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Practice Questions Cells, Organelles, Membranes, & Cell Transport
MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1) Which type of organelle is primarily involved in the synthesis of oils, phospholipids, and steroids?
A) smooth endoplasmic reticulum
B) lysosome
C) ribosome
D) contractile vacuole
E) mitochondrion
2) Which structure is the site of the synthesis of proteins that may be exported from the cell?
A) lysosomes
B) tight junctions
C) rough ER
D) plasmodesmata
E) Golgi vesicles
3) The Golgi apparatus has a polarity or sidedness to its structure and function. Which of the following
statements correctly describes this polarity?
A) Lipids in the membrane of the Golgi may be sorted and modified as they move from one side of the
Golgi to the other.
B) Transport vesicles fuse with one side of the Golgi and leave from the opposite side.
C) All of the above correctly describe polar characteristics of the Golgi function.
D) Proteins in the membrane of the Golgi may be sorted and modified as they move from one side of the
Golgi to the other.
E) Soluble proteins in the cisternae (interior) of the Golgi may be sorted and modified as they move from
one side of the Golgi to the other.
4) In animal cells, hydrolytic enzymes are packaged to prevent general destruction of cellular components.
Which of the following organelles functions in this compartmentalization?
A) peroxisome
B) central vacuole
C) glyoxysome
D) lysosome
E) chloroplast
5) The liver is involved in detoxification of many poisons and drugs. Which of the following structures is
primarily involved in this process and therefore abundant in liver cells?
A) Golgi apparatus
B) rough ER
C) Transport vesicles
D) Nuclear envelope
E) smooth ER
6) Which of the following contains hydrolytic enzymes?
A) lysosome
B) peroxisome
C) vacuole
D) Golgi apparatus
E) mitochondrion
7) Which of the following contains its own DNA and ribosomes?
A) vacuole
B) lysosome
C) Golgi apparatus
D) mitochondrion
E) peroxisome
8) Organelles other than the nucleus that contain DNA include
A) ribosomes.
B) mitochondria.
C) chloroplasts.
D) B and C only
E) A, B, and C
Use the following to answer the following questions. All three are involved in maintenance of cell shape.
Microtubules (tubulin
Hollow tubes; wall
consists of 13 columns of
tubulin molecules
25 nm with 15-nm lumen
Main functions Cell motility
Microfilaments (actin
Two intertwined strands
of actin, each a polymer
of actin subunits
7 nm
Cell motility
Fibrous proteins
supercoiled into
thicker cables
8-12 nm
9) The differences among the three categories of cytoskeletal elements would suggest that each of the following
has specialized roles. Which of the following is a correct match?
A) intermediate filaments and cytoplasmic streaming
B) microfilaments and the nuclear lamina
C) microtubules and cleavage furrow formation
D) microfilaments and ciliary motion
E) microtubules and chromosome movement
10) The presence of cholesterol in the plasma membranes of some animals
A) makes the membrane less flexible, allowing it to sustain greater pressure from within the cell.
B) makes the animal more susceptible to circulatory disorders.
C) enables the animal to add hydrogen atoms to unsaturated phospholipids.
D) enables the animal to remove hydrogen atoms from saturated phospholipids.
E) enables the membrane to stay fluid more easily when cell temperature drops.
11) What kinds of molecules pass through a cell membrane most easily?
A) small and hydrophobic
B) monosaccharides such as glucose
C) large and hydrophobic
D) ionic
E) large polar
12) Which of these are not embedded in the lipid bilayer at all?
A) transmembrane proteins
B) integral proteins
C) glycoproteins
D) peripheral proteins
E) integrins
13) Which of the following would likely move through the lipid bilayer of a plasma membrane most rapidly?
A) an amino acid
B) glucose
C) K+
D) CO2
E) starch
14) Which of the following statements is correct about diffusion?
A) It is very rapid over long distances.
B) It requires integral proteins in the cell membrane.
C) It is a passive process in which molecules move from a region of higher concentration to a region of
lower concentration.
D) It is an active process in which molecules move from a region of lower concentration to one of higher
E) It requires an expenditure of energy by the cell.
Use the diagram of the U-tube in Figure 7.2 to answer the questions that follow.
The solutions in the two arms of this U-tube are separated by a membrane that is permeable to water and glucose but not
to sucrose. Side A is half filled with a solution of 2 M sucrose and 1 M glucose. Side B is half filled with 1 M sucrose and 2
M glucose. Initially, the liquid levels on both sides are equal.
Figure 7.2
15) Initially, in terms of tonicity, the solution in side A with respect to that in side B is
A) plasmolyzed.
B) hypotonic.
C) isotonic.
D) hypertonic.
E) saturated.
16) After the system reaches equilibrium, what changes are observed?
A) The water level is higher in side A than in side B.
B) The molarity of sucrose and glucose are equal on both sides.
C) The molarity of glucose is higher in side A than in side B.
D) The water level is higher in side B than in side A.
E) The water level is unchanged.
17) A patient has had a serious accident and lost a lot of blood. In an attempt to replenish body fluids, distilled
water, equal to the volume of blood lost, is transferred directly into one of his veins. What will be the most
probable result of this transfusion?
A) The patient's red blood cells will swell because the blood fluid is hypotonic compared to the cells.
B) The patient's red blood cells will burst because the blood fluid is hypertonic compared to the cells.
C) It will have no unfavorable effect as long as the water is free of viruses and bacteria.
D) The patient's red blood cells will shrivel up because the blood fluid is hypertonic compared to the
E) The patient's red blood cells will shrivel up because the blood fluid is hypotonic compared to the cells.
18) Celery stalks that are immersed in fresh water for several hours become stiff and hard. Similar stalks left in a
salt solution become limp and soft. From this we can deduce that the cells of the celery stalks are
A) isotonic with fresh water but hypotonic to the salt solution.
B) hypertonic to fresh water but hypotonic to the salt solution.
C) hypotonic to fresh water but hypertonic to the salt solution.
D) hypotonic to both fresh water and the salt solution.
E) hypertonic to both fresh water and the salt solution.
19) A cell whose cytoplasm has a concentration of 0.02 molar glucose is placed in a test tube of water containing
0.02 molar glucose. Assuming that glucose is not actively transported into the cell, which of the following
terms describes the tonicity of the external solution relative to the cytoplasm of the cell?
A) turgid
B) isotonic
C) hypotonic
D) flaccid
E) hypertonic
Refer to Figure 7.3 to answer the following questions.
The solutions in the arms of a U-tube are separated at the bottom of the tube by a selectively permeable membrane. The
membrane is permeable to sodium chloride but not to glucose. Side A is filled with a solution of 0.4 M glucose and 0.5 M
sodium chloride (NaCl), and side B is filled with a solution containing 0.8 M glucose and 0.4 M sodium chloride. Initially,
the volume in both arms is the same.
Figure 7.3
20) At the beginning of the experiment,
A) side A is hypertonic to side B.
B) side A is hypotonic to side B with respect to sodium chloride.
C) side A is hypertonic to side B with respect to glucose.
D) side A is hypotonic to side B.
E) side A is isotonic to side B.
21) What are the membrane structures that function in active transport?
A) integral proteins
B) cholesterol
C) carbohydrates
D) cytoskeleton filaments
E) peripheral proteins
22) What is the voltage across a membrane called?
A) osmotic potential
B) water potential
C) chemical gradient
D) electrochemical gradient
E) membrane potential
23) The sodium-potassium pump is called an electrogenic pump because it
A) contributes to the membrane potential.
B) ionizes sodium and potassium atoms.
C) is used to drive the transport of other molecules against a concentration gradient.
D) pumps equal quantities of Na+ and K+ across the membrane.
E) pumps hydrogen ions out of the cell.
24) An organism with a cell wall would have the most difficulty doing which process?
A) active transport
B) osmosis
C) phagocytosis
D) diffusion
E) facilitated diffusion
25) The difference between pinocytosis and receptor-mediated endocytosis is that
A) pinocytosis is nonselective in the molecules it brings into the cell, whereas receptor-mediated
endocytosis offers more selectivity.
B) pinocytosis requires cellular energy, but receptor-mediated endocytosis does not.
C) pinocytosis can concentrate substances from the extracellular fluid, but receptor-mediated endocytosis
D) pinocytosis increases the surface area of the plasma membrane whereas receptor-mediated
endocytosis decreases the plasma membrane surface area.
E) pinocytosis brings only water into the cell, but receptor-mediated endocytosis brings in other
molecules as well.
ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.
26) An artificial cell consisting of an aqueous solution enclosed in a selectively permeable membrane is
immersed in a beaker containing a different solution. The membrane is permeable to water and to the simple
sugars glucose and fructose but impermeable to the disaccharide sucrose.
(A) Draw solid arrows to indicate the net movement of solutes into and/or out of the cell.
(B) Is the solution outside the cell isotonic, hypotonic, or hypertonic?
(C) Draw a dashed arrow to show the net osmotic movement of water, if any.
(D) Will the artificial cell become more flaccid, more turgid, or stay the same?
(E) Eventually, will the two solutions have the same or different solute concentrations?
Answer Key
1) A
2) C
3) C
4) D
5) E
6) A
7) D
8) D
9) E
10) E
11) A
12) D
13) D
14) C
15) C
16) A
17) A
18) B
19) B
20) D
21) A
22) E
23) A
24) C
25) E
26) (A)
(B) The solution outside is hypotonic. It has less sucrose, which is a nonpenetrating solute.
(C) See answer for A.
(D) The artificial cell will become more turgid.
(E) Eventually, the two solutions will have the same solute concentrations. Even though sucrose can't reach the
same concentration on each side, water flow (osmosis) will lead to isotonic conditions