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Name __________________________ Period____________ Frog Dissection Pre-lab Directions: Use the web to answer the following questions for the common bullfrog. 1. 2. 3. 4. Kingdom _______________________________ Phylum__________________________________ SubPhylum ________________________________ Class ____________________________________ 5. Why are frogs said to have “two lives?” 6. How are amphibians different from reptiles? 7. What are 3 adaptations that frogs have that make them amphibians? 8. List the ways in which tadpoles (immature frogs) and frogs differ from each other? External Anatomy 9. Dorsal means? 10. Ventral means? 11. Anterior means? 12. Posterior means? 13. Head means? 14. Torso means? 15. Frog lungs are poorly developed. How does this relate to their skin being thin and moist? 16. How does the tympanic membrane work? 17. Name 2 ways forelimbs are different than hind limbs. Critical Thinking Questions 18. Frogs produce a huge number of gametes at one time – WHY do you think this is (HINT: Finding Nemo)? 19. The frog’s tongue is anchored in the very front – opposite to the orientation and anchoring of humans. Why do you think this is so Lab Procedure 1. Go to www.froguts.com Select DEMO and begin. Click the little arrow to right of bottom bar to show controls Full screen gives better view Go through step by step. Dissecting using online tools Exterior observations : Describe each organ/system as program guides you 1) Frog skin – 2) Nictitating Membrane – 3) External nares – 4) Tympanum – 5) Leg adaptations – 6) Cloaca – 7) Male frog characteristics – 8) Female frog characteristics - Follow instructions and click on parts as you are instructed. Describe each briefly a) Abdominal cavity – b) Thoracic cavity – c) Heart – d) Liver – e) Stomach – f) Small intestine – g) Large intestine – h) Lungs – i) Bladder – Go to http://froggy.lbl.gov/cgi-bin/dissect - Build a frog by parts Sign here when completed After completing the virtual dissection, go to http://biology.about.com/od/onlinedissections/a/aa112805a.htm Scroll about halfway down the page and under the section “More online dissection information” click on “Virtual Frog Dissection Quiz” link BEFORE starting the quiz, click on the “Frog Anatomy” link Read through the information and then about halfway down the page, on the left-hand side click on “Frog Dissection Images” link View the “Oral Cavity”, “Female Frog Internal Anatomy”, and “Male Frog Internal Anatomy” diagrams a. The diagrams are labeled and the list of structures are underneath – also use your lab handout to see the difference of what a drawing looks like (on the lab) and what it actually looks like (on the virtual diagram) After reviewing the anatomy, go back to http://biology.about.com/od/gamesandquizzes/a/aa060107a.htm Click on “Start the Frog Dissection Quiz” Write/type each question as you go through the quiz and include the correct answer. Post Lab Questions: 1. The membrane that holds the coils of the small intestine together: ________________ 2. This organ is found under the liver, it stores bile: ______________________ 3. Name the 3 lobes of the liver: ____________, _______________, ______________ 4. The organ that is the first major site of chemical digestion: ____________________ 5. Eggs, sperm, urine and wastes all empty into this structure: ___________________ 6. The small intestine leads to the: ____________________ 7. The esophagus leads to the: _______________________ 8. Yellowish structures that serve as an energy reserve: ____________________ 9. The first part of the small intestine(straight part): _______________________ 10. After food passes through the stomach it enters the: ____________________ 11. A spider web like membrane that covers the organs: ______________________ 12. Regulates the exit of partially digested food from the stomach: ________________ 13. The large intestine leads to the __________________ 14. Organ found within the mesentery that stores blood: _____________________ 15. The largest organ in the body cavity: _____________________ 14. A frog does not chew its food. What do the positions of its teeth suggest about how the frog uses them? 15. Which parts of the frog’s nervous system can be observed in its abdominal cavity? 16. Suppose in a living frog the spinal nerve extending to the leg muscles were cut. What ability would the frog lose? Why? 17. The abdominal cavity of a frog at the end of hibernation season would contain very small fat bodies or none at all. What is the function of the fat bodies? 18. Structures of an animal’s body that fit it for its environment are adaptations. How do the frog’s powerful hind legs help it to fit into a life both in water and on land? 19. During one mating of frogs, the female lays some 2,000 to 3,000 eggs in water as the male sheds millions of sperm over them. How do these large numbers relate to the frog’s ability to survive in water? 20. How would a virtual dissection compare to a real one? What did you like and/or dislike about it? Label Diagram o A. Esophagus (yellow) o C. Stomach (purple) o D. Pancreas (orange) o F. Cloaca (black) o H. Lung (dark blue) o I. Heart (red) o J. Liver (brown) o K. Gallbladder (lt. green) o L. Small Intestine (Dark green) o M. Large Intestine (lt. blue ***Please color code the parts. You may use your own key – simply change or correct the color indicated.