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Ch. 3 - Specialties of colonies
King philip's war = Southern new england, 1675, indian alliance led by
Wampanoag leader Metacom known as king philip
in 1676 they attacked half of New England's towns and many in
Massachusetts pushing colonists eastward.
Iroquois had military alliance with gov of new york
Indians suffered as a consequence and fled to canada or new york if they
werent sold into slavery. Praying Indians that converted to christianity and
were supervised by protestants suffered too.
Mercantilism - govt should regulate economy to promote national power
Encouraging bounties, monopolies, commerce and manufacturing.
Trade should be controlled.
EXPORTS > imports
England enjoys the profits of their empire
First navigation act = take trade powers from the dutch who had free trade all
over the word.
Americans had to pay taxes on international exports in England before
the rest of the world. Imports into the colonies also had to go through
Stimulated new england shipbuilding industry
Under charles II British were monopoly of slave trade and number of
english colonies doubles.
1664 new netherland was seized along with trading posts in
africa. Became new york when he gave it to his brother, the
duke of york. City was surrendered easily since dutch focused
on colonies in other continents.
Transformed city from military base to imperial outpost for sea
trading. City earned a lot of european citizens
Rights of women decreased with English law in ex-dutch colonies
since law allowing women property ownership and inheritance was
ended. Female traders thus decreased till the end of the 17th century.
Rights of blacks also decreased as previous “freeman” rules were
removed and blacks were expelled from skilled jobs
Certain families awarded land grants promoting monopolization
Thanks to Sir Edmund Andros, governor of new york, the covenant
chain united iroquois and english which helped clear other indians
from new york. Eventually other tribes (around great lakes and ohio
valley with french aid ) attacked iroquois promoting them to become
New York colonists felt inferior to English and yearned for rights
(especially long islanders) . Duke of york created charter of liberties
It allowed elections every 3 years (for freemen and male
property owners), trial by jury, security of property, religious
toleration of protestants. Overall attempted to assert
dominance over Dutch past in the city.
Charles II created Carolina in 1663 to stop Spanish expansion from
florida. As an “offshoot” of Barbados, Caribbeans richest plantation
colony. Carolinans sent Indians on raids in Spanish Florida and
enslaved some. They exported more slaves than they imported.
Native Americans revolted but lost and thus were driven out/enslaved.
The colony quickly transformed into a slave haven despite the
constitution aiming to establish a feudalist system. Those who
brought slaves gained much land and when they focused on
agriculture the colony came to be the largest exporter of rice, a
Pennsylvania was the last colony of the 1600s and was made by William
Penn to promote spiritual freedom alongside indians. Land was
granted by Charles II to cancel a debt with his father. He wanted to
provide refuge for quakers like himself.
Created the jersey concessions
Humanist who supported Indians, blacks, and women. Quakers
were pacifists. The charter promoted a moral code rather than
religious uniformity
With the colonization slaves became more of a necessity to help
chesapeake planters in tobacco planting. They were bound to their
work so they never became a landless man and could not claim
property (english common law).
Less likely to get sick since they had worked hard labor already
and encountered many European diseases.
Christianity vs barbarism or heathenism was more common than race
Indian indentured servants were wiped out by disease and British indentured
servants were unwilling to do such strenuous work.
Barbados generated more trade than all other British colonies combined in
their sugar plantations.
- First crop to be mass marketed to consumers in europe
Indentured English servants used to be the backbone of the Chesapeake
labor force since they were cheaper but they died out.
In Maryland blacks could own slaves and testify in court (story of anthony
johnson). When they were first in america they had rights but it wasnt till the
race was associated with slavery (and transatlantic trade route established)
that black was associated with something less.
How black and slavery became synonomous:
Virginia law of 1662 said that the status of the offspring of parents that
had 2 people, one enslaved and one freed, would result in the child
having the status of the mother. This promoted sexual abuse of
mothers so as birth more slaves
Religious conversion did not free slave of bondage
Laws discriminating interracial marriage
Bacon's rebellion , 1676 : Promoted african slavery in virgina from a
previously indentured slave population. Gov William Berkely helped
monopolize the tobacco industry in Virginia with few farmers in his
inner circle. The white poverty population grew as free small farmers
(white) lost jobs due to tobacco overproduction and high taxes, and
freed servants having no work. He did not allow white people to settle
in Indian land. A fight broke out between Indians and ex-indentured
slaves/farmers on virginas western frontier as they wanted to expand
into Indian land.
- This helped the conversion to slaves as laborers not indentured
servants since white workers still had a notion of liberty while
slaves were absolutely powerless.
Ch. 4 - Slavery
- Asiento = contract that confirmed british would provide slaves to spanish
- Slave market of west indies was important for fish grain livestock and lumber
exported from new england and middle colonies
- Slaves : from gold and slave coast
- Africans also provided cheap textiles and received firearms.
- Ashanti and Dahomey used these guns to gather more slaves.
- Goods destined for slaves societies: Manufactured goods from europe going
to colonies
- Crops produced by slaves:furs, fish, tobacco, grain, sugar, rice, etc. Going
from colonies to england
- Less than 5% went to north america, most went to west indies/brazil sugar
- Slavery in virgina/maryland (chesapeake)
- After 1680 shifted from indentured servants to slaves. Main revenue was from
tobacco then grain production in Virginia and maryland.
Slavery expanded to different types of farms and jobs as people
expanded westward.
- Created a hierarchy with large planters at the top of chesapeake
Virginia required free slaves to be sent out of the colony so there were few
free slaves (in 1750). Free = white at this point.
More balanced sex ration in slaves that allowed for family centered slave
Slavery in early carolina
Relied on export of indian slaves to caribbean and selling of deerskins/furs
from indians to england.
Creeks feared enslavement as the British encroached into their land and they
neared Spanish florida.
By 1730 most carolinians were black due to large scale cultivation of rice that
was necessary.
- More land and efficient rice production . Blacks were more educated
than colonists.
- Slaves were to be in control of the fields due to partial immunity to
malaria, unlike in chesapeake where they used task system (daily crop
requirements )
- Stono rebellion = congo slaves beat drums and burned houses and
killed whites shouting liberty as they marched towards spanish florida.
This led to tightening of the slave code.
At one point south carolina brought poor protestants to battle the high black
numbers but london revoked this
Georgia slavery
Rice cultivation spread to georgia in mid 1700s
Founded by oglethorpe with the dream of it being a haven for “Wealthy poor”
of england. Slaves and liquor were banned despite colonists wanting it. 1751
proprietors returned the colony to the crown where they elected an
assembly that repealed this ban.
Low birth rate in georgia and carolina meant new slaves had to be sourced.
More autonomous and spoke gullah while living in their african communities.
Charleston and Savannah had servant/skilled workers that promoted
Slavery in north
Small farmers predominated so slaves were mainly used as servants or as
helpers to workers. Slave laws were much less cruel (marriage recognized,
severe physical punishment prohibited, court, property ownership)
Northern states used slaves for wage labor work such as artisan shops, farm
hands, loading/unloading ships, craftsmen, etc.
In 1741 after fires broke out rumors spread that slaves were trying to take
over New York and give it to the spanish.
They attempted to give the slaves freedom in the eyes of the christ - convert
Pg 108
Ch. 4 - England late 1600’s
- 1688 secured parliamentary succession to throne not crown (Charles II). After
came James II - who decreed religious toleration for protestant dissenters
and catholics.
- Glorious revolution : James II fled in 1688 after William of Orange
entered England with an army of dutch in the name of English
- Protestant denomination was thus secured as a king was back in
- Reinforced the notion of freedom and protestantism with american
- 1675 lords of trade were created by england to oversee colonial affairs
- James ii from 1686-88 combined connecticut, plymouth, massachusetts, new
hampshire, rhode island, new york and east/west jersey into the dominion of
new england. Ruled by Sir Edmund andros.
- His tyranny ignored local representatives and reinforced the fear of
monarchys/loss of english liberties
- After the overthrow of James II, colonies rebelled and dissolved dominion
(removed lord baltimore sir edmond andros, etc.)
- Maryland uprising: ​”The overthrowing of James II triggered uprisings
and rebellions all along the east coast. After multiple other seizures of
authority, Maryland's Protestant Association overthrew the
government of the colony's Catholic proprietor, Lord Baltimore.”
- Colony tolerated catholics less now
Leisler’s rebellion: Leisler was a calvinist wealthy merchant that
divided NY by economic and ethnic lines allowing members of dutch
majority to reclaim local power/encourage rebellion across the city.
Rich protested in London and he was hung and cut into several pieces.
- Plymouth and Massachusetts where merged and property ownership
would dictate voting rights. Governor was appointed by london and
thus Massachusetts became a royal colony under a single english
- Forced to abide by english toleration act of 1690 - all
protestants must be allowed to worship freely. Against puritan
separatists of Plymouth's ideals.
In 1692 Salem witch trials revealed the justice issue in the colony
massachusetts. A clergyman then released a document warning of the false
testimony of the jury. From then on they would work to find scientific
evidence not witchcraft as a justification.
Thousands of Indians died from disease upon the arrival of Columbus thus
helping wipe out the new world.
Ch. 4 Growth of colonial america
- 1700-1770 received mainly non english europeans and africans. English
emigration was no longer promoted as skilled labor was flooding into the
new world (brain drain).
- Immigration into the land made it very diverse. Many were promised English
asylum if they stayed in colonies for 7 years. Government was still convinced
that colonial development helped england. They sent convicts to work in
chesapeake and members of non english parts of british isles.
- Scotts had a profound impact in the colonies as presbyterians fleeing
religious discrimination from northern ireland/scotland.
- Most European immigrants were germans. Many of which fled religious
persecution as the minority of their German state. (Mennonites, Moravians,
certain catholic and lutherans, etc.)
- Skilled work was paid well and there was no military draft, economic
opportunity was not exclusive, and land was plentiful.
- Newcomers would eventually equate land with liberty, threatening the
Old tribes died off with the remnants of them forming new tribes and
assimilating to certain technologies of white people (alcohol guns etc)
- In pennsylvania germans would expand into indian land in need of land
Regional diversity
- New england and backcountry: small farms and family labor
- Older parts of NY, NJ, and Pennsylvania: commerce oriented farmers that
sold abroad and used wage laborers. Land was held by large landowners
- Early consumerism
- English american cities were gathering places for agricultural
goods/imported items for distribution in the countryside
Ch. 3 Origin of American ideals
- pg124
- Gap between rich and poor widened like nothing before. No banks so
mercantile success depended on connections and business talent
- Virginia gentry used control of local land to gain control of government and
power in house of burgesses
- Anglicization = Americans adopting British values and goods to prove their
worth and status.
- This caused many planters to go into debt
- South carolina planters where the richest
- Freedom from work = gentleman
- Half of the wealth was by the 10 richest landowners in the late 1700’s. This
meant that white colonists were forced to look west to find more land.
- Economic dependence began to be looked down upon as land ownership
equated to liberty. Not relying on anyone meant you were free !
- Cousinocracy = Virginian upper class intermarried and was very close, so a
cousinocracy said to rule it.
Ch4 pg 150
- War helped sharpen sense of national identity to foreign powers and british
were increasingly patriotic throughout 1700s (“God save the king”)
- Continental people = wooden shoes, had lower standards than britons
- Britain became a place of widespread prosperity, individual liberty, rule of
law, and protestant faith.
- Liberty was highly valued among britons
House of commons, house of lords, and king checked the power of
- Political cause wrapped itself in language of liberty and jury often
decided on cases that were for “rights of englishmen” on both sides of
the atlantic.
- Viewed every other country as contempt to slavery or barabarism in
some way
Liberty became synonymous with right to resist arbitrary government as it
lost its traditional association with the wealthy
Republicanism = active participation in public life by independent citizens
who valued virtue and morals
- In britain, freedom was associated with the “country party”, who
fought for elections of men of independence
Liberalism = john locke, family principals inappropriate for governing public
life - personal ideas, family relations, religious preferences, and economic
activity should be shielded from government. Lockean ideas - individual
rights, consent of governed, right of rebellion.
- Ideology was against slavery and lack of female rights
1700s was more stable in england and colonies except for new york, where
differed groups fought for political support
Most British did not vote - had to own land.
New England colonies stressed harmony - elections were uncontested.
Middle colonies had competitive elections,
“Deference” ( Assumption among ordinary people that wealth education and
social prominence was required to hold a spot in office) held people back
from office
Salutary neglect = colonies left to govern themselves
- Certain land owners dominated local politics
Assemblies became increasingly important in 1700s as opposed to governors
- One house system in pennsylvania
People in America were entitled to a political opinion. Or at least political
conversations (especially philadelphia)
- Widespread literacy
Freedom of speech in england used to mean the parliaments privilege of
unrestrained debate
Ch. 4 Enlightenment/awakening
- 1735 trial of john peter zenger “ German printer who emigrated to NT as a
youth. Wrote about the government's tyranny as he was financed by
governor william cosby, an opponent to the governor. Hamilton, his attorney,
fought for the governor to be judged. Zenger was found not guilty.
- Promoted publication of truth and warned of the complexity of libel
- English enlightenment: Philosophical movement that applied
scientific method to life. Every human institution should be judged.
Benjamin Franklin for example.
- Americans often believed in
- Arminianism = reason alone helped establish essentials of
- Deism = belief that god withdrew after creating the world
leaving humans with scientific laws
- Both viewed religious tradition as outdated
- Great awakening: Religious disputes more important than political issues
- Colonial growth prioritized worldly affairs
- Religious fundamentalism : wahhabism, hasidic jews, methodism
- Preaching of whitfield offered salvation and highlighted repentance
- Congregations split into factions headed by traditionalists and
revivalists. New churches criticized taxes that supported an
established church and defended religious freedom
- Reflected social tensions and questioned authority
- George whitfield, english evangelist, was a prominent preacher
- Asserted right of independent judgement. Revivalists would promote
the ability to form your own view different than those of elites.
Ch. 4 Imperial rivalries (1750s)
- Spanish - thinly populated. Colonies from pacific coast and new mexico into
great plains and through texas and florida. After 1763 included louisiana.
- Reality was few urban clusters (St augustine florida, san antonio, and
santa fe and albuquerque new mexico)
1750-1800s tried to populate north of rio grande by stabilizing relations
with indians (comanches and apaches) Economy reliant on trading and
labor from indians
- Texas was colonized to prevent french commercial influence from
intruding new mexico
- Presidios = military outposts at los adaes, la bahia, and san antonio
- Many colonies stagnated due to war and diseases.
- Russian fur traders were in Alaska so the Spanish colonized California
to protect Spanish America. Junipero Serra founded the first
California mission, San diego. Was praised in Spain for converting
Indians however forced labor and diseases were common in the
- California outposts were religious institutions/government and labor
French - greater rivals to british due to close proximity. Pushed into the
Mississippi river valley south into great lakes and north.
- Prejudice against North America in france. Manon, the opera, displayed
the land as a home for criminals and outcasts.
- The French challenged the British with good Indian relations. They
both competed for alliances in trading deerskin.
Most fighting was on the W British frontier. Ohio valley mixed British French
and Indians. These Indians realized that british and french rivalry was
controversial and the iroquois used balance-of-power diplomacy to mediate
between both sides of the river.
- Government of Virginia gave a huge land grant to The Ohio company
that threatened Indians and Pennsylvania land owners. Frustrated the
french as they claimed the land too and wouldn't recognize the new
ownership of the land (this would be start of 7 years war)
Ch.4 Seven Years War+effects
- Seven years war/ French Indian War (1754-1763) =
- BACKGROUND: Britain emerged as a superpower after wars against
France and Spain. Several wars that were financed by the British led to
high taxes and discontent among the British .
- Superpowers were
competing for land around the
world. In 1754 the British tried to
remove French in western
Pennsylvania . George
Washington attempted to
persuade the French to leave a
fort built on Ohio company land.
He thus built fort necessity that
were poorly defended against
french/indians and he was thus
forced to surrender.
- For 2 years
french/indians captured british
forts in north NY . Indians killed
colonists in W Pennsylvania and pushed the line of settlement back.
- In Nova Scotia the British expelled french. Prime minister William Pitt
(british) poured men and naval forces into the war and funded prussia
and austria to hold line against french and spain in europe allowing
british to strike french weak colonies.
- By 1759 British had conquered French outposts and by 1760
Montreal, the last part of new France, surrendered. This
resulted in British control of all islands in the French Caribbean
and control of India.
- Peace of Paris in 1763 french gave Canada to Britain in return for
sugar islands that they viewed more lucrative. Spain gave Florida
to Britain for the Philippines and Cuba (that were seized by the
British during the war) and acquired Louisiana from the French.
- Entire continent east of Mississippi was now English.
War produced an economic crisis in France that helped create
the French revolution. In 30 years, the British would also heavily
tax Americans.
without the French that helped balance their power. The English celebrated
and Indians saw this as a threat - They feared domination from any outside
power = loss of freedom. The French gave lands to the British that was indian
and left them dependent on colonists.
- Pontiac rebellion (1763) = Indians in ohio valley revolted against british
. Delaware religious prophet, Neolin, told indians to reject europeans
and commercial ties and drive british away from the land. Pan-indian
identity was to enforce cooperation over their placelessness in their
own land.
- Pontiac was an ottawan war leader
- That summer Ottawas, Hurons, and other indians besieged Detroit
(major birtish outpost) and 9 other forts killing white settlers. British
launched counterattack and eventually all tribes made peace.
- Proclamation of 1763 was issued in London = prohibited further
settlement W of Appalachian mountains. Also banned sale of
indian land to
individuals - only
colonies could
- British wanted to take
advantage of land now
free of French so they
ignored the policy and
bought land.
- PENNSYLVANIA - previously
lead by quakers that
acommodated the indians, the
war demanded a more
agressive stance. Governor
declared war on Deleawares
and offered a bounty and
militia that was filled with pacificst quakers weakinging their political
- Western farmers hated indians. December 1763 during pontiacs
rebellion, 50 men destroyed indian village (Conestoga) under
protection of pennsylvanias governor. Then mkilled more
indians in lancaster.
- Accused colonial authorities of treating indiasn too
lenient and threatened stability. The 1760s brought an end
of Penns promoise of friendship between colonists and
Outside of new england, more americans traveled to and from england than
one colony to another. 7 years war bonded colonies and increased pride in
- The empire now included french catholics and indians in
india.Edmund Burke, a statesman, noted the challenge in British
freedom with such a diversity of people.
Period 1/2 Test Prep
Religious dissent in Massachusetts
- Puritan majority that didnt like other religions
- Moral liberty (restrictions in society)
- Religious toleration act
- Forced them to respect protestants
Massachusetts was a New England colony that was originally settled by a
group of Puritans fleeing the misguided anglican Church of England. The Puritans
criticized the English government for mimicking the Catholics in their religious
practices, and claimed it needed to be further purified which prompted them to
move to America. This led them to adopt a harsh outlook on those of following
other religions, especially with regards to their idea of moral liberty, which stated
that restraints should be used to govern society. Such restrictions were against the
freedom to follow religion.
Although they began as homogenous, when King James joined Massachusets
Bay and Plymouth (2 puritan colonies) he enforced the religious toleration act
which would insure that the puritans respected protestants. This alongside the
glorious revolution (where protestant William III took the throne in England) helped
dissent against catholics and protests grow even more.
Political change in Chesapeake
- Bacon's rebellion allowed for laws that sourced labor from africa
- Claimed slavery as heridatary among african americans
- Because indentured servants still had notion of liberty and were weaker they
couldnt be the work force
Bacon's rebellion in 1676 was the first rebellion between colonists and
colonial government. In virgina, the tobacco industry was booming to the point that
indentured servants and freed slaves had no work or land, small farmers where also
becoming bankrupt by high taxes and plenty of supply of tobacco. Although the
governor told Virginians not to encroach into Indian land they had nowhere else to
go. So Bacon, a prominent political figure, gathered his followers as they rebelled
against Berkeley for land, burning the city. This led to political change as from then
on the government would focus on labeling black people as slaves (or the main labor
force) because they realized that white slaves still had the notion of freedom
instilled in them. Politically, they would enact laws that claimed slavery as
hereditary among black families.
Effects of these changes
- Associate black race with slavery
- Indentured servitude obsolete
Because of these changes Chesapeake colonies would source their labor from
slaves in Africa - This also helped attach the black race to slavery as indentured
servitude become obsolete. African Americans could be employed and serve their
whole life working, with their children following their path.
Comparing and contrasting the role of religion in colonization of new england vs
colonization of new spain by spanish.
- Spanish purpose was gold, religion, and labor. Conversion = freedom. Those
who didnt convert faced consequences
- English didnt have this notion, focused on attaining land
- Both saw them as savages needing of conquering
- Lack of religion in english colonies = hard to impose rekligion
Both New England and New Spain attempted to convert the natives to
Christianity, but their methods in doing so were quite different. New England saw
the arrival of colonists that intended on fleeing England's religious persecution
(such as puritans or catholics) , while the intentions of the Spanish in the New
world would be mainly labor, gold / silver, and conversion.
The Spanish conquistadores would force Catholicism onto the natives, who
would be punished if they didn’t convert. However, the mixing of races allowed a
race of Mestizos (spanish- native mix) to form that would adopt Catholicism making
colonization easier with a more homogenous society. While the Spanish focused on
conversion, English colonists mainly displaced the Indians with a focus more on
acquiring their land then converting them.
Both powers saw natives as savages that should be converted, but once
converted, Spanish did not view them as inferior - at least according to progressive
conquistador Bartolome de las casas who argued for their rights. New England on
the other hand still viewed them as inferior. Praying indians where persecuted and
forced into labor after King Phillips war, even having been Christian.
Another difference was that Spain preached Catholicism while New England
held colonists that were Puritan, Quaker, Protestant, and other Christian
denominations. This led to a lack of religious uniformity that made it hard to
impose religion on the natives.
Ch. 5 - Growing British hatred
Pg. 184-195
- Post-7 years war
- Colonial leaders were inspired by the idea that power inevitably seeks
to steal liberty, which defined their stance against England post french
indian war.
- Colonists previously ignored british taxes such as navigation acts.
- Britain reverted to looking at the colonies as their subordinates, and
milking them for money to raise funds for the war and finance the
- “Virtual representation” in england, no representatives of english cities
as everyone represented everyone.
- Taxation without representation!!!!!! And unwarranted searching in
houses in boston by british
Sugar Act : 1764, reduced tax on imported molasses from french west indies
by 3 pence. However, also came with new machinery that ended smuggling of
merchants, strengthened admiralty courts (that would not let merchants off
easy) - merchants not granted a jury trial.
Revenue Act : Wool +Hides had to be shipped through england.
Stamp act: First act that gained money from colonies through increased tax
not trade regulation. All forms of of printed material needed to be stamped
by authorities.
- First widely opposed thing, against englishman's idea of liberty.
- October 1765, stamp act congress had delegates from 9 colonies.
Created resolutions that affirmed allegiance of colonies with britain
but required the right to oppose taxation “was essential to freedom”.
- Made people more attentive to their liberties, and gathered them in
the fight for their freedom.
- Sons of liberty was a group of merchants who protested for the rights
of the commonman.
- 1766 repealed as british where stunned by American resistance.
- Declaratory act in its place, which stated that britain had power to
declare laws in america.
All around america disputes began to form against political tyranny of
colonial leaders and for the democratization of colonial governments.
Tenant uprising : Along hudson river in NYC, tenants stopped paying and
began seizing land. Eventually suppressed by the British government.
Townshend Crisis: Charles Townshend, chancellor of finance in london,
understood that americans would not ovject if britain raise revenue by
regulating trade. This led him to impose taxes on goods imported into the
colonies and surpressing smuggling.
- Began in boston but spread to colonies, americans began to embrace
american goods> british goods by relying on homespun clothing. An
act of resistance that lessened taxes.
- Helped chesapeake planters that where in debt
Boston massacre = In 1768 British royal troops stationed on port of boston
after seizing John Hancok’s ship for violating trade regulations. They
continuously tested their authority on local merchants. In 1770 a fight broke
out between a snowball throwing crowd of bostonians and british troops
resulting in an armed confrontation that killed 5 british. Crispus Attacks was
claimed as the first martyr of the revolution.
- Paul revere circulated a print of the massacre that was false and
printed the british as worse than they were
1770 nonimportation collapsing. Britain repealed townshend to avoid future
conflict but put tea tax. Americans were complacent.
Rumors spread of English sending bishops to America similar to those of the
previous religious courts that persecuted dissenters.
Tea Act:
- East India Company was heavily invested in, and their stocks were
declining so England proposed to help them sell their massive supply
of Chinese tea.
- Allowed them to provide cheap tea to Americans undercutting
merchants. Threatened colonial governments control of finance.
- Colonists disguised as Indians boarded the boat and threw 300
chests into water.
Intolerable Acts : United americans against british - closed all ports until tea
debt paid,chose governor and appointing members (previously by election),
lodge soldiers in private homes. Assert their power over colonists
Quebec Act : Southern border of canadian province to ohio river and allowed
toleration of roman catholic church in canada.
- Americans (mainly protestant) thought that the british were trying to
turn america catholic
Continental congress gathered powerful delegates among the colonies where
they would adopt the continental association - a complete halting of trade
with Britain and west indies. (patrick henry and john adams realized their
- Committees in each colony would advocate for anti-british, members
where average colonists.
Terminology to describe their freedom transformed from “rights of
englishmen” to “universal rights”
First Shots fired for independence!
- Battle of Lexington and Concord: May 1775, british soldiers marched from
boston towards concord seeking to seize their gun stockpile. Paul Revere and
riders warned local leaders of their approach, and they had a shootout.
Britain declared America in a state of rebellion when the second continental
congress raised an army, printed money, and appointed George Washington
(southern) as their military commander.
Opinions about autonomy:
- Massachusetts and virginia elites where confident in their authority
without britain
- Southern elites outraged by a proclamation that freed slaves that
escaped and bore arms for the king
- NYC and Pennsylvania was more diverse
- Common Sense by Thomas Paine in 1776 criticized British monarchy
and law. Cutting ties meant no more European wars. Addressed
common man not elite. 6 months later continental congress would
decide to cut ties with britain.
Declaration of independence approved on july 4 , 1776, written by Jefferson.
Argued for the government to derive its power from the “consent of the
governed”. Basically was an assertion for revolution !!!!!
- Liberty thus became a universal entitlement that was not special to the
englishman or english constitution.
- Lot of influence from Locke, who he referred to in writing Natural
rights (right to resist arbitrary government) and in place of lockean
triad included the pursuit of happiness, instilling in americans a fervor
to realize their life goals. .
Americans viewed america as an asylum for mankind. Other countries
modeled after jeffersons independence.
Ch.5 Securing Independence
The British military was much more powerful and well equipped (best navy in
the world) than the American continental army (somewhat prepared from 7
years war).
Washington originally refused to allow black recruits but when they began
joining the British cause for freedom he allowed them to be drafted. People
could substitute themselves with black people who served them.
- Virginia emancipated slaves who participated in the war along with
other southern states (not SC and Georgia)
Progression of war
- At the beginning, British Sir William Howe chased Washington and his
soldiers around as they avoided direct confrontation. Many defeats led
the army to dwindle from 28 to 3000 men
- Launched surprise attacks
- Battle of Saratoga : Summer 1777 British general Burgoyne moved south
from Canada in an attempt to group with Howe and his troops to
isolate New England, but he had already moved to NYC (to attack
Philadelphia). This meant he abandoned him forcing him to surrender
at Saratoga - boosted American morale.
- Helped persuade the French of their powers. Diplomats led by
Franklin made a military alliance with them against britain their main european rivals. Spain would eventually join
- 1778 focus was on south British tried to exploit tension between
backcountry farmers and wealthy planters while also encouraging
slaves to escape. British took savannah and charleston
- 1780 was low point - congress bankrupt, slaves joining british, and
loyalists joined british
- Couldn't consolidate power in south - hit and run attacks by milita
men under marion called “swamp fox” because his men hid in places in
swamps then attacked, eroding british positions
- British defeat at Yorktown : After suffering defeat, Cornwallis and his
troops fled to Yorktown, Virginia in chesapeake. Washington with help
of French troops surrounded the british while french troops controlled
the mouth of chesapeake preventing supplies from reaching
- When London heard about this, they looked to negotiate peace
- Canada did not wish to join the war of independence, and the West
Indies, scared of slave uprising, remained loyal to the crown.
Treaty of paris in 1783 earned America control of region between canada and
florida (E of Mississippi river), and right to fish off of canada. British would
now view americans as loyal to England , state governments restored,
USA Became western hemispheres first independent nation
Ch. 6 - democratizing freedom
- Abigail adams resented absolute power husbands exercised over wives
Declaration of independence claim “all men created equal” would help make
freedom and equality interchangeable, as american society was different in
that it did not rely on obedience of those with higher status to be recognized.
Everyone voiced their political opinions, serve in army for citizenship
Most colonies split into probritain or pro america parts or fully embraced
leadership. Pennsylvania however wanted to remain with Britain, fearing the
rule of the mob and property attacks.
- 1776 Pro independence group grew against this made of artisans and
low class people. Thomas paine and benjamin rush plus others led
their extralegal committees. They argued for right to vote for all men
and hated on classism.
- The state adopted constitution that institutionalized democracy by
concentration power in one house that was elected by all men over age
21 who paid taxes. Included clauses that gave freedom of speech,
religion, and writing
- Americans agreed that governments should be republics -authority
depends on consent of governed.
John Adams in thoughts of government thought constitutions should create
balanced government that divided society between wealthy and ordinary
men. Powerful Judge and governor made sure no power was infringed
between groups.
- 2 houses followed by all except pennsylvania, georgia, and vermont.
His state, massachusets, gave governor veto over legislature laws.
- He believed men without property where unqualified , a stance
opposite of the democrats who fought for elimination of social ranks
Virginia and SC - property required to vote and men dominated legislature
chose governor, maryland required lot of money to hold office.
More democratic constitutions - voting is entitlement not privilege. Vermont
and pennsylvania profressive. Elevated personal liberty.
Every state except for SC allowed yearly elections to ensure representatives
where accountable to peopl. FREEDOM WAS NOT PEOPLES RIGHT TO BE
Ch. 5 - Religious toleration
- Dissenters - protestants of non anglican denominations in britain.
- Catholic Americans - first continental congress denounced Quebec act. 1778
US allied with France, catholic.
- Pg 227 till 238
Slavery and the revolution
- Some patriots believed slavery was necessary so Americans could have
economic autonomy and freedom.
- 1780 virginia law rewarded veterans of the war of independence with
land and a slave
- To lose their land would put them on the same level as slaves.
- Antislavery sentiment grew in quaker pennsylvania. By defining freedom as a
universal right slaves were instilled with a hope of independence.
- As a response to the tea party, blacks paraded the city crying “Liberty!”
- Freedom petitions: 1770s new england had courts receive arguments
by enslaved black people
- Lemuel Haynes, 1776, black member of massachusetts militia, argued
for emancipation of blacks.
- More slaves fained freedom by fighting for the British. At the wars end,
20000 slaves living in enclaves of british control - New york, savannah,
- Freedom promised slaves went to nova scotia, england, and sierra
leone. Tension between England and America because they owed
america slave population. 1827 made payments to 1100 who were
deprived of slave property.
- Most states did not want to import slaves during the revolution. Abolution
was considerable in maryland and virgina where slaves were emancipated.
Families drafted wills to gradually free the slaves they owned. However,
farther south slavery continued despite invasion of british.
- In the north, abolition laws focused on freeing the children of slaves after
they had worked their whole life to compensate for future economic loss.
Pennsylvania act in 1780 required 28 years of work to free a slave mothers
- Large free black population forming from abolition in north, voluntary
emancipation in upper south, and escaping bondage in south.
- By 1810 all free black men who owned property or paid taxes could
vote in all states but virgina, SC, and georgia.
- Number of slaves still growing!
Daughters of liberty!
- Deborah sampson : disguised as man in 1782 joined army
- Ladies association raised funds for soldiers. Female activisim!
- Coverture still a thing, they only had as much of a say as their
husbands permitted them.
- Republican motherhood : encouraged education for women (not
female involvement in politics) to help raise their sons to understand
- Reinforced marriage as compassionate and a voluntary union
Effects of revolution
- Expanded right to vote
- Bound labor among whites declined
- Religious groups had more liberty
- Blacks fought for freedom, many won.
- Woman enjoyed some higher status
- Indians, loyalists, and majority of slaves saw a deprivation of freedom
Ch. 7 - Confederation
- Articles of confederation drafted in 1777 and ratified 4 years later.
- Coordination for war of independence and centralize power that
helped liberty
- Friendship among the states, less of a government more of a union.
Each state could cast one vote.
- No real finances, mainly focused on dealing with war and foreign
- Helped earn a lot of territory west of colonies (to mississippi river),
mainly by southern states.
Congress believed Indians in the west didn't deserve the land after siding
with british. Treaties promised the Indians a significantly smaller portion of
land in its place.
Arguments for settling west :
- FOR : land companies could resell to colonists helping the economy
- AGAINST: , unregulated settlement = conflict with indians
Settlers ignored Indian land titles and urged gov to set low prices on public
- By the 1790s Kentucky courts were full with land claims from settlers
losing land, eventually early settlers had to leave.
- Laws in western frontier seemed essential to limit conflict
Ordinance of 1784: created stages of self government for the west. Originally
divided into districts governed by congress and eventually admitted to union
as states. North of ohio river
Second ordinance in 1785: regulated land sales north of ohio river. Land sold
per sq mile.
- Expensive price of land motivated buyers to buy smaller parcels from
land companies and speculators.
- 1787 congress decided to sell large tracts to private groups (such as
ohio company)
Northwest ordinance of 1787: 3-5 states north of Ohio river/ E of mississippi.
- Empire of liberty was Jefferson's idea that the US would allow the
population to freely expand to the west and grow the government with
the territory.
- Indian land shouldnt be taken without consent.
- Prohibited slavery in old northwest . slaves still brought as owners
claimed they signed long term labor contracts.
Weaknesses of confederation
- To pay war debt, they borrow money from interest bonds and paid
soldiers/suppliers in notes to be redeemed. Wasn’t able to pay back
interest or debt.
- American ships not allowed trade with west indies (not part of British
empire )
- Imported goods cut the business of craftsmen and drained money
States dealt with this all by tariffs, printing more money (to target
relief of farmers), laws postponing debt collection (creditors despised
Shays rebellion: Late 1786 debt ridden farmers closed courts in W
Massachusetts to stop land being seized from tax debts. Called themselves
regulators. Previously, the state did not issue paper money or assist debtors.
Regulators modelled the revolutions using liberty trees and poles as symbols.
Rebels eventually dispersed
Nationalists of 1780’s
- Samuel Adams believed unchecked liberty among the people should be
resolved by a strong central government.
- James Madison
- Alexander Hamilton, born in west indies, argued that authority was
needed to create “genuine liberty” among the people.
- Urban artisans wanting tariffs from foregn imports, merchants
wanting british markets, and people who feared property rights where
being infringed.
Philadelphia convention to scrap articles of confederation and create
Articles of confederation notes:
1. What does Article 6 say?
The article limits the power of each of the states by making sure that
no state sends representatives to any conference/treaty as the United
states without the consent of the government. States also can’t make
trade agreements or start war without approval.
2. Strengths/Why it's important:
Unifies America to stop states from seceding and promotes
nationalism. Strengthens the power of the government over colonial
powers. Limits conflict with Spain and France over taxation. Made
America a unified front.
3. Weaknesses:
Government is in charge of distribution of war vessels which could
produce tensions between the states. All foreign relationships must be
moderated by the government. Government too strong? Individual
states can’t act on their own without consent.
Ch.7 - Constitution / B.O.R
- TJ, John Adams were delegates in europe. George Washington, George
Mason, Ben Franklin. Aim was to strengthen national authority
- Legislature, judiciary, executive
- Raise money without reliance on states, cant infringe property,
represents people, presidential terms, national economic market
- Virginia plan = 2 house legislature with population determining
- New Jersey plan = equal representation (like AOC)
- Conclusion was 2 house congress with senate (equal 2 representatives)
and house of representatives apportioned according to population
- Limits of democracy
- No property or religious qualifications required - state specific voting
- Popular election of at least one part of government - House of
Representatives - made it a free government
- Originally small to insure prominent men won their position
- Electors of states meant to be smart to insure good heads of state
- Indirect election to insure ordinary voters had no direct power
- Elector casts 2 votes for 2 presidential candidates, 2nd place is
vice president. If no majority (norm) then the HOR chooses
between the top 3 with each state casting one vote. Senate
elects VP.
- Slavery !
- SC delegates added clause on fugitive slaves, ⅗, and electoral
college. Limited power for congress to tax (fear of levying
slaves). Disunion of slave trade abolished suddenly
- Slave trade till 1808. Although stopped during war, it resumed
until the constitution was enacted to make up for loss of
workers. 170,000 slaves!
- Constitution Didnt give power to interfere with states on
slavery , even though slaves where free if they reached britain.
Bill of rights delayed because “not all men were created free”,
Federalist papers
- 9/13 states needed to approve the constitution. To generate support,
Hamilton, Madison, and Jay made 85 essays gathered into the
federalist (1788). Insured that political authority shouldnt be feared.
- Madison argued to “extend the sphere” The diversity of America would
allow not one group to dominate and secure individuals rights. Tb
- Motivated liberal idea that men are motivated by self interest
because freedom must be preserved by the government, not the
character of people.
- Anti federalists
- State politicians fearing to lose their influence, those who saw
no need of strong central government (small farmers who
supported state debt relief measures), or those who detested its
support for slavery, or allow abolition.
- Extensive territory can't be governed by freedom - popular self
government was for small countries. Rich elite will continuously
be elected because they have the resources.
- Lack of bill of rights (that accompanied state constitutions)
- Rural farmers . Rhode Island and NC voted against ratification.
- Bill of rights
- First ten amendments. Madison thought the constitution was
enough and that restraining federal power would have no effect
on the dangers of liberty.
- Most Americans believed a constitution must have a document
to conciliate the minds of people (madison).
- First ratified in 1791
- Defined unalienable rights (from declaration of independence)
- Influence from English law
- The First amendment shows the influence of the war of
independence. Freedom to practice religion. Unlike declaration
of independence that used a divine blessing
- Helped make freedom of expression fundamental to americans
Ch. 8 - Securing the republic
(pg 294)
- George wasington became president, coin had liberty printed not the
monarch so as not to resemble england. Alexander hamilton , thomas
jefferson, and john adams also a part of the government
- Hamilton's program (treasury)
- Model England and make an economic superpower
1. Credit worthiness (bonds with government)
a. Independence war debt
2. Bonds holding interest would pay off a new national debt
3. Bank of the USA
a. Private corp that issued funds, currency, and returned
money to stockholders
4. Whiskey tax
5. Tariff on imported goods
- Jefforson and madison criticized the plan for holding too much central
power, and thought that the wealth should be distributed among farmers to
sell to the free world, not bankers and business leaders. Too similar to britain
- South first opposed due to low number of bond holders (paid off debts meant
why high taxation?) Many southerners become constructionists - people
against the constitution - after hamilton used the ”general welfare clause” to
justify all his changes.
- They would accept the fiscal program and pay no taxes to
manufacturers in exchange for a national capital on the Potomac
between Maryland and virginia.
French revolution
- Acceptance of revolution in 1789. Jefferson and followers thought it
symbolized liberty, Washington and Hamilton and his supporters thought it
was anarchy and that America should side with England.
- They had an alliance with France, and issued neutrality in 1793. French
supporters sided with Edward Genet who fought for his government in
America and commissioned American ships to attack France which
Washington stopped.
- The British seized American ships in French west indies and practiced
impressment - kidnapping and forcing into the navy.
Jay’s treaty - John lays treaty had no british concessions - britain agreed to
abandon west indies outposts in exchange for british imported goods in the
US. Thus the French alliance was cancelled.
Political parties
- Federalists
- supported Washington and favored Hamilton's programs .
- Close ties with britain
- Rich merchants, farmers, lawyers, leaders (out of south)
- Elitist , shouldnt overstep their liberty
- Met in small groups and dominated new england
- Republican
- Led by madison and jefferson, sympathized with france
- Wealthy southern planters and farmers and urban artists
- More critical about social/economic inequality and were accepting of
democratic participation
- Support for immigrants of british isles who were discriminated against
during british’s war with france.
- Mass meetings
- Despised haiti revolution
- Democratic republican societies criticized Washington and supported
the French. Political freedom was more than the right to vote!
- Societies absorbed into the republican party after being blamed
for organizing a whiskey rebellion.
- Whiskey rebellion : 1794, backcountry Pennsylvania farmers did not want to
pay whiskey tax. Used 1776 propaganda (liberty or death) and sent letters to
the president. Washington dispatched 13000 militia and the people gave in.
Signified first armed resistance to federal government/power of authority.
- Growth of press and post offices gave everyone a voice
- Thomas paine published rights of man in 1787 and five years later was forced
to france.radicals from all around the world would immigrate to america
- Mary Wollestonecraft's Rights of Woman inspired by Paine's rights of man and
she didn't challenge gender roles but thought education and employment
should be accessible to women and they should be represented in the
- Women began to take part in political discussions and became authors.
Overall, political parties, self-created societies, women's political consciousness,
and uprising such as the whiskeys rebellion revealed the democratization of public
life since the American revolution.
Adams presidency
- Election of 1796 between Adams and Thomas Pinckney of SC (federalists) vs
Thomas Jefferson and Aaron burr for republicans.
- Adams would win with Jefferson coming in second earning him vise
presidency. Jefferson would control the south . He was seen as
- Despite neutrality and ability to trade with France and England, both
countries seized American ships.
- XYZ Affair - 1797 tried to discuss a treaty in paris but they tried
to bribe America. Ruined relations with america after this news
spread creating quasi war at sea
- America thus sided with england (despite pressure from
hamilton to war with france) and eventually made peace with
france in 1800
- Fries Rebellion
- Naturalization act required 5-14 yrs for residency of immigrants to earn
- Alien act : deportation of people from abroad who seemed like a danger to
- Sedition act : Prosecution of any public assembly/publication critical of
government. Expired in 1801
- Purpose was to target republican editors who were often printers and
posed a danger to liberty , helping in promoting rebellion
- Reign of witches : 18 people charged for spreading false information
- Virginia and Kentucky resolutions deemed the act unconstitutional
(against 1st amendment). Virginia wanted the federal gov to protect
free speech (madison). Jefferson's Kentucky resolution thought states
could nullify laws that violated the constitution - states unilaterally
prevented enforcement.
Revolution of 1800
Jefferson beat adams but him and his vice president, Aaron burr,
received the same number of votes. House of representatives was thus
in charge of deciding between them (federalist majority) but they again
tied. Hamilton intervened and he preferred jefferson so he won.
- This allowed for the 12th amendment to be added to the
constitution : separate votes for president and vice president
- Peaceful transfer of power between presidents
Haitian Revolution : Jeffersonians disgusted by slave revolution in 1791 Saint
domingue, Haiti. French overseas empire capital - rebellion began by
Toussaint L’Ouverture a slave that created an army to fight british attempting
to overtake the island, and then proceeded to make haiti an independent
nation in 1804
- Inspired slaves, many african americans fled to the country
- White people in haiti spread news that they were barbaric
Gabriel's Rebellion : A Blacksmith named Gabriel in virgina and his brothers
planned on marching on Richmond - new state capital - to kill white
inhabitants and hold the rest along with the fovernor hostand until they
abolished slavery. Hoped “Poor white people” would help and quakers and
methodists and french would be spared. There was a storm on the day of the
rebellion that left them outside the city where they were caught and
arrested. 26 hung and others were transported out of state.
- Half of Richmond was black. The population had conspiracy in their
blood and many were skilled slave craftsmen who could negotiate
labor arrangements and receive wages. Their relative autonomy helped
inspire them to fight for freedom.
- Most people in the rebellion were born around 1776 and had liberty in
their blood.
- Slave rebellions often carried same symbols as american revolution
such as “Death or Liberty” (patrick henry), which implied that White
Americans = british equivalents
- American liberty was a mindset in slaves as well
Reign of Jefferson
- First president in D.C, began in 1801.
- Eliminated many taxes (including whiskey) and only kept tariffs.
Overall decentralized power minimizing government oversight.
Period 3 Test Prep
- 1790 : naturalization act and
- 1790-91 Miami confederacy defeat
- 1794 - WHISKEY rebellion
- 1794 - jay's treaty
- 1795 - treaty of greenville and annuity system
- 1797 - XYZ Affair
- 1798 - Alien and sedition acts
Chapter 8 - Jefferson
Pg. 311
- Jefferson believed america would flourish if a limited government allowed its
citizens to be free to regulate their own pursuits.
- Attempted to dismantle federalist system
- Pardon all imprisoned due to sedition act
- Reduced government employees
- Only kept tariff and abolished other taxes
- Despite his wanting for states to hold most power, the supreme court
president, john marshall, was a federalist and advocated for central
- Judicial review: Supreme court assuming right to determine if an act violates
the constitution. Established by marbury vs madison
- Louisiana purchase:
- Territory: Gulf of mexico to canada and from mississippi river to rochy
mountains, was ceded by france to spain (1762) but returned to france
secretly in 1800. Pinkney treaty allowed american trade in new orleans,
but he was scared that the powerful french would try to interfere.
- He sent envoys to buy the city. Napolean needed money and defeated
from lack of control of saint dominigue, he offered to sell all of
louisiana territory for 15 million dollars
- Irony: He was a republican which believed that the federal government
was restricted in its powers, yet he attempted to purchase territory
from a foreign power, something not listed in the constitution.
Believed increased agriculture would protect economy, and lots of land
would insure this.
- Slaves had one of the worst slave codes in America, and women as well
saw a losing of rights from their leniant spanish predecessors.
1804 Lewis and Clark dispatched by Jefferson. The two Virginans where
supposed to ally with Western indians and locate a water route to pacific
ocean. They reached the pacific ocean with help of sacajawea and gathered
helpful information about tribes and nature and animals.
Barbary wars: between pasha of tripoli and America. Reinforced islamophobia
after pirates seized 13 American ships and required recurring ransom
payments/tributes. After war of 1812 harassment stops
Embargo Act:1807, cut off trade with the rest of world. A lot of federal power
for a republican!
- Hoped it would reduce british impressment, but it reminded
americans of intolerable acts. Significantly reduced exports.
Non intercourse act: cut off trade with britain and france
Jefferson ended his second term badly and James Madison easily won
presidency in 1808.
- Macons Bill No. 2: 1810, resumed trade provided that france or britain
ceased interfering with american rights
- Napoleon repealed this since british controlled the seas
anyways, and britain continued impressing. Embargo reinforced
in 1812 .
War Hawks was a nationalist group that defended American rights against
the British and hoped to annex canada.
Cherokee and creek despised by nativist tribes for their assimilation to
trading practices.
Tecumseh was a chief who attempted to rally pan indian spirit like in the
alliance of the 1760s, and saw white people as the enemy.
War of 1812:
- Reports of british aiding tecumseh and assaults on american trading
helped create the war.
- Federalists and republicans north of new jersey voted against
war since they held most of finances.
- Congress declared war
Dificult to finance since charter of national bank set to end in
1811 and northern merchants refused to loan money (economy in
- England distracted by war with france, but after that it invaded
america in 1814 and burned whitehouse.
- Battle of Thames near detroit resulted in ceding of half Indian
land to federal government.
- Treaty of ghent ended the war in 1814
- Effects of war (pg 323)
Federalists disappeared as they got a bad rep for being anti-patrioits in a
country filled with post-war spirits.