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Chapter 5 Study Guide
People
Alexander~ commander in the army @ 16, king @ 20
Archimedes~ Greek scientist of Hellenistic Era; worked on
solid geometry, figured out Pi’s value, invented catapults 
Athena~ goddess of wisdom
Euclid~ most famous mathematician & author (Elements)
Euripides~ A Greek playwright known for his tragedies in
which he questioned traditional thinking, especially about war
Herodotus~ wrote History of the Persian Wars; “father of
history”
Philip II~ Macedonian King that loved Greek culture; planned
to conquer Persia
Plato~ rejected idea of democracy; wrote Republic. Believed
philosopher kings should rule society
Pythagoras ~ taught universe followed same laws as music
and numbers. Developed Pythagorean Theorem.
Socrates~ Athenian sculptor, believed absolute truth existed,
all knowledge w/in each person
Sophists~ taught there’s no absolute right or wrong
Sophocles ~ dramatist who used painted scenery & 3 actors
to tell a story
Stoics~ happiness came from reason & doing one’s duty
Thucydides~ considered by some to be the greatest historian
of ancient world
Zeus~ King of Gods; god of the sky, rain, & lightening
Places and Vocabulary
astronomer~ a person who studies stars, planets, & heavenly
bodies
Hellenistic Era~ time when Greek culture spread throughout
non-Greek world
Iliad~ a book written by Homer about the Trojan War
Lighthouse at Alexandria~ one of the 7 Wonders of the
Ancient World
Macedonia~ the neighbor to the north
Mount Olympus~ the highest mountain in Greece; according
to Greek mythology, the home of the 12 most important Greek
gods and goddesses.
myth~ traditional stories about gods and goddesses
plane geometry ~ type of mathematics that relates points,
lines, surfaces, & angles to each other
Rhodes~ Greek Island in the southeast Aegean Sea;
Appolonius, author of the epic poem Argonautica, was from
here.
ritual~ the Greeks performed these ceremonies to earn favor
of their gods &goddesses
solid geometry~ type of mathematics that deals with
spheres & cylinders
Syracuse~ Greek city-state where the scientist Archimedes
was from