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United States History & Government 11
Period/Day _______
CFA-MC #33: The Presidency of Harry Truman and Dwight D. Eisenhower
Directions: Using what you learned, fill in the blank with the best word or phrase to complete the sentence.
The formation of the North Atlantic Treaty
Organization (NATO) in 1949 is a significant
event in United States diplomatic history
because it
(1) committed the United States to a
peacetime military alliance
(2) strengthened United States influence in
oil-producing nations
(3) eased tensions with the Soviet Union and
its satellites
(4) created new patterns of international
Which has been a primary difficulty of
international organizations in dealing with
world problems?
(1) ineffective leadership
(2) lack of Third World membership
(3) lack of participation by communist bloc
(4) emphasis on national self-interest by
member nations
An important outcome of the Nuremberg
Trials held at the end of World War II was that
(1) showed that many accounts of Nazi
atrocities were exaggerated
(2) spread the blame for World War II
among many nations
(3) held that moral and ethical
considerations do not apply in wartime
(4) established that individuals are
responsible for their actions
A major purpose of United States
involvement in world affairs since World War
II has been to
(1) secure new overseas colonies
(2) contain the growth of communist power
(3) dominate voting in the United Nations
(4) discourage economic growth in other
In the period following World War II, the
United States developed a policy of
containment mainly in response to the
(1) perceived threat of Soviet expansion
(2) building of the Berlin Wall
(3) partition of Palestine
(4) spread of nuclear weapons
The United States foreign policy that was
followed in the decade after World War II was
intended to
(1) support revolutionary groups by using
United States armed forces to help them
overthrow communist governments
(2) support the efforts of free peoples to
resist communism
(3) ensure United States neutrality in
international affairs
(4) allow communist expansion in exchange
for trade concessions
The purpose of the Marshall Plan was to
provide Europe with
(1) defensive military weapons
(2) economic aid
(3) cultural exchange programs
(4) political alliances
“I believe that it must be the policy of the
United States to support free peoples who are
resisting attempted subjugation by armed
minorities or by outside pressures. I believe
that we must assist free peoples to work out
their own destinies in their own way. I believe
that our help should be primarily economic
and financial aid…”
– Harry Truman
The recommendation made in this quotation
resulted from the United States need to
(1) prepare for World War I
(2) fight Nazi aggression in 1941
(3) oppose communist expansion during the
early post-World War II period
(4) justify the withdrawal of United States
forces from Korea
The ideas in the quotation have been used by
President Reagan to justify United States
intervention in the affairs of
(1) Latin American nations
(2) Western Europe
(3) Vietnam
(4) Canada
10 Since World War II, relations between the
Soviet Union and the United States have been
marked by
(1) conflicts where the superpowers
supported opposing sides, but did not
confront each other directly
(2) refusal to negotiate on any issues
(3) slow but steady decreases in military
forces and armaments
(4) reliance on international peace
organizations to solve problems
11 For the United States, one similarity between
the Korean War and the Vietnam War is that
during both wars
(1) United States forces successfully
contained communist expansion
(2) Presidential wartime powers were
(3) the domestic economy was not affected
by the costs of supporting the wars
(4) there was little public controversy
concerning United States participation in
the wars
12 Which United States foreign policy trend of
the 1940s and 1950s did the Truman
Doctrine, Marshall Plan, and Eisenhower
Doctrine best represent?
(1) continuous support of the United
Nations health programs
(2) increased commitment to strengthen
(3) provision of economic, technical, and
military assistance to nations threatened
by communism
(4) effort to increase trade with Asian and
European countries
13 Which was a major purpose of the United
States and its wartime Allies at the World War
II summit conference held in Yalta and
(1) to plan the political future of defeated
(2) to reveal the events of the Holocaust to
the world
(3) to establish the rules of conduct for the
cold war
(4) to coordinate the development and use
of the atomic bomb
14 President Harry Truman decided to use the
atomic bomb in World War II mainly to
(1) satisfy Allied demands for a quick end to
the war in Europe
(2) gain valuable information for future
peacetime use of atomic power
(3) increase the prestige of the United States
(4) bring an immediate end to the war
15 Following World War II, the Nuremburg
Tribunal established the principle that
(1) citizens charged with war crimes must be
given a trial in their home country
(2) only a nation's leader can be charged
with war crimes
(3) military leaders are more responsible for
war crimes than civilian authorities are
(4) obedience to a nation's wartime policies
does not excuse guilt for crimes against
16 A cause of public controversy in the United
States during both the Korean War and the
Vietnam War was that in each conflict
(1) a President fired a popular general
(2) the United States used atomic weapons
(3) no declaration of war was authorized by
(4) guerrilla warfare frustrated military and
civilian leaders
17 President Harry Truman relieved General
Douglas MacArthur of his command in the
Korean conflict primarily because
(1) the United Nations forces were losing
the war under General MacArthur's
(2) General MacArthur challenged the
concept of civilian control over the
(3) the United Nations requested a change
of command
(4) General MacArthur was planning to
challenge President Truman as the
Presidential nominee for the Democratic
22 “From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the
Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across
the Continent. Behind that line lie all the
capitals of the ancient states of central and
eastern Europe… . All are subject, in one form
or another, not only to Soviet influence but to
a very high and increasing measure of control
from Moscow.”
– Winston Churchill
When did the situation described in the
passage occur?
(1) toward the close of World War I
(2) during the Great Depression
(3) soon after World War II
(4) during the Vietnam War
18 For the United States, a major difference
between the period following World War I
and the period following World War II is that
after World War II the nation
(1) developed its role as a world leader
(2) adopted a policy of isolationism
(3) suffered a serious economic depression
(4) rejected membership in a world
peacekeeping organization
23 This observation by Winston Churchill is often
regarded as the symbolic start of
(1) détente
(2) balance-of-power
(3) the United States policy of neutrality
(4) the cold war
19 Immediately after World War II, a main cause
of the development of the cold war between
the United States and the Soviet Union was
(1) the placing of missiles in Cuba by the
Soviet Union
(2) Soviet dominance over Eastern European
(3) United States military actions in the
Baltic Sea
(4) Soviet desire to enter the war against
Japan in 1945
20 The North Atlantic Treaty Organization
(NATO) is based on the principle of
(1) collective security
(2) aggression
(3) self-determination
(4) nationalism
21 An outcome of the Korean War was that
(1) Korea became a unified nation under
one government
(2) Korea became a United Nations
(3) South Korea remained non-Communist
(4) Korea was annexed by China
24 “Iron Curtain Descends Across Europe”
“Will Berlin Blockade Cause War?”
“Why We Must Stop Stalin in Asia”
The titles of these magazine articles were
most probably written in the time period
(1) the Spanish-American War and World
War I
(2) World War I and World War II
(3) World War II and the end of the Korean
(4) 1980 and today
25 The first disagreements between the United
States and the Soviet Union after the defeat
of Germany in World War II occurred as a
result of the
(1) failure of the Soviet Union to withdraw
from Eastern Europe
(2) Cuban missile crisis
(3) Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
(4) takeover of China by the Communists
26 In the case of Brown v. Board of Education
(1954), the Supreme Court ruling stated that
segregated public schools
(1) provided an appropriate education to
(2) must be made equal to all other schools
(3) must comply with Federal standards
(4) provided an unequal education
27 Since World War II, the integration of United
States public schools has been most
significantly stimulated by
(1) decisions of Federal and state courts
(2) passage of constitutional amendments
(3) leadership of school boards in the South
(4) actions of state legislatures
28 In the United States, which has been an
important result of the migration of people
from urban to suburban areas since World
War II?
(1) an increase in the urban tax base
(2) an increase in the proportion of
minorities in urban areas
(3) a decrease in job opportunities in
(4) a decrease in highway construction
29 The relationship between the automobile and
the development of suburbs is most similar to
the relationship between
(1) television and increased uniformity of
United States culture
(2) skyscrapers and the decline of commuter
(3) political parties and the growth of big
(4) nuclear power plants and rising oil prices
30 Which United States foreign policy trend of
the 1940s and 1950s did the Truman
Doctrine, Marshall Plan, and Eisenhower
Doctrine best represent?
(1) continuous support of the United
Nations health programs
(2) increased commitment to strengthen
(3) provision of economic, technical, and
military assistance to nations threatened
by communism
(4) effort to increase trade with Asian and
European countries
Base your answer to the question on the speakers’
statements below and on your knowledge of
social studies.
Speaker A: “Preventing North Vietnam from
overrunning South Vietnam should be the
number one concern of the United States.”
Speaker B: “Federal legislation is necessary if
blacks are to be able to vote and to improve their
Speaker C: “The needs of the poor people can be
met only with special Federal Government
Speaker D: “Nothing is more important than
accomplishing our goal of landing a man on the
31 During which decade were these statements
most likely made?
(1) the 1950s
(2) the 1960s
(3) the 1970s
(4) the 1980s
32 A comparison of the United States Supreme
Court's decisions in the cases Plessy v.
Ferguson (1896) and Brown v. Board of
Education (1954) illustrates that
(1) protection of the civil rights of the
individual has long been a judicial
(2) Supreme Court decisions may be
changed over time
(3) the police powers of the states have
been strengthened over time
(4) the courts have given greater protection
to property rights than to individual
Base your answer on the cartoon and on your
knowledge of social studies.
36 The tariff issue of 1828, the secession of the
Southern states in the 1860s, and school
desegregation in the 1950s dealt with the
constitutional issue of
(1) the federal-state relationship
(2) popular sovereignty
(3) checks and balances
(4) representation in Congress
37 A major cause of the growth of state and
Federal highway systems after World War II
was the
(1) increase use of mass transit systems
(2) growing prosperity of inner-city areas
(3) rapid development of suburbs
(4) return of city dwellers to farm areas
33 Which title best summarizes the main idea of
the cartoon?
(1) “Soviet and American Détente”
(2) “Containment of Communism”
(3) “The Search for Democracy”
(4) “A Reason for the Arms Race”
34 Which point of view does the cartoon best
(1) The United States should place greater
restrictions on trade with the Soviet
(2) Soviet and American leaders are failing
to modernize their armed forces
(3) Competition to achieve military
superiority should be ended
(4) Ideological differences between the
Soviet Union and the United States make
arms limitation talks useless
35 The “domino theory,” popular in the 1950s
and 1960s, assumed the expansion of
(1) South African apartheid into other
African nations
(2) totalitarianism throughout Latin America
(3) communism into Southeast Asia
(4) Soviet influence in China
38 Which trend occurred in United States society
in the 1950's?
(1) The number of marriages and the
birthrate declined.
(2) Day-care services for children became
widely available.
(3) Suburban areas developed rapidly.
(4) The automobile became less important
in people's lives.
39 Little boxes on the hillside,
Little boxes made of ticky tacky,
Little boxes on the hillside,
Little boxes all the same.
There's a green one and a pink one
And a blue one and a yellow one
And they're all make out of ticky tacky,
And they all look just the same.
– Malvina Reynolds
This song exerpt from the 1950's expresses
(1) criticism of suburban growth
(2) encouragement for families to build
backyard fallout shelters
(3) praise for the variety of goods available
to American consumers
(4) excitement over the expansion of public
housing programs
40 “Separate educational facilities are inherently
Base your answer on the cartoon and on your
knowledge of social studies.
– Brown v. Board of Education
The effect of this Supreme Court ruling was to
(1) establish affirmative action programs in
higher education
(2) require the integration of public schools
(3) desegregate the armed forces and the
military academies
(4) force states to spend an equal amount
on each public school student
41 In a farewell message to the American public,
President Dwight D. Eisenhower warned of
the growth of the “military-industrial
complex.” This term refers to the
(1) influence of defense contractors on
(2) threat from the Soviet Army
(3) internal danger from Communist spies
(4) economy's dependence on oil imported
from the Middle East
42 In the 1950s, the domino theory was used by
President Dwight D. Eisenhower to justify
(1) sending federal troops into Little Rock,
(2) United States involvement in Vietnam
(3) joining the United Nations
(4) opposing Britain and France in the Suez
Canal crisis
43 In 1957, the Eisenhower Doctrine expanded
the principles of the Truman Doctrine by
extending Middle East military assistance in
order to
(1) offset communist influence in the region
(2) combat anti-American terrorist threats
(3) force the Organization of Petroleum
Exporting Countries (OPEC) to end its oil
(4) defend Israel against Arab invasions
44 Which event of the 1950s most likely led to
the publication of this cartoon?
(1) Russia put cosmonauts on the Moon.
(2) The Soviet Union launched the Sputnik
(3) The United States was defeated in the
Vietnam War.
(4) American students scored low on tests in
math and science.
45 "Sputnik Launch Propels Soviets Ahead in
Space Race"
In 1957, the United States government
responded to the event described in this
headline by
(1) reducing military spending
(2) building a joint space station with the
Soviet Union
(3) constructing President Ronald Reagan’s
"Star Wars" defense system
(4) providing funds to improve the
educational system in the United States
46 One similarity between the Truman Doctrine
and the Eisenhower Doctrine is that both
were designed to
(1) limit the spread of communism
(2) help develop the space program
(3) restrict United States foreign aid
(4) assist rebellions against the Soviet Union
Base your answer on the diagram and on your
knowledge of social studies.
49 What was a result of the takeover of Cuba by
Fidel Castro?
(1) Relations between the Soviet Union and
Cuba worsened.
(2) Many Cuban Americans returned to their
(3) Trade between the United States and
Cuba increased.
(4) Many people fled from Cuba to the
United States.
50 In 1957, President Dwight D. Eisenhower sent
federal troops to Little Rock, Arkansas, to
(1) protect civil rights marchers
(2) help African Americans register to vote
(3) enforce a Supreme Court decision to
desegregate public schools
(4) end race riots resulting from a bus
47 Which development following World War II
caused the urban-suburban pattern shown in
the diagram?
(1) increase in the number of farms
(2) expansion of highways and automobile
(3) movement of most factories to rural
(4) decline in the number of middle-income
48 Who led a "witch hunt" for Communist spies
in the United States government during the
early 1950s?
(1) Supreme Court Justice Earl Warren
(2) President Dwight Eisenhower
(3) Senator Joseph McCarthy
(4) Secretary of State Dean Acheson