Download Veins - Dr. Par Mohammadian

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Esophagus wikipedia, lookup

Liver wikipedia, lookup

Anatomical terms of location wikipedia, lookup

Vertebra wikipedia, lookup

Heart wikipedia, lookup

Human digestive system wikipedia, lookup

Vascular remodelling in the embryo wikipedia, lookup

Anatomical terminology wikipedia, lookup

Large intestine wikipedia, lookup

William Harvey wikipedia, lookup

Autopsy wikipedia, lookup

Umbilical cord wikipedia, lookup

Fetus wikipedia, lookup

Pancreas wikipedia, lookup

Circulatory system wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
PowerPoint® Lecture Slides
prepared by
Barbara Heard,
Atlantic Cape Community
Ninth Edition
College
Human Anatomy & Physiology
CHAPTER
19
The
Cardiovascular
System: Modified
by Dr. Par
Mohammadian
© Annie Leibovitz/Contact Press Images
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Blood Vessels
– Arteries: carry blood
away from heart;
oxygenated except for
pulmonary circulation
Capillaries: site of
exchange; contact
Artery
tissue cells; directly
serve cellular needs
– Veins: carry blood
toward heart
Vein
Structure of Blood Vessel Walls
• Lumen
– Central blood-containing space
• Three wall layers in arteries and veins
– tunica intima (internal)
– tunica media
– tunica externa
• Capillaries
– Endothelium with sparse basal lamina
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 19.1b Generalized structure of arteries, veins, and capillaries.
Tunica intima
• Endothelium
• Subendothelial layer
• Internal elastic membrane
Tunica media
(smooth muscle and
elastic fibers)
• External elastic membrane
Valve
Tunica externa
(collagen fibers)
• Vasa vasorum
Lumen
Lumen
Artery
Capillary network
Vein
Basement membrane
Endothelial cells
Capillary
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Tunics
• Tunica intima
– Endothelium lines lumen of all vessels
• Tunica media
– Smooth muscle and sheets of elastin
– Sympathetic vasomotor nerve fibers control
vasoconstriction and vasodilation of vessels: Influence
blood flow and blood pressure
• Tunica externa
– Collagen fibers protect & reinforce; anchor to surrounding
structures
– Contains nerve fibers, lymphatic vessels
– Vasa vasorum of larger vessels nourishes external layer
• Types of Arteries
(depending on size & shape):
– Elastic
– Muscular
– Arterioles
Arterial System: Elastic Arteries
• Large thick-walled arteries with elastin in
all three tunics
• Aorta and its major branches
• Large lumen offers low resistance
• Act as pressure reservoirs—expand and
recoil as blood ejected from heart
– Smooth pressure downstream
Arterial System: Muscular Arteries
• Distal to elastic arteries
– Deliver blood to body organs
• Thick tunica media with more smooth
muscle
• Active in vasoconstriction
Arterial System: Arterioles
• Smallest arteries
• Lead to capillary beds
• Control flow into capillary beds via
vasodilation and vasoconstriction of the
arterioles (influenced by hormones and other
chemicals)
Capillaries
• Microscopic blood vessels
• Walls of thin tunica intima
• Pericytes help stabilize their walls and
control permeability
• Diameter allows only single RBC to pass
at a time
Capillaries
• In all tissues except for cartilage & epithelia
(receive nutrients from nearby blood vessels), cornea &
lens of eye (receive nutrients from aqueous humor)
• Provide direct access to almost every cell
• Functions
– Exchange of gases, nutrients, wastes, hormones,
etc., between blood and interstitial fluid
• Three structural types
• Continuous capillaries
• Fenestrated capillaries
• Sinusoid capillaries (sinusoids)
Continuous Capillaries
•
– Tight junctions connect endothelial cells
– Intercellular clefts allow passage of limited passage of fluids and small solutes
Continuous capillaries of brain unique
– Tight junctions complete, forming blood brain barrier
Continuous capillary. Least permeable, and most
common (e.g., skin, muscle).
Pericyte
Red blood
cell in lumen
Intercellular
cleft
Endothelial
cell
Basement
membrane
Tight junction
Endothelial
nucleus
Pinocytotic
vesicles
Fenestrated Capillaries
•
•
•
Some endothelial cells contain pores (fenestrations)
More permeable than continuous capillaries
Function in absorption or filtrate formation (small intestines, endocrine glands, and
kidneys)
Pinocytotic
vesicles
Red blood
cell in lumen
Fenestrations
(pores)
Endothelial
nucleus
Intercellular
cleft
Basement membrane
Tight junction
Fenestrated capillary. Large fenestrations (pores)
increase permeability. Occurs in areas of active
absorption or filtration (e.g., kidney, small intestine).
Endothelial
cell
Sinusoid Capillaries
•
•
•
•
Fewer tight junctions; usually fenestrated; larger intercellular clefts; large lumens
Large molecules and blood cells pass between blood and surrounding tissues
Found only in the liver, bone marrow, spleen, adrenal medulla
In the liver, hepatic macrophages in lining to destroy bacteria
Endothelial
cell
Red blood
cell in lumen
Large
intercellular
cleft
Tight junction
Incomplete
basement
membrane
Sinusoid capillary. Most permeable. Occurs in special
locations (e.g., liver, bone marrow, spleen).
Nucleus of
endothelial
cell
Capillary Beds
• Def.: Interwoven networks of
capillaries – blood flows thru
arterioles-> venules
(microcirculation)
Capillary Beds: Two Types of Vessels
• Vascular shunt (metarteriole—thoroughfare channel)
– Directly connects terminal arteriole and postcapillary venule
• True capillaries
– 10 to 100 exchange vessels per capillary bed
– Branch off metarteriole or terminal arteriole
Blood Flow Through Capillary Beds
Precapillary sphincters
•
True capillaries normally
branch from metarteriole and
return to thoroughfare channel
•
Precapillary sphincters
regulate blood flow into true
capillaries
– Blood may go into true
capillaries or to shunt
•
Regulated by local chemical
conditions and vasomotor
nerves
•
Example: Eating and relaxing –
blood flow in the digestive
system; abdominal cramps and
indigestion when running and
eating!!!
Vascular shunt
Metarteriole Thoroughfare
channel
True
capillaries
Terminal arteriole
Postcapillary venule
Sphincters open—blood flows through true capillaries.
Terminal arteriole
Postcapillary venule
Sphincters closed—blood flows through metarteriole – thoroughfare
channel and bypasses true capillaries.
Venous System: Venules
• Formed when capillary beds unite
– Smallest postcapillary venules: very porous; allow
fluids and WBCs into tissues
– Consist of endothelium and a few pericytes
• Larger venules have one or two layers of
smooth muscle cells
Veins
• Venules join to form veins
• Have thinner walls, larger lumens compared with corresponding arteries
• Thin tunica media; thick tunica externa of collagen fibers and elastic
networks
• Called capacitance vessels (blood reservoirs); contain up to 65% of
blood supply
• Blood pressure lower than in arteries (walls don’t burst!) =>
• Adaptations ensure return of blood to heart despite low pressure
– Large-diameter lumens offer little resistance
– Venous valves prevent backflow of blood
• Most abundant in veins of limbs
– Venous sinuses: flattened veins with extremely thin walls (e.g.,
coronary sinus of the heart & dural sinuses of the brain)
Varicose vein
Circulatory Pathways: Blood Vessels of the Body
• Two main circulations
– Pulmonary circulation: short loop that runs
from heart to lungs and back to heart
– Systemic circulation: long loop to all parts of
body and back to heart
Figure 19.19a Pulmonary circulation.
Pulmonary
capillaries
of the
R. lung
R. pulmonary
artery
Pulmonary
capillaries
of the
L. lung
L. pulmonary
artery
To
systemic
circulation
Pulmonary
trunk
R. pulmonary veins
From
systemic
circulation
LA
RA
L. pulmonary
veins
RV
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Schematic flowchart.
LV
Figure 19.19 Pulmonary circulation.
RV
LV
Left pulmonary
artery
Air-filled
alveolus
of lung
Aortic arch
Pulmonary trunk
Right pulmonary
artery
Three lobar arteries
to right lung
Pulmonary
capillary
Gas exchange
Two lobar arteries
to left lung
Pulmonary
veins
Pulmonary
veins
Right
atrium
Left atrium
Right
ventricle
Left
ventricle
Illustration. The pulmonary arterial system is shown in blue to indicate that the blood it carries is oxygen-poor.
The pulmonary venous drainage is shown in red to indicate that the blood it transports is oxygen-rich.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 19.20 Schematic flowchart showing an overview of the systemic circulation.
Common
carotid arteries
to head and
subclavian
arteries to
upper limbs
Capillary beds of
head and
upper limbs
Superior
vena cava
Aortic
arch
Aorta
RA
LA
RV LV
Azygos
system
Venous
drainage
Inferior
vena
cava
Thoracic
aorta
Arterial
blood
Capillary beds of
mediastinal structures
and thorax walls
Diaphragm
Abdominal
aorta
Inferior
vena
cava
Capillary beds of
digestive viscera,
spleen, pancreas,
kidneys
Capillary beds of
gonads, pelvis, and
lower limbs
Figure 19.21a Major arteries of the systemic circulation.
R. internal
R. external
L. external
L. internal
carotid artery carotid artery carotid artery carotid artery
R. vertebral
R. axillary
R. common carotid
L. common carotid
L. vertebral
– right side of head and neck – left side of head and neck
R. subclavian
– neck and
R. upper limb
Brachiocephalic
– head, neck, and
R. upper limb
Arteries of
R. upper
limb
Aortic arch
L. subclavian
– neck and L.
upper limb
L. axillary
Arteries of
L. upper
limb
Ascending aorta
– L. ventricle to sternal angle
Thoracic aorta T5–T12 (diaphragm)
L. and R. coronary
arteries
L. ventricle of heart
Visceral branches
Mediastinal Esophageal
– posterior – esophagus
mediastinum
Bronchial
– lungs and
bronchi
Parietal branches
Pericardial
– pericardium
Posterior intercostals
Superior phrenics
– intercostal muscles, spinal
– posterior and superior
cord, vertebrae, pleurae, skin diaphragm
Diaphragm
Abdominal aorta T12 (diaphragm)–L4
Visceral branches
Gonadal
– testes or
ovaries
Suprarenal
– adrenal
glands
and
Renal
– kidneys
Superior
and inferior
mesenterics
– small
intestine
– colon
Celiac trunk
– liver
– gallbladder
– spleen
– stomach
– esophagus
– duodenum
R. common iliac
– pelvis and R. lower limb
Arteries of R. lower limb
Parietal branches
Lumbars
Median sacral
Inferior phrenics
– sacrum
– inferior diaphragm – posterior
abdominal – coccyx
wall
L. common iliac
– pelvis and L. lower limb
Arteries of L. lower limb
Major arteries of the systemic circulation.
Aorta
Ascending artery
Left
coronary
artery
Aortic Arch
Right
coronary
artery
brachiocephalic
Right common
carotid artery
Right
subclavian
artery
Descending aorta
Thoracic aorta
Abdominal aorta
Left & right
common iliac
arteries
Left common carotid artery
Left subclavian artery
Figure 19.21b Major arteries of the systemic circulation.
Arteries of the head and trunk
Internal carotid artery
External carotid artery
Common carotid arteries
Vertebral artery
Subclavian artery
Brachiocephalic artery
Arteries that supply the upper limb
Subclavian artery
Axillary artery
Brachial artery
Aortic arch
Ascending aorta
Coronary artery
Celiac trunk
Abdominal aorta
Superior mesenteric
artery
Renal artery
Radial artery
Ulnar artery
Deep palmar arch
Superficial palmar arch
Digital arteries
Arteries that supply the lower limb
Gonadal artery
External iliac artery
Inferior mesenteric artery
Femoral artery
Common iliac artery
Popliteal artery
Internal iliac artery
Anterior tibial artery
Posterior tibial artery
Illustration, anterior view
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Arcuate artery
Figure 19.22a Arteries of the head, neck, and brain.
R. and L. anterior
cerebral arteries
R. Middle cerebral
artery
Anterior
communicating artery
Cerebral arterial circle
R. and L.
Posterior
communicating arteries
Ophthalmic
artery
Superficial
temporal
artery
R. posterior
cerebral
artery
Basilar
artery
R. and L.
Maxillary
artery
vertebral
arteries
Occipital
artery
R. and L.
Facial
artery
internal
carotid
arteries
Lingual
artery
R. and L.
Superior
thyroid
artery
external
carotid
arteries
R. and L.
common
carotid
arteries
R. and L.
subclavian
arteries
Brachiocephalic trunk
Aortic arch
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Schematic flowchart
Figure 19.22b Arteries of the head, neck, and brain.
Ophthalmic artery
Basilar artery
Vertebral
artery
Internal
carotid artery
External
carotid artery
Common
carotid artery
Thyrocervical
trunk
Costocervical
trunk
Subclavian
artery
Axillary
artery
Arteries of the head and neck, right aspect
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Branches of
the external
carotid artery
• Superficial
temporal artery
• Maxillary artery
• Occipital artery
• Facial artery
• Lingual artery
• Superior thyroid
artery
Larynx
Thyroid gland
(overlying trachea)
Clavicle (cut)
Brachiocephalic
trunk
Internal thoracic
artery
Figure 19.22c Arteries of the head, neck, and brain.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Colorized arteriograph of the arterial supply
of the brain
Figure 19.22d Arteries of the head, neck, and brain.
Anterior
Cerebral arterial
circle
(circle of Willis)
Frontal lobe
Optic chiasma
• Anterior
communicating
artery
Middle
cerebral
artery
• Anterior
cerebral artery
Internal
carotid
artery
• Posterior
communicating
artery
Mammillary
body
• Posterior
cerebral artery
Basilar artery
Temporal
lobe
Vertebral artery
Pons
Occipital lobe
Cerebellum
Posterior
Major arteries serving the brain (inferior view, right side
of cerebellum and part of right temporal lobe removed)
Figure 19.23a Arteries of the right upper limb and thorax.
R. common
carotid
artery
R. vertebral artery
L. common carotid
artery
Thyrocervical trunk
L. vertebral artery
L. subclavian
artery
Suprascapular artery
R. subclavian artery.
Axillary artery
Thoracoacromial
artery
Thoracoacromial
artery
(pectoral
branch)
Aortic arch
Anterior
and posterior
circumflex
humeral
arteries
Brachial
artery
Deep
artery
of arm
Brachiocephalic
trunk
Internal
thoracic
artery
Anterior
intercostal
arteries
Lateral
thoracic
artery
Subscapular
artery
Anastomosis
Common
interosseus
artery
Radial
Ulnar artery
artery
Deep
palmar
arch
Metacarpal arteries
Superficial palmar arch
Digital arteries
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Schematic flowchart
Costocervical
trunk
Thoracic
aorta
Posterior
intercostal
arteries
Figure 19.23b Arteries of the right upper limb and thorax.
Vertebral artery
Thyrocervical trunk
Costocervical trunk
Suprascapular artery
Thoracoacromial artery
Axillary artery
Subscapular artery
Posterior circumflex
humeral artery
Anterior circumflex
humeral artery
Common carotid arteries
Right subclavian artery
Left subclavian artery
Brachiocephalic trunk
Posterior
intercostal arteries
Anterior intercostal artery
Internal thoracic artery
Brachial artery
Deep artery of arm
Lateral thoracic artery
Thoracic aorta
Common
interosseous artery
Radial artery
Ulnar artery
Deep palmar arch
Superficial palmar arch
Digital arteries
Illustration, anterior view
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 19.24a Arteries of the abdomen.
Diaphragm
Abdominal
aorta
Inferior
phrenic
arteries
L. gastric artery
R. gastric
artery
Common
hepatic
artery
Hepatic
artery
proper
L
Splenic
artery
Gastroduodenal
artery
R
Celiac
trunk
R. gastroepiploic
artery
Middle
suprarenal
arteries
L. gastroepiploic artery
Intestinal arteries
Middle colic
artery
Superior
mesenteric
artery
R. colic
artery
Renal
arteries
Gonadal
arteries
Ileocolic artery
Sigmoidal
arteries
Inferior
mesenteric
artery
Lumbar
arteries
L. colic
artery
Superior rectal
artery
Median sacral artery
Common iliac arteries
Schematic flowchart.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 19.24b Arteries of the abdomen.
Liver (cut)
Inferior vena cava
Celiac trunk
Common
hepatic artery
Hepatic
artery proper
Gastroduodenal
artery
Right
gastric artery
Diaphragm
Esophagus
Left gastric artery
Stomach
Splenic artery
Left gastroepiploic
artery
Spleen
Gallbladder
Pancreas
(major portion lies
posterior to stomach)
Right gastroepiploic
artery
Duodenum
Abdominal aorta
Superior mesenteric
artery
The celiac trunk and its major branches. The left half of the liver has been removed.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 19.24c Arteries of the abdomen.
Hiatus (opening)
for inferior vena cava
Hiatus (opening)
for esophagus
Diaphragm
Inferior
phrenic artery
Adrenal
(suprarenal) gland
Middle
suprarenal artery
Celiac trunk
Renal artery
Kidney
Superior
mesenteric artery
Abdominal aorta
Lumbar arteries
Ureter
Median
sacral artery
Major branches of the abdominal aorta.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Gonadal
(testicular
or ovarian) artery
Inferior
mesenteric artery
Common
iliac artery
Figure 19.24d Arteries of the abdomen.
Celiac trunk
Superior mesenteric
artery
Branches of
the superior
mesenteric artery
• Middle colic artery
• Intestinal arteries
• Right colic artery
• Ileocolic artery
Ascending colon
Right common iliac
artery
Ileum
Transverse colon
Aorta
Inferior mesenteric
artery
Branches of
the inferior
mesenteric artery
• Left colic artery
• Sigmoidal arteries
• Superior rectal
artery
Descending colon
Cecum
Appendix
Distribution of the superior and inferior mesenteric arteries.
The transverse colon has been pulled superiorly.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Sigmoid colon
Rectum
Figure 19.25a Arteries of the right pelvis and lower limb.
Abdominal
aorta
Superior
gluteal
artery
Internal
iliac
artery
Inferior
gluteal
artery
Internal
pudendal
Common iliac
artery
Obturator artery
Deep artery
of thigh
Medial
circumflex
femoral
artery
Lateral
circumflex
femoral
artery
External
iliac
artery
Femoral artery
Adductor
hiatus
Arterial
anastomosis
Popliteal
artery
Anterior
tibial
artery
Posterior tibial
artery
Fibular artery
Dorsalis pedis
artery
Lateral
plantar
artery
Lateral
plantar
artery
Medial
plantar
artery
Arcuate
artery
Plantar arch
Dorsal
metatarsal
arteries
Schematic flowchart
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Plantar
metatarsal
arteries
Figure 19.25b Arteries of the right pelvis and lower limb.
Common iliac artery
Internal iliac artery
Superior gluteal artery
External iliac artery
Deep artery of thigh
Lateral circumflex
femoral artery
Medial circumflex
femoral artery
Obturator artery
Femoral artery
Adductor hiatus
Popliteal artery
Anterior tibial artery
Posterior tibial artery
Fibular artery
Dorsalis pedis artery
Arcuate artery
Dorsal metatarsal
arteries
Anterior view
Figure 19.26b Major veins of the systemic circulation.
Veins of the head and trunk
Dural venous sinuses
External jugular vein
Vertebral vein
Internal jugular vein
Right and left
brachiocephalic veins
Superior vena cava
Great cardiac vein
Hepatic veins
Splenic vein
Hepatic portal vein
Renal vein
Superior mesenteric vein
Inferior mesenteric vein
Inferior vena cava
Common iliac vein
Internal iliac vein
Veins that drain
the upper limb
Subclavian vein
Axillary vein
Cephalic vein
Brachial vein
Basilic vein
Median cubital vein
Ulnar vein
Radial vein
Digital veins
Veins that drain
the lower limb
External iliac vein
Femoral vein
Great saphenous vein (longest vein; issue
from dorsal venous arch)
Popliteal vein
Posterior tibial vein
Anterior tibial vein
Small saphenous vein
Dorsal venous arch
Dorsal metatarsal veins
Illustration, anterior view. The vessels of the pulmonary circulation are not shown.
Figure 19.27b Venous drainage of the head, neck, and brain.
Ophthalmic vein
Superficial
temporal vein
Facial vein
Occipital vein
Posterior
auricular vein
External
jugular vein
Vertebral vein
Internal
jugular vein
Superior and
middle thyroid veins
Brachiocephalic
vein
Subclavian vein
Superior
vena cava
Veins of the head and neck, right superficial aspect
Brachiocephalic veins
Right subclavian vein
Internal jugular vein
External jugular vein
Left subclavian vein
Axillary vein
Brachial vein
Superior vena cava
Azygos vein
Accessory hemiazygos
vein
Hemiazygos vein
Cephalic vein
Basilic vein
Posterior intercostals
Inferior vena cava
Ascending lumbar vein
Median cubital
vein
Median
antebrachial vein
Cephalic vein
Radial vein
Anterior view
Basilic vein
Ulnar vein
Deep venous
palmar arch
Superficial venous
palmar arch
Digital veins
Figure 19.28b Veins of the thorax and right upper limb.
Figure 19.29b Veins of the abdomen.
Hepatic veins
Inferior phrenic
vein
Inferior vena cava
Right suprarenal
vein
Left suprarenal
vein
Renal veins
Right gonadal
vein
External iliac
vein
Left ascending
lumbar vein
Lumbar veins
Left gonadal
vein
Common iliac
vein
Internal iliac
vein
Tributaries of the inferior vena cava.
Venous drainage of abdominal organs not drained by the hepatic portal vein.
Figure 19.29c Veins of the abdomen.
Hepatic veins
Liver
Hepatic portal
vein
Gastric veins
Spleen
Inferior vena cava
Splenic vein
Right
gastroepiploic vein
Inferior
mesenteric vein
Superior
mesenteric vein
Small intestine
Large intestine
Rectum
The hepatic portal circulation.
Figure 19.30b Veins of the right lower limb.
Common iliac vein
Internal iliac vein
External iliac vein
Inguinal ligament
Femoral vein
Great saphenous
vein (superficial)
Popliteal vein
Small
saphenous vein
Fibular vein
Anterior
tibial vein
Dorsalis
pedis vein
Dorsal
venous arch
Dorsal
metatarsal veins
Anterior view