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Adult Obesity
Presentation By:
Morgan Oliver, Denny Cortes ,Joseph Gonzalez, Zach
Sbordone, Angelique
What is adult obesity?
● Obesity defined
○ condition of being overweight
● How to determine if one is obese
○ Body Mass Index- weight to height ratio
● BMI of 30 or more is considered obese
Body Fat
● Intra-abdominal fat
○ Stored around the organs of the torso
○ Increase risk for chronic disease
● Lower Body Fat
○ Stored in hips and thighs
○ Does not increase chronic disease
● 78.6 Million report to be obese in America
● Medical Costs- 147 Billion Dollars
● Groups:
○ African Americans- 47.8%
○ Hispanics- 42.5%
Physiological Changes
● Increase the heart’s workload
● Increase in blood pressure
● Promotes dyslipidemia
● Interferes with circulation
● Promotes the development of arthritis
Facts Cnt’d
● Men are more likely to be obese than women
● Metabolic syndrome
○ Indicated by a cluster of symptoms that increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes
○ Indicators:
■ Men- waist circumference >40in
■ Women- waist circumference >35in
■ Triglycerides- >150 mg/dL
■ Low HDL’s
impairments on daily living
● Not only does obesity affect the physiology of the body, it can also make it difficult
to perform Activities of Daily Living(ADL)
● Bend-and-lift movements
● Walking an extended distance
● Climbing stairs
Impairments on daily living (cont.)
● Standing up from a chair
● Dressing yourself
● Bathing
● Standing for extended periods of
Obesity Risk Factors
• Cigarette smoking
• Family history of premature heart disease
• High blood pressure (hypertension)
• High LDL-cholesterol ("bad" cholesterol)
• Low HDL-cholesterol ("good" cholesterol)
• High blood glucose (sugar) High triglycerides
• Physical inactivity
Risk Factors (Cont’d)
-may affect the amount of body fat stored, and where that fat is distributed.
-the way th body converts food into energy and how the body burns calories during
Family lifestyle
-Increased risk if parents are obese
-Family members tend to share similar eating and activity habits.
Risk Factors (Cont’d)
Unhealthy diet
-High calories diet
-Lacking fruits and vegetables,
-fast food
-oversized portions
Certain medications. Some medications can lead to weight gain. Examples Include:
antidepressants, anti-seizure medications, diabetes medications, antipsychotic
medications, steroids and beta blockers.
Risk Factors (Cont’d)
Social and economic issues.
-May not have been taught healthy ways of cooking,
-People spent time with may influence weight
-More likely to become obese with obese friends or relatives.
• Inactivity
-Don't burn as many calories.
-More calories consumed per day than burned through PA
-Medical problems, such as arthritis, can lead to decreased activity
• Age
Risk Factors Cnt’d
-Can occur at any age
-hormonal changes from age
• Less active lifestyle
• Muscle in body tends to decrease
• Lower muscle mass leads to a decrease in metabolism.
• Pregnancy
• Woman's weight increases.
• May be difficult to lose that weight after the baby is born.
• Weight gain may contribute to the development of obesity in women.
Risk Factors (Cont’d)
• Lack of sleep
-Not getting enough sleep or getting too much
sleep can cause changes in hormones that can
increase appetite.
-May crave foods high in calories and
Even if you have one or more of these risk factors, it doesn't mean that you're
destined to become obese. You can counteract most risk factors through diet, physical
activity and exercise, and behavior changes.
Benefits of Exercise
• Improved cardiorespiratory functioning
• Decreased risk for type 2 diabetes
• Reduced overall discomfort
• Improved mood and decreased anxiety
Benefits Cont’d
Improved cardiorespiratory functioning
▪ Lowers blood pressure
▪ Improves blood lipid profile
▪ Improves heart and lung functioning
Enhances breathing as fat is lost and lung movement is no
longer restricted
Decreased risk of type 2 diabetes
• Reduces likelihood of developing insulin
• Eliminates glucose intolerance in most people
• Promotes the action of insulin
Reduced overall discomfort
• Increases muscle mass
• Decreases fat mass
• Improves joint functioning
Improved mood and decreased anxiety
• Encourages social interaction
• Alleviates fatigue
• Improves functional capacity
The Biggest Loser
28 Day Weight Loss Challenge!
28 days to lose the weight!
Includes a How- to- Guide:
BMI % Calculation
Cardiovascular Exercises
Resistance Exercises
Food Diary
Determining Readiness for Weight loss
• Using the transtheoretical model a survey will be conducted to potential clients to
determine their readiness for weight loss
• Contact information will be taken to follow up with potential participants
• Free BMI Assessments will be given out to gain interest
• Newsletter about the effects of obesity will be handed out
Client Assessments
Day 1:
• BMI% will be taken on the first of challenge
• Waist to hip ratio are taken
• Specific and realistic short term goals will be assessed using S.M.A.R.T. goal setting
• Clients will be asked to write down their current food log and calorie assessment will
be done
• Current weight will be taken
• Exercise guidelines will be handed out
Cardiovascular Exercise
• 5-10 minute warmup
• Low impact aerobic
• 5-7 days a week
• 30-60 minutes at a time
• Increase Duration! ~ Strive for 60-90 minutes of moderate- to vigorous exercise
Week of Cardiovascular Training
• Encourage participants to workout for at least 30 minutes once week 1 at a moderate
Day 1: Treadmill walking
Day 2: Elliptical Training
Day 3: Cycling
Day 4: Treadmill walking
Day 5: Elliptical Training
Day 6: Cycling
Day 7: Rest
Cardio Considerations
• Participants may find that they are only able to walk for 5 to ten minutes the first day.
Encourage them to workout in bouts of time and increase duration slowly.
Do not increase your speed or incline until you are able to stay on the treadmill without
resting for at least twenty five minutes.
• A low intensity, long duration workout will assist them in gaining muscular endurance
while burning calories.
Resistance Training for obesity
• 2-3 x a week
• 8-10 major muscle groups
• Use intensity to fatigue the muscle in 8-12
• Complete 1 set per exercise
● Primarily static or passive stretching
daily within comfortable ranges
● Hold each stretch about 30 seconds
per major joint
● Over time, will enhance range of
Flexibility considerations
● Obese patients may have a reduced range of motion due to increased fat mass
surrounding joints and may have poor balance or respond slowly to changes in body
● They are also at a greater risk of low back pain and joint-related osteoarthritis
● Normal flexibility routines are recommended as tolerated
Equipment Considerations
• In choosing equipment, then, obese adults typically prefer upright or recumbent
stationary cycles that support their weight instead of treadmills and stair-climbing
machines that do not support their weight
• Avoid exercises such as the machine hip/leg press because of the challenges it presents
in getting into position to perform the exercise as well as simply getting into and out of
the machine.
• Free-weight exercises that require lifting dumbbells instead barbells from the floor to
start an exercise may be easier.
for Motivation & Support
Healthy Diet
• Fat-free and low-fat dairy products: yogurt, cheese, and milk.
• Protein foods: lean meat, fish, poultry without skin, beans, and peas.
• Whole-grain foods: whole-wheat bread, oatmeal, and brown rice.
• Fruits: which can be fresh, canned, frozen, or dried.
• Vegetables, which can be fresh, canned (without salt), frozen, or dried.
• The initial goal is to achieve a 5% to 10% weight loss over the initial 6 months of
• The best way to lose weight is slowly. A weight loss of 1 to 2 pounds a week is doable, safe, and will help you keep off the weight.
• Clients will be reassessed on BMI% after their weight loss challenge.
Scientific Study
Obesity and the Risks of Myocardial Infarction Study:
-27,000 participants
-58 countries : case control study
-Assessed the relation between BMI, waist to hip circumferences to
myocardial infarction percent
Results: Waist to hip ratio showed a graded a highly significant
association with myocardial infarction risk worldwide