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Section III: Korea and Southeast Asia (Pages 256-259) This section is about: The cultural interaction between Korea and China. The blending of cultures of India and China with various countries in Southeast Asia. Much of what people know about Korea and Southeast Asia today comes from the Korean “Conflict” and Vietnam War in the 1950’s – 1970’s. North Korea is in the news again quite a bit now. Look at Main Ideas on page 256. There’s quite a building on page 258 – what kind of building is it? Korea Is a peninsula northeast and right next to of China. Has many mountains (only 1/5 good farmland). It does have a long coastline – so it was good for fishing. It’s between China and Japan, so both of them have been an influence on Korea. Early History In 108 BC, a Han (Chinese) emperor invaded Korea – and his people stayed for about 400 years. Between 300 and 600 AD, Korea formed 3 kingdoms (which sometimes fought with each other and Japan and China). After the Han Dynasty collapsed, many refugees (person who escapes to another country) moved into Korea. Missionaries also brought Buddhism to Korea. (Koguryo, Paekche, and Silla) Unified Korea Silla united Korea in 668 (with help from China). They conquered Koguryo and Paekshe and forced the Tang to leave. By 900, Koryo challenged the Silla and took control of the Kingdom. The Koryo adapted most Chinese styles and customs at this time, including learning and arts (porcelain and celadon – types of ceramics). In 1231, the _______________ started their invasions – and although they let them keep their culture, they still controlled Korea. Yi Dynasty Yi Songgye took over control in 1392 (the Dynasty lasted until 1910). They adopted the Chinese system of government (civil service workers) and adopted Confucianism (less Buddhism). Korean people still spoke Korean though – and used hangul (Korean alphabet with symbols for sounds). It was easier to learn, so many Koreans learned to read and write (Confucian leaders didn’t like it though). The Yi and the Japanese had more wars than anyone else in the area (for Japan, Korea was one of the main ways to get to Asia). Southeast Asia Has one big peninsula and several island “chains”. Many mountains, but also river valleys and some plains. It’s also on some ancient trade routes. Has both an Indian and Chinese cultural influence. Korean connection to Iran Vietnam Started about 2000 years ago (as Nan Yue). Many Chinese started settling there about 111 BC (brought Chinese ideas of arts and learning – and introduced Buddhism and Daoism). Nan Yue broke free from Chinese rule about 1000 AD. Both the Mongols and the Ming tried to conquer and control Vietnam, but neither one could. Khmer Today is Cambodia and Thailand (Angkor was the capital city). They were never really conquered by any foreign nations. There was an Indian influence (missionaries, and trade brought Indian writing, art, and architecture). Began to unite about 500-600 AD. The Khmer Empire’s greatest achievement: the temple complex of Angkor Wat (1100’s). The empire slowly declined, and by 1431, Angkor was abandoned More… Srivijaya Indonesia today (Sumatra, Java, Borneo, the Malay Peninsula). Began to be a small power by 600. Was an important trade route (exposed to many cultures) and became a center for Buddhism (until 1400 – Islam). Because of where it’s located (shipping lanes), it’s been attacked many times – By India and by the Mongols. Borobudur (778 in Java) is one of it’s more famous Buddhist temples. Pagan Burma (Myanmar) today. 1044: became a major Buddhist center. Was around for about 200 years – until the Mongols invaded and conquered Pagan. When the Mongols left, the country became split up.