
b. Aphrodite of Rhodes
d. Venus Genetrix
4. The most famous statue of a nude Aphrodite was the work of
a. Scopas.
b. Myron.
c. Lysippus.
d. Praxiteles.
5. This statue is a Roman copy. Which of the following statues is NOT a
copy of a Greek original?
a. Discus Thrower
b. Spear Bearer
c. Zeus of Artemisium d. Fillet Binder
2007 Regional – Classical Art - 2
6. The image above decorated
a. a Macedonian tomb.
c. the Stoa Poikile
.
b. a house in Pompeii.
d. the Palace of Hadrian at Tivoli.
7. The figure on the far left is
a. Alexander the Great. b. Achilles.
c. Aeneas.
d. Julius Caesar.
12.All of the following characteristics mark this as a piece of Archaic Greek
sculpture EXCEPT
a. the smile.
b. the tension in the leg.
c. the uprightness of the torso
d. the formalization of the beard.
13.The statue was part of the sculptural decoration of a temple in
a. Aegina.
b. Olympia.
c. Delphi.
d. Paestum.
14.The sculpture decorated the ____ of the temple.
a. metope
b. cella
c. frieze
d. pediment
15.Which of the following sculptures dates to the same time period?
a. New York Kouros
b. Critios Boy
c. Discus Thrower
d.
Dying Gaul
2007 Regional – Classical Art - 3
16.The image is an example of a(n)
a. painting on glass.
c. fresco painting.
b. etching in marble.
d. carving in onyx.
17.The figure on the throne is a portrait of
a. Julius Caesar.
b. Augustus.
c. Marcus Aurelius.
d. Constantine.
18.Allegorically the figure represents
a. Apollo.
b. Ares.
c. Jupiter.
d. Victory.
19.This well-preserved example of a Greek theater is located in
a. Athens.
b. Delphi.
c. Epidauros.
d. Pergamum.
20.The circular area at the bottom is called the
a. cavea. b. orchestra.
c. parodos.
d. proskenion.
21.The architect of this theater
a. Callicrates.
b. Ictinus.
c. Polyclitus.
d. Theodotus
22.This vase is the work of the painter
a. Euphronios.
b. Psiax.
c. Kleitias.
d. Euthymides.
23.It is an example of a(n)
a. amphora.
b. krater.
c. lekythos
d. hydria.
24.This style of vase painting was invented around
a. 900 B.C.
b. 750 B.C.
c. 530 B.C.
d. 480 B.C.
25.It was found
a. in the Kerameikos cemetery of Athens.
c. in an Etruscan tomb.
Corinth.
b. at Pompeii.
d. on the acropolis of
2007 Regional – Classical Art – 4
26.The model is a reconstruction of the
a. Temple of Portunus, Rome.
c. Sanctuary of Fortuna, Praeneste.
Pergamum.
b. Temple of the Sibyl, Tivoli.
d. Sanctuary of Athena,
27.This complex was probably built to commemorate the victories of
a. Pompey.
b. Sulla.
c. Hadrian.
d. Augustus.
28.Its grand scale was made possible by the use of this building material.
a. brick
b. concrete
c. limestone
d. marble
29.The image depicts the interior of the
a. Tomb of the Reliefs.
b. Throne Room of Minos.
c. House of Livia.
d. Domus Aurea.
30.Which of the following dates to the same time period?
a. Ara Pacis
b. Treasury of Atreus
c. Pantheon
d. Temple of Apollo at Veii
31.This monument is the earliest known structure
a. to use external Corinthian columns.
b. with engaged columns.
c. made of concrete.
d. that is round.
32.For what purpose was it built?
a. to mark distance
b. as a time-keeping device
c. to commemorate the victory of a theater chorus
d. to honor the goddess Vesta
2007 Regional – Classical Art – 5
33.The drawing is a reconstruction of the Treasury of the Siphnians at
a. Mycenae b. Delphi
c. Delos
d. Paestum
34.It is an example of the ___ order of architecture.
a. Corinthian b. Doric
c. Ionic
d. Pergamene
35. Instead of columns, this building has
a. caryatids.
b. exedrae.
c. piers. d. pilasters.
36. This sculptural panel decorates the
a. Ara Pacis
b. Arch of Titus
c. Trajan’s Column
d. Ludovisi Sarcophagus
37. A relief sculpture depicting the Miracle
the
a. Arch of Constantine.
b. Arch of Septimius Severus.
c. Column of Marcus Aurelius.
d. Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus.
of the Rain can be found on
38. Which structure was located in the Forum Romanum?
a. Ara Pacis
b. Arch of Constantine
c. Column of Marcus Aurelius
d. Arch of Septimius Severus
39. A central hall with a rounded hearth like the one pictured here is called a
a. basilica. b. megaron.
c. pylon.
d. tholos.
40. Which archaeologist is associated with this site?
a. Blegen.
b. Mylonas.
c. Evans.
d. Schliemann.
41. What important discovery was made at this site?
a. the mask of Agamemnon
b. Linear B tablets
Blue Monkeys fresco
c. Vapheio cups d.
2007 Regional – Classical Art – 6
42. This equestrian statue depicts
a. Augustus.
b. Hadrian.
d. Marcus Aurelius.
c. Antoninus Pius.
43. In which museum is the original displayed?
a. British Museum
b. Capitoline Museum
c. Louvre
d. Vatican Museum
44. The original statue is made of
a. bronze.
b. marble.
c. porphyry.
d. granite.
45. Which emperor’s best known portrait is a colossal head that is
eight feet tall?
a. Constantine
c. Diocletian
c. Nero
d. Trajan
46. The structure depicted here is located in a museum in
a. Berlin.
b. London.
c. Paris.
d. Vienna
47. It dates to the ___ period and was originally located in ____.
a. late Roman, Constantinople.
b. Republican Roman, Rome
c. classical Greek, Athens.
d. Hellenistic, Pergamum.
48. The sculptural frieze depicts
a. the labors of Heracles.
c. the battle of gods and giants.
b. the founding of Rome.
d. the Trojan War.
49. Which structure has a similar design?
a. Maison Carree
b. Ara Pacis
c. Temple of the Sibyl
Basilica of Constantine
d.
50. Which of the following is NOT an ancient source for information about
classical art and
architecture?
a. Varro
b. Vitruvius
c. Pausanias
d. Pliny the Elder