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Kingdom Animal Multi or Uni Cellular? Cell Wall Present? Other Key Features Example Organism Kingdom 1– ANIMALS The animal kingdom contains many phyla. Some of them are: Vertebrates, Arthropods, Annelids, Molluscs, Nematodes. Animals live all over the world in a wide range of conditions. However, the easiest way to tell if an organism is an animal cell is to look under the microscope. Animal cells NEVER have a cell wall and they are multicellular. Also, animals are heterotrophic. This means they must eat/consume others to survive! It is not always easy to recognize an animal. For a very long time, people thought that’s sea anemones were plants, because they stay in one place and their tentacles look like petals. Now we know that they are animals. Kingdom Plants Multi or Uni Cellular? Cell Wall Present? Other Key Features Example Organism Kingdom 2 – PLANTS Plants are multicellular organisms, with cell walls made of cellulose. They include small organisms such as mosses, ferns and flowering plants. As you probably already know, there are lots of different types of plant (and we need to know them for the Biology IGCSE). The key difference between plants and all other kingdoms is: Plants are AUTOTROPHS – this means ‘self feeding’ because they produce their own food. They have chlorophyll in the leaves to help them do this through PHOTOSYNTHESIS. If you look under a microscope you will also see they are MULTICELLULAR and there will be a CELL WALL. It is primarily composed of Cellulose Plants first evolved to live in water but evolved to live on land. Some plant species still live close to water, such as mosses and algae. But some can survive in the desert! Kingdom Fungus/Fungi Multi or Uni Cellular? Cell Wall Present? Other Key Features Example Organism Kingdom 3 – FUNGUS For a very long time, fungi were classified as plants. However, they are very different from plants! Fungi do not have chlorophyll and do not photosynthesise. Fungi are important in recycling nutrients from other dead organisms. They feed on poop, dead animals and plants and also human food. They are HETEROTROPHIC – they have to feed on others. Also important to know: •Unicellular or Multicellular •Cell wall present composed mainly of glucans, chitin and glycoproteins Fungi can save lives and some can be incredibly toxic! Humans use fungi to produce antibiotics, make bread and beer. Some can be poisonous to eat though! Kingdom Monera/ Procaryotes Multi or Uni Cellular? Cell Wall Present? Other Key Features Example Organism Kingdom 4 – PROKARYOTES A very interesting kingdom – Prokaryotes. You will know them as BACTERIA. The key feature is: Prokaryotes do not have a nucleus. Their DNA is kind of floating around the cell. They are Single cells - UNICELLULAR Prokaryotes do not have any organelles. They will probably have ribosomes inside of their cells, but: No chloroplasts. No mitochondria. No nucleus. Not much at all. One thing they often do have though: CELL WALL! • • Bacteria have been around for at least 3.5 billion years, making them the oldest known life-form on the planet. No escaping them: Your body has 10 times more bacterial cells than human cells. Kingdom Protocits Multi or Uni Cellular? Cell Wall Present? Other Key Features Example Organism Kingdom 5 – PROTOCISTS This is the least interesting of the 5 Kingdoms… and the hardest to talk about. Protoctists are all single celled organisms (like bacteria) but unlike bacteria their cells have a nucleus and organelles like mitochondria and chloroplasts. Some protoctists like Amoeba share many features with animal cells while others like Chlorella are more plantlike and contain chlorophyll to do photosynthesis. Seaweed is not a plant?! No, seaweed is not a plant. Although it looks like a plant, it's really a type of algae. Seaweeds are found only in salt water. They live along ocean coastlines. Malaria is caused by a protocist called Plasmodium. One of the biggest killers in the world! AM I THE LIVING CREATURE? Kingdom Virus? Multi or Uni Cellular? Cell Wall Present? Other Key Features Example Organism VIRUSES WARNING: Viruses are not living things. They are not alive because they can do nothing until they enter a living cell. Take a look at the flu virus on the right. It has two main parts you MUST know: •The protein coat •The genetic material inside – RNA (not DNA) Can you see any of those parts in the Tphage virus above?