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Chapter 28
Jessica Fortner
Cold War
Development of the Cold War
• The years between 1945 and 1949 were characterized by the rising
of mutual fears of the world’s two superpowers, the US and the
Soviet Union, to a level of intense competition.
• Eastern Europe was the first area of disagreement.
• The US and Great Britain had championed self-determination and
democratic freedom for these nations, but Stalin was fearful that
the Eastern European nations would return to traditional antiSoviet attitudes.
• The Red Army installed pro-Soviet regimes in Poland, Romania,
Bulgaria, and Hungary after liberating them from the Nazis. These
governments were a buffer zone for the Soviet Union.
Development of the Cold War
• In 1946, the Communist People’s Liberation Army and the antiCommunist forces supported by the British were fighting each
other for control of Greece.
• President Truman was alarmed by British weakness and the
possibility of Soviet expansion into the eastern Mediterranean.
• Truman Doctrine- The doctrine, enunciated by Harry Truman in 1947, that
stated the US would provide economic aid to countries that said they were
threatened by Communist expansion.
• In March 1947, Truman requested $400 million in economic and
military aid for Greece and Turkey from the US Congress.
Development of the Cold War
• The Truman Doctrine was followed in June 1947 by the European
Recovery Program, better known as the Marshall Plan.
• $13 billion was included in this program to help stabilize the
European economy. This plan was based off the belief that
Communist aggression fed off of economic turmoil.
• Marshall Plan- The US provided financial aid to European countries to help
them rebuild after World War II.
• In an article in Foreign Affairs in July 1947, George Kennan, a
well-known American diplomat with much knowledge of Soviet
affairs, advocated a policy of containment against further
aggressive Soviet moves.
Development of the Cold War
• Containment- A policy adopted by the US in the Cold War. Its goal was to
use whatever means, short of all-out war, to limit Soviet expansion.
• After the Soviet blockade of Berlin in 1948, containment of the
USSR became formal American policy.
• The Soviets, hardest hit by the war, took reparations from
Germany in the form of booty.
• They dismantled and removed to the Soviet Union 380 factories from the
western zones of Berlin before giving control to the Western powers.
• By the summer of 1946, 200 chemical, paper, and textile factories in the
Soviets’ East German zones had also been shipped to the Soviet Union.
Development of the Cold War
• By 1948, the British, French, and Americans were making plans for
the unification of their three western sections of Germany and the
formal creation of a West German federal government.
• The Soviets responded with a blockade of West Berlin that
allowed neither trucks nor trains to enter the three western zones
of Berlin.
• The Soviets hoped to secure economic control of all Berlin and force the
Western powers to halt the creation of a separate West German state.
• No one wanted to risk WWIII with direct military confrontation, so
the solution was the Berlin Air Lift.
• At its peak, 13,000 tons of supplies were flown to Berlin daily.
The Berlin Air Lift
Development of the Cold War
• The blockade was lifted in May 1949, but the tension between the
superpowers had increased.
• After the blockade was lifted, Germany was split into two states.
• The German Federal Republic (West Germany)
• The German Democratic Republic (East Germany)
• The Soviet Union detonated its first atomic bomb in 1949 resulting
in an arms race between the superpowers.
• The search for security throughout the world was found in two
ways: mutual deterrence and the formation of military alliances.
• Mutual deterrence was the belief that an arsenal of nuclear weapons
prevented war because if one nation launched its nuclear weapons, the
other nation would still be able to launch its own and devastate its attacker.
Development of the Cold War
• The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) -1949
• Belgium, Britain, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the
Netherlands, Norway, and Portugal signed a treaty with the US and Canada.
Later added were West Germany, Greece, and Turkey.
• They agreed to provide mutual assistance if any one of them was attacked.
• The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON) - 1949
• Eastern European states
• Warsaw Pact - 1955
• Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania,
and the USSR organized this military alliance.
Development of the Cold War
• Korea had been liberated from the Japanese in 1945 but split into
two parts along the 38th parallel.
• The land north became the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North
Korea) supported by the Soviet Union. The land south was The Republic of
Korea (South Korea) supported by the US.
• On June 25, 1950, North Korean troops invaded South Korea. The
Americans gained the support of the United Nations and intervened
by sending American troops to turn back the invasion.
• By September, UN forces marched northward across the 38th
parallel with the aim of unifying Korea under a single nonCommunist government.
Development of the Cold War
• Mao Zedong, the
leader of Communist
China, sent Chinese
forces to Korea and
forced the UN troops
back to South Korea.
After two more years
of fighting, an
armistice was signed
in 1953 leaving the
boundaries basically
the same.
Development of the Cold War
• In the mid- 1950s under President Eisenhower, a policy of massive
retaliation was adopted in the US.
• This advocated the full use of American nuclear bombs to counteract even a
Soviet ground attack in Europe.
• The Central Treaty Organization (CENTO)
• This was intended to prevent the Soviet Union from expanding at the expense
of its southern neighbors. This was signed by Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Pakistan, Great
Britain, and the US.
• Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO)
• US, Britain, France, Pakistan, Thailand, the Philippines, Australia, and New
• By the mid- 1950s, the US was allied militarily with 42 states around
the world.
Development of the Cold War
• In August 1957, the Soviet Union had launched its first
intercontinental ballistic missile and Sputnik I, the first space
• Fears of a “missile gap” between the US and the Soviet Union
seized the American public.
• Nikita Khrushchev, the new leader of the Soviet Union,
attempted to take advantage of the American frenzy over the
missiles to solve the problem of West Berlin.
• In November 1958, Khrushchev announced that unless the West
removed its forces from West Berlin within six months, he would
turn over control of the access routes to Berlin to the East
Development of the Cold War
• Eisenhower and the West stood firm and Khrushchev backed down.
• Khrushchev tried again with the ultimatum against President
Kennedy, but was again forced to back down.
• Frustrated, Khrushchev conspired with Walter Ulbricht, the East
German leader, to build a wall around West Berlin to cut off the
flow of refugees to the West.
• On August 31, 1961, East German workers under military supervision began
the construction of the Berlin Wall.
• Within a few months, more than 100 miles of wall surrounded West Berlin.
• Access from West Germany into West Berlin was still permitted so the
Americans accepted the wall’s existence.
• This wall became a powerful symbol of a divided Europe.
Development of the Cold War
• In 1959, a left-wing revolutionary named Fidel Castro had
overthrown the Cuban dictator and established a Soviet-supported
totalitarian regime. In 1961, an American- supported attempt to
invade Cuba via the Bay of Pigs and overthrow Castro’s regime
ended in utter failure. The next year, the Soviet Union decided to
station nuclear missiles in Cuba. President Kennedy decided to
blockade Cuba and prevent any nuclear weapons from reaching
Cuba. Khrushchev decided to turn back the fleet carrying the
nuclear weapons if Kennedy pledged not to invade Cuba.
• A hotline communication system between Moscow and Washington
was installed in 1963 to further communication between the two
superpowers in a time of crisis. In the same year, the two powers
agreed to ban nuclear tests in the atmosphere.
Development of the Cold War
• After Vietnamese forces defeated their French colonial masters in
1954, Vietnam was divided. Ho Chi Minh ruled the strongly
nationalistic regime in the north which received Soviet aid, while
a pro-Western regime in South Vietnam under Ngo Dinh Diem was
sponsored by the Americans. Diem’s regime was corrupt and
incapable of gaining the people’s support.
• In 1964, increasing numbers of American troops were sent to
Vietnam to fight the Vietcong, the South Vietnamese Communist
guerrillas backed by the North Vietnamese, and keep the
Communist regime of the north from uniting the entire country
under its control.
Development of the Cold War
• American policy makers saw this conflict in terms of a domino
theory. This was the belief that if the Communists succeeded in
Vietnam, other countries in Southeast and East Asia would also fall
to communism.
• The war resulted from the American perception that it needed to
keep Communism from expanding, while Ho Chi Minh saw the
struggle between North and South as an attempt to overthrow
Western colonial masters and achieve self-determination for the
Vietnamese people.
• US forces failed to prevail over the persistence of the North
Vietnamese and especially the Vietcong. Many South Vietnamese
villagers were so opposed to their own government that they
sheltered and supported the Vietcong.
Development of the Cold War
• In 1973, President Nixon reached an
agreement with North Vietnam that allowed
the US to withdraw its forces.
• Within two years, Vietnam had been forcibly
reunited by communist armies from the
• Vietnam helped show the limitations of
American powers.
• By the end of the Vietnam War, a new era in
American-Soviet relations, known as
détente, had begun to emerge.
• This was the relaxation of tension between the
Soviet Union and the US that occurred in the
Europe and the World:
• Between 1947 and 1962, virtually every colony achieved
independence and attained statehood.
• Decolonization was a difficult process, but it created a new world
as the non-Western States ended the long era of Western
• African political parties were mostly non-violent and led by
Western-educated African intellectuals.
• In Kenya, however, the Mau Mau movement among the Kikuyu
peoples used terrorism to demand uhuru (Swahili for “freedom”)
from the British.
Europe and the World:
• In South Africa, political activity
by local blacks began with the
formation of the African National
Congress (ANC).
• Led by Nelson Mandela, it was a
group of intellectuals whose goal
was to gain economic and political
reforms like full equality for
educated Africans.
• By the 1950s, South African
whites were strengthening the
laws separating whites and
blacks, creating a system of racial
segregation known as apartheid.
Nelson Mandela
Europe and the World:
• After the news of the Holocaust spread, sympathy for the Jewish
cause of getting a Jewish state increased.
• On May 14, 1948, the state of Israel was declared when the United
Nations divided Palestine into a Jewish state and an Arab state.
• Colonel Gamal Abdel Nasser seized control of the Egyptian
government in 1954.
• Nasser promoted Pan-Arabism, also known as Arab unity.
• At a meeting of Arab leaders held in Jerusalem in 1964, Egypt took
the lead in forming the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO)
to represent the interests of the Palestinians.
• A guerrilla movement called al-Fatah, led by the PLO leader Yasir
Arafat, began to launch terrorist attacks on Israeli territory.
Europe and the World:
Six Day War
• Nasser of Egypt imposed a blockade against Israeli shipping in the
spring of 1967.
• Learning that an attack was imminent, on June 5, 1967, Israel
launched preemptive air strikes against Egypt and several of its Arab
• Israeli warplanes bombed 17 Egyptian airfields and wiped out most of
the air force.
• Israeli armies broke through the blockade, occupied the Sinai
Peninsula, and seized Jordanian territory on the West Bank.
• Israel devastated Nasser’s forces and tripled the size of its territory.
Europe and the World:
• When Britain began to grant independence to India, ethnic and
religious differences made the process difficult.
• At the end of World War II, the British negotiated with both the
Indian National Congress, which was mostly Hindu, and the
Muslim League.
• Britain realized that British India would have to be divided into
two countries, one Hindu (India) and one Muslim (Pakistan).
• Mahatma Gandhi was the only Congress leader opposed to the
division of India because he believed that it could only happen
with an “orgy of blood”.
Europe and the World:
• At the end of World War II, two Chinese governments existed side
by side: The Nationalist government of Chiang Kai-shek supported
by the Americans, and the Communist government under the
leadership of Mao Zedong.
• In October 1949, the Communists took over the government with a
goal of building a socialist society.
• When collective farms failed to increase food production, Mao
began a more radical program known as the Great Leap Forward
in 1958.
• This was a disaster because of bad weather and peasant hatred of the new
• In 1966, Mao unleashed the Red Guards to cleanse Chinese society
of impure elements. This Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution
lasted for ten years.
Recovery and Renewal in Europe
• Stalin’s economic policy was successful in promoting growth in
heavy industry.
• Khrushchev’s rule took a different direction:
Emphasis on light industry and consumer goods
Ending of forced labor camps
He condemned Stalin for his violence, repression, and terror.
Destalinization- The policy of denouncing and undoing the most
repressive aspects of Stalin’s regime
• This inspired a spirit of rebellion in the Soviet satellite countries
in Eastern Europe.
• All of the Eastern European countries that the Soviets occupied
after the war were under Communist leaders by 1948.
Recovery and Renewal in Europe
• Both Albania and Yugoslavia had strong Communist resistance
movements during the war, so the Communist Party simply took
over power when the war ended.
• Between 1948 and Stalin’s death in 1953, the Eastern European
countries followed a policy of Stalinization (the adoption of
features of the economic, political, and military policies
implemented by Stalin in the USSR)
• Five year plans focused on heavy industry
• Collectivize agriculture
• Eliminated all non-Communist parties
• Soviets economically exploited the EE states through reparations.
Recovery and Renewal in Europe
• The Polish Communist Party adopted a series of reforms in October 1956
in response to Khrushchev’s denunciation of Stalin.
• In Hungary, their newly appointed leader declared the country a free
nation in 1956. This Hungarian uprising was crushed three days later by
the invasion of the Red Army who crushed the uprising.
• In Czechoslovakia, a writer’s rebellion in 1967 resulted in Alexander
Dubcek’s election to the position of first secretary of the Communist
Party. He soon introduced a number of reforms:
• Freedom of speech and the press
• Freedom to travel abroad
• A relaxation of the secret police activities
• A period of euphoria erupted from these reforms that came to be known
as “Prague Spring”.
• The Red Army invaded in 1968 and crushed the reform movement.
Recovery and Renewal in Europe
• By the 1950s, moderate political parties had made a remarkable
comeback in Western Europe. The new Christian Democratic parties
weren’t connected to the prewar church-based parties that had been
advocates of church interests; they were interested in democracy and
economic reforms.
• During the war, Charles de Gaulle had assumed leadership of some
resistance groups and played an important role in ensuring the
establishment of a French provisional government.
• After the declaration of the Fourth Republic, de Gaulle formed the
French Popular Movement, a rightist organization that helped de Gaulle
gain the power of the French president.
• In 1958, de Gaulle drafted a new constitution for the Fifth Republic in
which he became the president.
Recovery and Renewal in Europe
• The unification of the three Western zones into
the Federal Republic of Germany occurred in
• Konrad Adenauer became the “founding hero” of
the Federal Republic because his rule led to the
resurrection of the West German economy, which
is known as the “economic miracle.”
• This was largely guided by the minister of finance,
Ludwig Erhard, who pursued a policy of a new currency,
free markets, low taxes, and elimination of controls,
which led to rapid economic growth.
Recovery and Renewal in Europe
• After World War II, the Labour Party became the most popular in
Great Britain. Under Clement Attlee, the government enacted
reforms that created a modern welfare state.
• This began with the nationalization of the Bank of England, the coal and
steel industries, public transportation, and public utilities.
• In the area of social welfare, the National Insurance Act and the National
Health Service Act established social security and a system of socialized
• The British welfare state became the model for most European states after
the war.
• As a result of World War II, Britain’s debt forced it to lose its
status of a world power.
Recovery and Renewal in Europe
• In 1951, France, West Germany, the Benelux countries, and Italy formed the European
Coal and Steel Community that had the purpose of creating a common market for
coal and steel products among the six nations by eliminating tariffs and other trade
• In the same year, these six nations signed the Rome Treaty, which
created the European Economic Community (EEC), also known as
the Common Market.
• The EEC eliminated customs barriers for the six member nations
and created a large free-trade area protected from the rest of the
world by a common external tariff.
• All the members benefited economically.
• It became the world’s largest exporter and purchaser of raw
The United States and Canada:
A New Era
• Roosevelt’s New Deal ideas had brought basic changes to American
society that lasted throughout the Cold War.
• Labor unions grew throughout these years and real wages rose.
• Johnson’s presidency was focused on pursuing the Great Society,
which was the next step following the New Deal.
• The programs included with this were health care for the elderly, a “war on
poverty” to be fought with food stamps and the new Job Corps, the new
Department of Housing and Urban Development to deal with the problems
of the cities, and federal assistance for education.
• One of the ideas that Johnson also worked toward was equal rights
for African Americans.
The United States and Canada:
A New Era
• Martin Luther King Jr. became the leader of a
growing movement for racial equality.
• His March on Washington had an amazing effect on the
American citizens by raising their awareness of the civil
rights issue.
• Between 1965 and 1967 race riots broke out all
over the US, and after Martin Luther King Jr.’s
assassination, more than one hundred cities broke
out in riots.
• The combination of riots and extremist comments by
radical black leaders led to a “white backlash” and a
severe division of the American population.
The United States and Canada:
A New Era
• Canada began to develop engineering industries on a large scale
to add to their strong export economy.
• Much of this growth was American funded and resulted with
American ownership of Canadian businesses.
• The North American Air Defense Command (NORAD) was formed
in 1957 to maintain close cooperation between the air forces of
the two countries to defend against missile attacks.
Postwar Society and Culture
in the Western World
• There was a dramatic shift of people from rural to urban areas
after 1945.
• Also, and increase in real wages enabled the formation of the
consumer society.
• This is the Western society that emerged after World War II as the working
classes adopted the consumption patterns of the middle class.
• Between 1900 and 1960, the workweek was reduced from sixty
hours to a little over forty hours.
• The extra leisure time and higher wages led to increased travel
Postwar Society and Culture
in the Western World
• The British welfare system was based on the belief that women
should stay home with their children.
• Employers were encouraged to pay women lower wages to discourage them
from joining the workforce.
• The West German government passed laws that discouraged
women from working.
• France sought to maintain the individual rights of women.
• The government recognized women as equal to men.
• Incentives were provided for women to stay home and bear children as well
as day care and after school programs for working mothers.
Postwar Society and Culture
in the Western World
• After the war, women were removed from the workforce to
provide jobs for the soldiers returning home.
• With the trend toward smaller families came an increase of
women in the workforce in the US last decades of the 20th century.
• This trend was present in European countries too.
• Women were still normally paid less than men.
• Also, women still tended to enter traditionally female jobs.
• After World War I, many governments granted women suffrage. It
wasn’t until after World War II that the countries of France and
Italy granted their women the right to vote.
Postwar Society and Culture
in the Western World
• By the 1960s, women began to speak as feminists as a renewed
interest of feminism, or the women’s liberation movement, came
• Simone de Beauvoir published her influential work, The Second
Sex, in which she argued that as a result of male-dominated
societies, women had been defined by their differences from men
and consequently received second-class status.
• Betty Friedan published The Feminine Mystique, in which she
argued that women were being denied equality with men.
• In 1966, she founded the National Organization for Women, whose goal was
to take “action to bring women into full participation in the mainstream of
American society.”
Postwar Society and Culture
in the Western World
• The permissive society was a label used to describe the new
society of postwar Europe.
• A term applied to Western society after World War II to reflect the new
sexual freedom and the emergence of a drug culture.
• The introduction of the birth control pill, gave people more freedom in
sexual behavior.
• Divorce rates increased dramatically.
• The appearance of Playboy magazine in the 1950s also added a new
dimension to the sexual revolution for adult males.
• The decade of the 1960s also saw the emergence of Marijuana use as a
recreational drug.
Postwar Society and Culture
in the Western World
• Jean Dubuffet was a
French artist who
adopted an
intentionally raw style
of art to depict the
atrocities wrought by
global conflict and
genocide. He rejected
notions of beauty to
capture the effects of
war. He developed Art
Brut, a gritty style that
suggested no formal
Postwar Society and Culture
in the Western World
• New York City replaced
Paris as the artistic
center of the West.
• Abstract
Expressionism was
energetic and
spontaneous. Jackson
Pollock was one of the
practitioners of this art
Postwar Society and Culture
in the Western World
• Pop Art, an artistic
movement of the 1950s
and 1960s in which
artist took images of
popular culture and
transformed them into
works of fine art. Andy
Warhol became the
most famous of the
American Pop artists.
Postwar Society and Culture
in the Western World
• The most significant new trend in postwar literature was called the
“Theater of the Absurd.” This new convention in drama began in France
in the 1950s, although its most famous proponent was the Irishman
Samuel Beckett who lived in France. In Beckett’s Waiting for Godot,
the action on stage is not realistic. Two men wait for the appearance of
someone. The suspense is maintained by having the audience wonder
what is happing now.
• The sense of meaninglessness that inspired the Theater of the Absurd
also stressed existentialism.
• Existentialism- a philosophical movement that arose after World War II that
emphasized the meaninglessness of life, born of the desperation caused by
two world wars.
• This became well known through the works of Jean-Paul Sartre and
Albert Camus.
Postwar Society and Culture
in the Western World
• Protestant Karl Barth attempted to reinterpret the religious
insights of the Reformation era for the modern world. The sinful
and hence imperfect nature of human beings meant that humans
could know religious truth not through reason but only through the
grace of God.
• In the Catholic Church, Pope John XXIII sparked a dramatic revival
of Catholicism.
Postwar Society and Culture
in the Western World
• Motion pictures were the primary source for the spreading of American
popular culture in the postwar years.
• In 1957, the film The Seventh Seal by the Swedish director Ingmar
Bergman was a good example of the successful European art film.
• Francois Truffaut in France and Federico Fellini in Italy were directors
who experimented with subject matter and technique and produced
films dealing with more complex and daring themes than Hollywood
would attempt.
• The United States has dominated popular music since the end of World
War II.
• The music originated in the US and spread throughout the world to transform
into something different.
Postwar Society and Culture
in the Western World
Through the 1950s, American figures such as
inspired the Beatles and other British performers.
Postwar Society and Culture
in the Western World
• These British groups then led an “invasion” of the US in the 1960s.
Some of the popular
music in the 1960s
focused on social
issues. “Peace and
Love” was promoted
through the music.
Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution
The superpowers
Mao Zedong
Pope John XXII
“Prague Spring”
Great Britain’s welfare state
Berlin blockade
The Great Society
Hungarian uprising
Korean War
Christian Democratic
Martin Luther King and “white backlash”
The “consumer society”
Women’s liberation movement
Missile gap
Massive retaliation
Simone de Beauvoir
Betty Friedan
Nikita Khrushchev
“Permissive society”
Berlin Wall
birth control pill
Jackson Pollock and Abstract
Andy Warhol and Pop Art
Samuel Beckett’s Waiting for Godot
Existentialism and Jean Paul Sartre and
Albert Camus
Ingmar Bergman, Francois Truffaut, and
Federico Fellini
Bay of Pigs
Cuban Missile Crisis
Vietnam War
African National Congress
Yasir Arafat
Six-Day War
Elvis Presley and the Beatles
Indian National Congress
“Peace and Love”
Mahatma Gandhi and an
“orgy of blood”
Charles de Gaulle’s Fifth
Konrad Adenauer
Great Britain’s welfare
Domino theory
Women’s liberation movement
Sputnik I
Truman Doctrine
Marshall Plan
Great Leap Forward
Stalinization and
West Germany’s “economic
European Coal and Steel
EEC/Common Market