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Japan’s Pacific Campaign Chapter 4, Section 2 GUIDED READING A. 1. a. Japanese launched surprise attack, sinking or damaging almost the entire U.S. Pacific fleet. b. U.S. declared war on Japan. 2. a. Through a planned series of attacks in the Pacific, Japan seized control of rich European colonies. b. helped Japan replenish depleted resources 3. a. As revenge for Pearl Harbor, U.S. sent 16 B-25 bombers to bomb Japanese cities. b. showed that Japan could be attacked and raised American morale. 4. a. Following interception of Japanese attack on Port Moresby, Japanese and American naval fleets fought to a draw. b. introduced a new kind of naval warfare using only airplanes; stopped Japan’s expansion southward. 5. a. American carrier planes defeated Japanese fleet poised to attack Midway Island, a key American airfield. b. reversed the tide of war in the Pacific. 6. a. U.S. marines, with Australian support, seized Japanese airfield and fought on land and sea for control of island of Guadalcanal. b. forced Japan to abandon island of Guadalcanal; began MacArthur’s islandhopping counterattack. B. Isoroku Yamamoto: Japanese naval strategist who pushed for destruction of U.S. naval fleet in Hawaii. Douglas MacArthur: U.S. commander of Allied land forces in thePacific who supported an “island hopping” strategy against the Japanese.