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Relion® 650 series
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Document ID: 1MRK 511 346
Issued: 2015-12-09
Revision: C
Product version: 1.0
© Copyright 2015 ABB. All rights reserved
Copyright
This document and parts thereof must not be reproduced or copied without written
permission from ABB, and the contents thereof must not be imparted to a third party,
nor used for any unauthorized purpose.
The software and hardware described in this document is furnished under a license and
may be used or disclosed only in accordance with the terms of such license.
This product includes software developed by the OpenSSL Project for use in the
OpenSSL Toolkit (http://www.openssl.org/).
This product includes cryptographic software written/developed by: Eric Young
([email protected]) and Tim Hudson ([email protected]).
This product includes software provided by the jQuery Foundation
(http://jquery.org/) and by the Flot project (http://www.flotcharts.org/).
Trademarks
ABB and Relion are registered trademarks of the ABB Group. Switchsync is a
trademark of the ABB Group. All other brand or product names mentioned in this
document may be trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective holders.
Warranty
Please inquire about the terms of warranty from your nearest ABB representative.
ABB AB
Substation Automation Products
SE-721 59 Västerås
Sweden
Telephone: +46 (0) 21 32 50 00
Facsimile: +46 (0) 21 14 69 18
http://www.abb.com/substationautomation
Disclaimer
The data, examples and diagrams in this manual are included solely for the concept or
product description and are not to be deemed as a statement of guaranteed properties.
All persons responsible for applying the equipment addressed in this manual must
satisfy themselves that each intended application is suitable and acceptable, including
that any applicable safety or other operational requirements are complied with. In
particular, any risks in applications where a system failure and/or product failure
would create a risk for harm to property or persons (including but not limited to
personal injuries or death) shall be the sole responsibility of the person or entity
applying the equipment, and those so responsible are hereby requested to ensure that
all measures are taken to exclude or mitigate such risks.
This document has been carefully checked by ABB but deviations cannot be
completely ruled out. In case any errors are detected, the reader is kindly requested to
notify the manufacturer. Other than under explicit contractual commitments, in no
event shall ABB be responsible or liable for any loss or damage resulting from the use
of this manual or the application of the equipment.
Conformity
This product complies with the directive of the Council of the European Communities
on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to electromagnetic
compatibility (EMC Directive 2004/108/EC) and concerning electrical equipment for
use within specified voltage limits (Low-voltage directive 2006/95/EC). This
conformity is the result of tests conducted by ABB in accordance with the product
standard EN 60255-26 for the EMC directive, and with the product standards EN
60255-1 and EN 60255-27 for the low voltage directive. The product is designed in
accordance with the international standards of the IEC 60255 series.
Safety information
Dangerous voltages can occur on the connectors, even though the
auxiliary voltage has been disconnected.
Non-observance can result in death, personal injury or substantial
property damage.
Only a competent electrician is allowed to carry out the electrical
installation.
National and local electrical safety regulations must always be
followed.
The frame of the IED has to be carefully earthed.
Whenever changes are made in the IED, measures should be taken to
avoid inadvertent closing or opening of circuit breaker.
The IED contains components which are sensitive to electrostatic
discharge. ESD precautions shall always be observed prior to
touching components.
Table of contents
Table of contents
Section 1
Introduction.......................................................................9
This manual........................................................................................ 9
Intended audience.............................................................................. 9
Product documentation.......................................................................9
Product documentation set............................................................9
Related documents................................................................ 10
Document revision history........................................................... 10
Symbols and conventions.................................................................10
Symbols.......................................................................................10
Document conventions................................................................ 11
Section 2
Switchsync PWC600 overview.......................................13
Introduction.......................................................................................13
Hardware overview...........................................................................13
Application overview.........................................................................14
Application examples...................................................................14
User interfaces................................................................................. 15
Communication.................................................................................15
PCM600 tool.....................................................................................16
Connectivity packages.................................................................17
Environmental aspects..................................................................... 17
Sustainable development............................................................ 17
Disposing of the IED....................................................................18
Section 3
Application......................................................................19
Introduction.......................................................................................19
Switching targets.............................................................................. 19
Target definitions ........................................................................ 20
Target selection: predefined and user-defined strategies........... 20
Circuit breaker properties............................................................ 21
Optimization of accuracy.................................................................. 22
Parameter compensation............................................................ 22
Adaptive correction......................................................................23
Overall optimization..................................................................... 24
Load applications..............................................................................26
Capacitor bank............................................................................ 27
Reference signals...................................................................27
Energization........................................................................... 27
De-energization...................................................................... 28
Shunt reactor............................................................................... 30
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Table of contents
Reference signals...................................................................30
Energization........................................................................... 30
De-energization...................................................................... 31
Power transformer....................................................................... 33
Reference signals...................................................................33
Controlled switching strategies...............................................34
Transmission line and power cable............................................. 37
Reference signals...................................................................37
Energization........................................................................... 38
De-energization...................................................................... 39
System configuration................................................................... 40
Circuit breaker monitoring................................................................ 41
Electrical operations monitoring.................................................. 43
Detection of circuit breaker electrical operation..................... 44
Calculation of interrupter wear............................................... 45
Mechanical operations monitoring...............................................46
Section 4
Installation...................................................................... 49
Unpacking, inspecting and storing....................................................49
Removing transport packaging....................................................49
Inspecting the product................................................................. 49
Identifying the product............................................................ 49
Checking delivery items......................................................... 49
Inspecting the IED.................................................................. 49
Returning an IED damaged in transit..................................... 50
Storing......................................................................................... 50
Checking environmental conditions and mounting space................ 50
Rack mounting the IED.....................................................................50
Arranging ventilation.........................................................................52
Section 5
Hardware interfaces....................................................... 53
Connectors....................................................................................... 53
Physical connections........................................................................ 53
Connecting protective earthing....................................................53
Connecting wires ........................................................................ 54
Connecting to screw-compression type terminals..................55
Inputs................................................................................................55
Measuring inputs......................................................................... 55
Auxiliary supply voltage input...................................................... 56
Binary inputs................................................................................56
Outputs............................................................................................. 58
Outputs for circuit breaker control............................................... 58
Outputs for signalling...................................................................59
IRF...............................................................................................59
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Communication interfaces................................................................ 60
Ethernet RJ-45 front connection..................................................60
Station communication rear connection ..................................... 61
EIA-485 serial rear connection.................................................... 61
Process bus rear connection ...................................................... 62
Recommended industrial Ethernet switches .............................. 62
Connection diagrams........................................................................62
Section 6
Setting up a project........................................................ 65
PCM600 projects.............................................................................. 65
Installing Connectivity packages...................................................... 65
Installing IED Connectivity package from DVD........................... 65
Installing IED Connectivity package from Update Manager........ 66
Project managing in PCM600...........................................................67
Building a plant structure.................................................................. 68
IEC 61850 naming conventions to identify an IED...................... 69
Inserting an IED................................................................................71
Inserting a configured IED........................................................... 72
Inserting an IED from the template library................................... 73
Setting an IED's IP address in the project................................... 75
Setting up communication between PCM600 and the IED...............76
Setting technical key.........................................................................82
Section 7
Application engineering.................................................. 87
Engineering process overview .........................................................87
Using Switchsync Setting Tool......................................................... 87
General functions........................................................................ 87
Starting Switchsync Setting Tool from PCM600..........................88
Navigating between steps........................................................... 90
Setting parameters overview....................................................... 91
Saving parameters partially......................................................... 93
Saving parameters...................................................................... 94
Writing parameters to the IED.......................................................... 96
Modification of the default pre-configuration.....................................99
Precautions..................................................................................99
General information to work with PCM600................................ 100
Working with the Application Configuration tool........................ 101
Adding application worksheets in the configuration............. 101
Adding a function to the application..................................... 104
Function blocks.................................................................... 106
Signals and signal management.......................................... 109
Adding user-defined names................................................. 109
Function block execution parameters...................................110
Connections and variables................................................... 112
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Single-phase reference signal..............................................112
Validation..............................................................................113
Working with the Parameter Setting tool................................... 115
Local HMI engineering...............................................................115
Local HMI engineering process............................................115
LEDs and function keys........................................................116
Single-line diagram engineering...........................................121
Modification of event and waveform record signals...................133
Modification of alarm signals..................................................... 137
Modification of operation log input.............................................139
Modification of binary inputs and outputs ................................. 140
Adding binary inputs and outputs to Application
Configuration........................................................................ 141
Generic IEC61850 function block configuration ....................... 142
Connection of GOOSE close and open commands.................. 143
Connection of compensation signals via analog GOOSE......... 143
Writing the configuration to the IED................................................145
Section 8
Local HMI..................................................................... 149
Local HMI elements........................................................................149
Display.......................................................................................150
LEDs..........................................................................................152
Keypad...................................................................................... 153
Local HMI functionality.............................................................. 154
Status and alarm indication.................................................. 154
Parameter management ......................................................155
Front port communication.....................................................155
Logging on......................................................................................156
Logging off......................................................................................159
Navigating in the menu...................................................................160
Menu structure...........................................................................160
Scrolling the display...................................................................160
Changing the default view......................................................... 161
Identifying the device......................................................................162
Changing the local HMI language.................................................. 162
Browsing setting values..................................................................162
Editing values................................................................................. 163
Editing numerical values............................................................163
Editing string values.................................................................. 165
Editing enumerated values........................................................ 165
Changing time settings in LHMI.................................................166
Saving settings............................................................................... 166
Clearing and acknowledging.......................................................... 167
Using the local HMI help.................................................................167
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Section 9
Web HMI...................................................................... 169
Logging in....................................................................................... 169
Logging out.....................................................................................171
Menu structure................................................................................172
Warning and error messages......................................................... 172
Accessing device information......................................................... 173
Selecting a list view........................................................................ 174
Navigating between pages............................................................. 175
Operation records...........................................................................176
Viewing and downloading operation records.............................177
Waveform records.......................................................................... 178
Viewing and managing list of waveform records....................... 178
Waveform viewer.......................................................................180
Viewing and managing waveform record graphs...................... 181
Alarms............................................................................................ 182
Viewing and acknowledging alarms.......................................... 183
Events and internal events............................................................. 183
Viewing trend graphs......................................................................184
Changing the range of data points in equidistant view.............. 185
Changing the range of data points in time view.........................186
Generating reports..........................................................................189
IED menu........................................................................................190
Section 10 Commissioning.............................................................193
Commissioning checklist................................................................ 193
Checking IED operation..................................................................193
Checking CT circuits.......................................................................194
Checking VT circuits.......................................................................194
Checking binary input and output circuits.......................................195
Binary input circuits................................................................... 195
Binary output circuits................................................................. 195
Checking optical connections......................................................... 195
Circuit breaker operating times.......................................................195
Entering operating times manually............................................ 196
Circuit breaker timing test mode................................................197
Electrical connections...........................................................197
LHMI navigation................................................................... 198
Operation..............................................................................202
Live switching................................................................................. 210
Capacitor bank.......................................................................... 211
Shunt reactor............................................................................. 211
Power transformer..................................................................... 211
Transmission line or power cable.............................................. 212
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Table of contents
Concluding commissioning.............................................................213
Section 11 IED operation .............................................................. 215
Start-up...........................................................................................215
Checking IED operation.............................................................215
IED start-up sequence ..............................................................215
Normal operation............................................................................ 215
Controlled switching operations......................................................216
Mode information in operation log............................................. 216
Section 12 Local HMI operating procedures.................................. 219
Monitoring.......................................................................................219
Indications................................................................................. 219
Viewing the operation log via the local HMI......................... 219
Monitoring alarm data...........................................................220
Monitoring an internal IED fault ........................................... 221
Monitoring measured and calculated values............................. 221
Recorded data........................................................................... 222
Operation log........................................................................222
Waveform records................................................................ 224
Events.................................................................................. 227
Remote monitoring.................................................................... 227
Monitoring the IED remotely.................................................227
Clearing status information.............................................................228
Section 13 Troubleshooting ...........................................................231
Application diagnostics .................................................................. 231
Resetting persistent signals.......................................................240
Fault tracing....................................................................................240
Identifying hardware errors........................................................240
Identifying runtime errors...........................................................241
Identifying communication errors...............................................241
Checking communication link operation...............................241
Checking merging unit status............................................... 242
Checking time synchronization.............................................242
Running the display test............................................................ 243
Indication messages.......................................................................243
Internal faults............................................................................. 243
Warnings................................................................................... 244
Additional indications.................................................................244
Correction procedures.................................................................... 245
Changing and setting the password.......................................... 245
Identifying IED application problems......................................... 245
Inspecting the wiring.............................................................245
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Table of contents
Section 14 System security............................................................ 249
Physical interfaces..........................................................................249
IP ports........................................................................................... 249
FTP access with SSL FTPACCS....................................................251
Encryption algorithms..................................................................... 251
Denial of service............................................................................. 251
Certificate handling.........................................................................252
IEEE1686 compliance.................................................................... 252
Section 15 User roles and user accounts.......................................255
Authorization...................................................................................255
Predefined user roles..................................................................... 256
Password policies...........................................................................258
IED User management................................................................... 259
Starting IED user management................................................. 260
General settings........................................................................ 260
User profile management.......................................................... 261
Adding new users.................................................................261
Adding users to new user roles............................................ 264
Deleting existing users......................................................... 264
Changing password..............................................................266
User role management.............................................................. 267
Adding new users to user roles............................................ 268
Deleting existing users from user roles................................ 268
Reusing user accounts.........................................................268
Writing user management settings to the IED........................... 269
Reading user management settings from the IED.....................269
Saving user management settings............................................ 269
Section 16 Requirements for external equipment.......................... 271
Circuit breaker................................................................................ 271
Current transformers...................................................................... 271
Voltage transformers...................................................................... 272
Non-conventional instrument transformers and merging units....... 272
SNTP server................................................................................... 272
Section 17 Technical data.............................................................. 273
Dimensions ....................................................................................273
Power supply.................................................................................. 273
Measuring inputs ........................................................................... 274
Binary inputs...................................................................................274
Signal outputs ................................................................................275
Power outputs ................................................................................275
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Table of contents
Data communication interfaces ..................................................... 276
Enclosure class ............................................................................. 278
Ingress protection........................................................................... 278
Environmental conditions and tests................................................278
Electromagnetic compatibility tests................................................ 279
Insulation tests................................................................................281
Mechanical tests.............................................................................281
Product safety ................................................................................282
EMC compliance ........................................................................... 282
Section 18 Glossary....................................................................... 283
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Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Section 1
Introduction
1MRK 511 346 C
Section 1
Introduction
1.1
This manual
The user manual provides basic instructions on how to install and use Switchsync
PWC600. The manual also describes setting up a secure system, including password
procedures and levels of access in the system. The manual provides instructions for
engineering, mechanical and electrical installing, commissioning and operating, to
cover the common use cases of the product.
1.2
Intended audience
This manual addresses new users as well as not frequent users of Switchsync
PWC600, providing an easy start or refresh on using the product. The manual offers
quick assistance to operators and field personnel as well as engineering and
commissioning personnel.
1.3
Product documentation
1.3.1
Product documentation set
The user manual provides basic instructions on how to install and use Switchsync
PWC600. The manual provides instructions for engineering, mechanical and
electrical installing, commissioning and operating, to cover the common use cases of
the product. The manual also describes setting up a secure system, including password
procedures and levels of access in the system.
The communication protocol manual describes a communication protocol supported
by the IED. The manual concentrates on vendor-specific implementations.
The technical manual contains application and functionality descriptions and lists
function blocks, logic diagrams, input and output signals, setting parameters and
technical data sorted per function. The manual can be used as a technical reference
during the engineering phase, installation and commissioning phase, and during
normal service.
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
9
Section 1
Introduction
1.3.1.1
1MRK 511 346 C
Related documents
Documents related to Switchsync PWC600
Identity number
Communication protocol manual, IEC 61850
1MRK 511 269-UEN
User Manual
1MRK 511 346-UEN
Technical manual
1MRK 511 275-UEN
MICS
1MRK 511 297-WEN
PICS
1MRG 018 800
PIXIT
1MRG 010 6581)
TICS
1MRG 010 6591)
1) Switchsync PWC600 1.0 is based on ABB 650 series, version 1.3. So the PIXIT and TICS from ABB
650 series, version 1.3 are applicable for Switchsync PWC600 1.0 too.
1.3.2
Document revision history
Document revision/date
Product version
History
A/2015-02-04
1.0
First release
C/2015-12-09
1.0
Content updated
1.4
Symbols and conventions
1.4.1
Symbols
The caution icon indicates important information or warning related
to the concept discussed in the text. It might indicate the presence of
a hazard which could result in corruption of software or damage to
equipment or property.
The information icon alerts the reader of important facts and
conditions.
The tip icon indicates advice on, for example, how to design your
project or how to use a certain function.
Although warning hazards are related to personal injury, it is necessary to understand
that under certain operational conditions, operation of damaged equipment may result
in degraded process performance leading to personal injury or death. It is important
that the user fully complies with all warning and cautionary notices.
10
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Section 1
Introduction
1MRK 511 346 C
1.4.2
Document conventions
•
•
•
•
•
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Abbreviations and acronyms in this manual are spelled out in the glossary. The
glossary also contains definitions of important terms.
Push button navigation in the LHMI menu structure is presented by using the
push button icons.
and
.
For example, to navigate between the options, use
HMI menu paths are presented in bold.
For example, select Main menu/Settings.
LHMI messages are shown in Courier font.
For example, to save the changes in non-volatile memory, select Yes and press
.
Parameter names are shown in italics.
For example, the function can be enabled and disabled with the Operation setting.
11
12
Section 2
Switchsync PWC600 overview
1MRK 511 346 C
Section 2
Switchsync PWC600 overview
2.1
Introduction
Switchsync PWC600 is a point-on-wave controller for high-voltage circuit breakers.
Its purpose is to delay circuit breaker operations such that current inception or current
interruption occurs at a phase angle that minimizes stress on the switched load or the
circuit breaker. The IED is usually installed in the control room, where all required
signals are present.
2.2
Hardware overview
1
2
GUID-2D3D7A43-2A78-4159-8AB5-BA2CE19D03DD V1 EN
Figure 1:
Switchsync PWC600 front view
1 Enlosure
2 Local HMI
A label with the IED ordering number and serial number is attached to the local HMI.
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
13
Section 2
Switchsync PWC600 overview
1MRK 511 346 C
4
1
5
2
6
3
7
GUID-0E37AEC8-5216-40B9-8046-7D390EE9A3C3 V1 EN
Figure 2:
Switchsync PWC600 rear panel with hardware modules
1
PSM02/PSM03: Power supply module with options for 48...125 VDC or 110...250 VDC
2
TRM01: Instrument transformer module with 4 current and 6 voltage inputs
3
COM03 + CPU02: Communication and high performance processing module
4 and 5 Not used, slots are empty in Switchsync PWC600
6
BIO01: Binary input/output module
7
PIO01: Precision binary input/output module with event time resolution of 100 µs
For more information on connections, see connectors and technical
data sections.
2.3
Application overview
Controlled switching, provided by Switchsync PWC600, is used for minimizing
harmful electrical transients upon planned switching of loads such as capacitor banks,
shunt reactors and power transformers. The method is also gaining acceptance for reenergizing of EHV transmission lines, and replacing traditional pre-insertion
resistors.
2.3.1
Application examples
Shunt capacitor banks
Basic aim is to control closing to minimize the energizing transients (voltage
transients as well as inrush currents). To improve interrupting performance,
controlled opening can also be utilized.
Shunt reactors
Basic aim is to control de-energizing to ensure reignition-free current interruption. In
addition, controlled closing also serves as a useful method for minimizing the inrush
currents.
14
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Section 2
Switchsync PWC600 overview
1MRK 511 346 C
Power transformers
Basic aim is to control energization to minimize inrush currents. This is enabled by
controlled de-energization, to set a residual flux pattern, which is taken into account
for the subsequent energization.
Unloaded transmission lines and power cables
Basic aim is to control closing to minimize overvoltage transients. To improve
interrupting performance, controlled opening can also be utilized.
2.4
User interfaces
The user can interact with Switchsync PWC600 in several ways.
•
•
•
2.5
Local Human-Machine Interface (LHMI) on the front panel of the IED, featuring
LCD screen, pushbuttons and status LEDs
Web interface via Web browser
Various tools in Protection and Control Manager PCM600, installed on a PC
Communication
The IED supports communication protocols IEC 61850-8-1, IEC 61850-9-2LE and
HTTP over Ethernet.
All operational information and controls are available through these protocols.
However, some communication functionality, for example, horizontal
communication (GOOSE) between the IEDs, is only enabled by the IEC 61850-8-1
communication protocol.
Waveform (disturbance) files are accessed using IEC 61850 or the Web interface.
Disturbance files are also available to any Ethernet based application in the standard
COMTRADE format. The IED can send binary signals to other IEDs (so called
horizontal communication) using the IEC 61850-8-1 GOOSE (Generic Object
Oriented Substation Event) profile. Binary GOOSE messaging can, for example, be
employed for protection and interlocking-based protection schemes. The IED meets
the GOOSE performance requirements for tripping applications in distribution
substations, as defined by the IEC 61850 standard. Further, the IED supports the
sending and receiving of analog values using GOOSE messaging. Analog GOOSE
messaging enables fast transfer of analog measurement values over the station. The
IED interoperates with other IEC 61850 compliant IEDs, tools and systems and
simultaneously reports events to five different clients on the IEC 61850 station bus.
IEC 61850-9-2LE is supported for subscribing the current and voltage signals in
digital sampled value format.
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
15
Section 2
Switchsync PWC600 overview
1MRK 511 346 C
All communication connectors, except for the front port connector, are placed on the
integrated communication module. The IED is connected to Ethernet-based
communication systems via the RJ-45 connector (10/100BASE-TX) or the fibre-optic
multimode LC connector (100BASE-FX).
The IED supports the following time synchronization methods with a timestamping
resolution of 1 ms:
Ethernet communication based:
•
SNTP (simple network time protocol)
With special time synchronization wiring:
•
•
IRIG-B
PPS (pulse per second)
PPS signals are used for IEC 61850-9-2LE process synchronisation with accuracy of
4 µs.
2.6
PCM600 tool
Protection and Control IED Manager PCM600 offers all the necessary functionality
to work throughout all stages of the IED life cycle.
•
•
•
•
•
Planning
Engineering
Commissioning
Operation and disturbance handling
Functional analysis
When using PCM600 for writing to the IED, ensure that the LHMI or
WHMI is not in a menu position where settings can be changed. Only
one active transaction, from LHMI, WHMI, or PCM600, is allowed at
a time.
With the individual tool components, you can perform different tasks and functions.
PCM600 can operate with various topologies, depending on the customer needs.
For more information, see PCM600 documentation.
16
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Section 2
Switchsync PWC600 overview
1MRK 511 346 C
2.6.1
Connectivity packages
A connectivity package is a software component that consists of executable code and
data which enables system tools to communicate with an IED. Connectivity packages
are used to create configuration structures in PCM600.
A connectivity package includes all of the data which is used to describe the IED. For
example it contains a list of what parameters exist, which data format is used, the units,
the setting range, the access rights and visibility of the parameter. In addition it
contains code which allows software packages that consume the connectivity package
to properly communicate with the IED. It also allows for localization of text even
when its read from the IED in a standard format such as COMTRADE.
Update Manager is a tool that helps in defining the right connectivity package versions
for different system products and tools. Update Manager is included with products
that use connectivity packages.
2.7
Environmental aspects
2.7.1
Sustainable development
Sustainability has been taken into account from the beginning of the product design
including the pro-environmental manufacturing process, long life time, operation
reliability and disposing of the IED.
The choice of materials and the suppliers have been made according to the EU RoHS
directive (2002/95/EC). This directive limits the use of hazardous substances which
are the following:
Table 1:
Maximum concentration values by weight per homogeneous material
Substance
Proposed maximum concentration
Lead - Pb
0.1%
Mercury - Hg
0.1%
Cadmium - Cd
0.01%
Hexavalent Chromium Cr (VI)
0.1%
Polybrominated biphenyls - PBB
0.1%
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers - PBDE
0.1%
Operational reliability and long life time have been assured with extensive testing
during the design and manufacturing processes. Moreover, long life time is supported
by maintenance and repair services as well as by the availability of spare parts.
Design and manufacturing have been done under a certified environmental system.
The effectiveness of the environmental system is constantly evaluated by an external
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
17
Section 2
Switchsync PWC600 overview
1MRK 511 346 C
auditing body. We follow environmental rules and regulations systematically to
evaluate their effect on our products and processes.
2.7.2
Disposing of the IED
Definitions and regulations of hazardous materials are country-specific and change
when the knowledge of materials increases. The materials used in this product are
typical for electric and electronic devices.
All parts used in this product are recyclable. When disposing of an IED or its parts
contact a local waste handler who is authorized and specialized in disposing electronic
waste. These handlers can sort the material by using dedicated sorting processes and
dispose of the product according to the local requirements.
Table 2:
Materials of the IED parts
IED
Unit
Parts
Material
Metallic plates, parts and screws
Steel
Plastic parts
PC1), LCP2)
LHMI display module
Various
Package
Box
Cardboard
Attached material
Manuals
Paper
1) Polycarbonate
2) Liquid crystal polymer
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Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Section 3
Application
1MRK 511 346 C
Section 3
Application
3.1
Introduction
Switchsync PWC600 is a point-on-wave controller, which is used to reduce stresses
imposed on the circuit breaker as well as on the switched load during energization and
de-energization operations. Circuit breaker closing and opening commands that are
not time critical are routed through Switchsync PWC600. The IED then issues
individual commands to the circuit breaker poles depending on the load to be
switched, considering its connection and design configuration.
After completion of a controlled switching operation, Switchsync PWC600 compares
the actual with the target switching instants. The results are used to optimize the
estimated operating times of the circuit breaker in the next operation. This process is
known as “adaptive correction”; it compensates for systematic changes in the circuit
breaker’s operation characteristics.
Deterministic changes in operating times due to internal or external parameters, such
as auxiliary voltage, idle time, ambient temperature, drive energy, can also be
compensated using individual compensation curves. Respective sensor signals are
either connected to the IED directly, or they can be received from remote sources via
IEC 61850 analog GOOSE messages.
Switchsync PWC600 is also capable of calculating the expected remaining life of the
circuit breaker in terms of number of operations and electrical interrupter wear
(ablation of arcing contacts, erosion of nozzles). This is based on interrupted primary
current and status signals of CB auxiliary contacts.
On every supervised signal, Switchsync PWC600 can generate warnings and alarms
when crossing assigned limits. Such conditions can be indicated visually by LEDs on
the LHMI, electrically by alarm contacts on the IED, or remotely via its Ethernet
communication interfaces. Each supervision alarm can be individually enabled or
disabled.
3.2
Switching targets
On arrival of a switching command, the IED calculates the optimal switching target
phase angles with respect to the reference voltage or reference current signals. The
calculations are based on the load to be switched, its connection and design
configuration, and the switching duty considering operating time variations and
external parameter variations.
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
19
Section 3
Application
3.2.1
1MRK 511 346 C
Target definitions
Controlled switching targets in Switchsync PWC600 are defined with respect to
reference signals.
•
•
Primary voltage is used as reference for load energization (circuit breaker
closing). Voltage measurement may be single-phase or three-phase, for phase-toground or phase-to-phase voltage.
Either the primary source voltage (same as for closing operations) or the load
current may be used as reference for load de-energization (circuit breaker
opening). Current measurement must be taken from all three phases, and the CT
secondary current should not be lower than 50 mA.
Reference signals can be provided by conventional PTs/CTs, or from IEC
61850-9-2(LE) compliant NCITs. The system phase rotation (L1-L2-L3 or L1-L3L2) is also taken into account through a setting. Analog signals are sampled at a rate
of 80 samples per power cycle, i.e. sampling frequency of 4000 S/s at 50 Hz or 4800
S/s at 60 Hz.
With the reference signals selected, the individual switching targets are given as phase
angles of the intended instants of current making or current interruption (electrical
switching instants). In each phase, the target is defined relative to a positive-going
zero crossing of the reference signal in that phase (0 degrees).
The phase of the first circuit breaker pole to operate is called “lead phase”. For
selection of the lead phase, two options are available.
•
•
Random – the lead phase is selected randomly every time. This selection will
statistically equalize electrical stress on the three CB poles.
Fixed phase (L1) – phase L1 is always switched first.
In the other two phases, the reference zero crossing is selected as the one following the
reference zero in the lead phase. Since target phase angles can assume only positive
values, the switching instants of the other two poles occur no earlier than in the lead
phase.
For load de-energization, the circuit breaker is controlled to separate its contacts some
time prior to the target interruption instant. The time difference between target instants
of contact separation and current interruption is called target arcing time. In most
applications, this target arcing time is defined by a window of minimum and
maximum arcing times.
3.2.2
Target selection: predefined and user-defined strategies
For common controlled switching applications, the optimal switching targets are
predefined in the IED software (application function SSCPOW). These should give
good results in most use cases. The user just needs to specify the type of load, its
electrical connections (vector group) and possibly few other design or application
20
Switchsync™ PWC600
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Section 3
Application
1MRK 511 346 C
parameters. The application function chooses the respective controlled switching
strategies from its built-in database, which is also displayed in Switchsync Setting
Tool during the process.
A user-defined controlled switching strategy can be applied for special targeting
requirements. This is preferably done in Switchsync Setting tool of PCM600. Here,
the user needs to enter the following information.
1.
2.
Lead phase – either random or fixed (L1).
Making targets (Close operations) or mechanical contact separation targets
(Open operations). For the lead phase, the user-defined target is specified in
electrical degrees relative to a positive-going zero crossing of the respective
reference signal. For the other two phases, the targets are specified in electrical
degrees relative to the target instant in the lead phase. (Note the different
definition from predefined strategies.)
Only positive values can be entered for switching targets, hence the
target instants in the phases to follow cannot precede the target
instants in the lead phase.
The predefined switching strategies are optimized for single-pole operated (SPO)
circuit breakers, which are considered best suitable for controlled switching.
However, it is possible to perform controlled switching for three-pole-operated (TPO)
circuit breakers with ganged operation or mechanical staggering. For this purpose,
controlled switching targets can be assigned with best possible or compromise targets
through a user-defined strategy.
Targeting-related data stored in operation records always refer to a
positive-going zero crossing of the reference signal in the same phase,
regardless whether a predefined or a user-defined strategy has been
chosen.
3.2.3
Circuit breaker properties
Knowledge of key parameters of the circuit breaker is essential for successful
controlled switching. These key parameters are usually separate for Close and Open
operations.
•
•
•
•
•
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Mechanical behavior under nominal conditions (timing, accuracy)
Dielectric properties (RDDS, re-ignition free windows)
Impact of external influences, such as DC control voltage or temperature, on
operating times (compensation curves)
Permitted limits on deviation from default values
etc.
21
Section 3
Application
1MRK 511 346 C
Some of these parameters are defined by the circuit breaker design; these can be
provided in advance. Others are specific to each pole and are ideally obtained on site
during (or prior to) commissioning.
Switchsync Setting Tool (SST) provides easy access to all relevant parameters. The
installation package of the Switchsync PWC600 Connectivity Package also includes
a library of ABB circuit breaker models, containing design-related parameters. In case
the actual circuit breaker model is not included, the user may define a new “custom”
circuit breaker type by modifying data from the library, or create a new circuit breaker
type altogether.
For acquisition of pole-specific parameters prior to live switching, Switchsync
PWC600 provides a “CB timing test mode”. With the main contacts connected to
dedicated inputs, offline switching operations are controlled and evaluated by the
IED. The properties thus learned are used in regular operations.
3.3
Optimization of accuracy
The operating times (switching times) of the circuit breaker may change with certain
parameters, such as time (age), temperature, idle time since the last operation and DC
control voltage. To optimize the controlled switching performance in such changes,
Switchsync PWC600 provides two features, parameter compensation and adaptive
correction. Based on these features, the release instants of the circuit breaker are
adjusted for optimal targeting during controlled switching operations.
3.3.1
Parameter compensation
The Switchsync PWC600 IED has the facility to compensate for the influences of
external and internal parameters, namely, DC control voltage, idle time, temperature,
drive pressure, spring charge, and additional user-defined parameters. It uses
individual parameter compensation curves consisting of parametric variation vs.
required operating time correction. Separate curves are provided for Close and Open
operations. The individual compensation values are added up to yield a single
compensation value for each CB pole.
The library of ABB circuit breakers includes compensation curves for each CB type.
During engineering in Switchsync Setting Tool, the user only needs to specify which
sensors are connected to the IED. Accordingly, the compensation functions are
activated. It is possible to enable, disable or modify individual compensation curves
manually. Respective sensor signals are either connected to the IED directly, or can be
received from external acquisition devices (such as ABB RIO600) via IEC 61850
analog GOOSE messages.
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Switchsync™ PWC600
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Section 3
Application
1MRK 511 346 C
Table 3:
Compensation facilities in pre-configuration
Parameter
Sensor
Qty.
Inputs to IED
DC control voltage
Voltage sensor
1
DC supply on PSM
module
Idle time
Internal calculation
based on status of
current signal, load
voltage signal, and/or
CB auxiliary contacts
3
CT or VT inputs on
TRM module, current
or voltage samples via
IEC 61850-9-2, or
binary inputs on PIO
module
Stored energy in CB
drive
Set of 1 or 2 binary level
contacts
1 or 3
Binary inputs on BIO
module
Temperature
Temperature sensor
(e.g. Pt100) connected
to external acquisition
device
1 or 3
Analog GOOSE
Drive pressure
Pressure sensor
connected to external
acquisition device
1 or 3
Analog GOOSE
Additional quantity 1
(user-specified)
Sensor for quantity 1,
connected to external
acquisition device
1 or 3
Analog GOOSE
Additional quantity 2
(user-specified)
Sensor for quantity 2,
connected to external
acquisition device
1 or 3
Analog GOOSE
Compensation values are continuously updated. Thus, the actual compensation value
is available at the time when a controlled switching operation is executed.
Furthermore, the sensor signals are checked against supervision thresholds, and an
alarm can be raised on crossing a limit.
3.3.2
Adaptive correction
After completion of a controlled switching operation, Switchsync PWC600 acquires
the instants when the switching actually took place. For this purpose, it analyzes the
primary analog signals (load current, load voltage) and the timing of binary signals
from auxiliary contacts in the CB drive, as available.
The actual switching instants are compared with the target instants. A fraction (Beta
factor) of the difference is used as correction value, to update the estimated CB
operating time for the next controlled switching operation. This process is known as
“adaptive correction”; its purpose is to compensate systematic changes in the circuit
breaker’s operation characteristics over time.
For controlled closing on reactive or capacitive loads, it is recommended to use load
current as feedback signal for adaptive correction of the making instants. For
controlled energization of transformers and transmission lines/power cables, it is
recommended to use load voltage (if available). Mechanical status indication from
auxiliary contacts may be used in addition to correct mechanical closing times
adaptively, or as the only feedback signal in case no suitable primary voltage and
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
23
Section 3
Application
1MRK 511 346 C
current signals are available. This presumes sufficient accuracy/consistency of the
auxiliary contacts. Separate beta factors are defined for electrical and mechanical
adaptation, their values are assigned in the pre-configuration.
For load de-energization, current interruption in most cases occurs at a natural current
zero. Thus, the actual instant of contact separation cannot be deduced from the
primary voltage and current signals. However, Switchsync PWC600 checks the
voltage and current signals for signs of re-ignitions/re-strikes. If such is detected then
an alarm is raised and the intended arcing time is automatically extended by 1 ms (not
configurable), up to a limit of default 3 ms. This is interpreted as adaptive correction
of controlled opening operations.
Extension of the target arcing time can never exceed the maximum arcing time defined
for the specific switching case.
The internal values for adaptive correction and operation logs are
periodically written to non-volatile memory to be preserved against
power loss. To maximize the life of the memory elements, the write
interval has been defined as 1 hour; this cannot be changed by the user.
Therefore, to prevent loss of data, the IED should not be powered off
within 1 hour of the last switching operation.
3.3.3
Overall optimization
For Close operations, the target instant TtC of mechanical contact touch in each phase
is internally calculated as follows.
TtC = T0 + T1 + T2 + T3 + T4
where
T0 = ideal making target
T1 = offset from ideal target, to cater for dielectric and mechanical scatter
T2 = total combined correction value from parameter compensations
T3 = total combined correction value for electrical and/or mechanical adaptation
T4 = expected pre-arcing time (time between current inception and mechanical
contact touch)
As an example, the ideal switching target of voltage zero across breaker contacts is
slightly advanced to achieve best possible performance considering dielectric and
mechanical scatter.
T1 and T4 during controlled closing operation at voltage peak target are demonstrated
in Figure 3.
24
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Section 3
Application
1MRK 511 346 C
GUID-E4E3069B-823C-4726-81EF-9B3649482E0F V1 EN
Figure 3:
Switching target definition for controlled closing operation (source
voltage reference)
For controlled opening operations, the target instant TtO of mechanical contact
separation is calculated in a similar manner.
TtO = T0 – T3 – T4
where
T0 = ideal interrupting target
T3 = adaptive correction value for arcing time due to re-strike or re-ignition detection
T4 = target arcing time (time between mechanical contact separation and current
interruption)
Parameter T4 is shown in Figure 4, which depicts current interruption at reference
voltage peak.
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
25
Section 3
Application
1MRK 511 346 C
GUID-B20044E3-0841-45A0-8140-522E955366F1 V1 EN
Figure 4:
3.4
Switching target definition for controlled opening operation (source
voltage reference)
Load applications
Switchsync PWC600 was designed for point-on-wave switching (also known as
controlled switching) of capacitor banks, reactors, transformers, transmission lines,
and power cables. For these load types, predefined switching strategies are
implemented. Other load types can be accommodated either by selecting a similar
predefined load type, or by specifying a user-defined controlled switching strategy.
For capacitor banks, controlled energization is used to limit charging inrush current.
Controlled de-energization can be used for ensuring re-strike free operation of the
circuit breaker.
For shunt reactors, controlled de-energization has been widely used for ensuring reignition free operation of the circuit breaker. In addition, controlled energization can
help in reducing asymmetry of charging currents in individual phases and thereby
minimize mal-operations of protection relays.
For transformers, controlled switching is used to minimize inrush currents during noload energization. Switchsync PWC600 achieves this by controlled de-energization
(to set a residual flux pattern in the core) followed by controlled energization
(optimized on the set residual flux pattern).
For transmission lines and power cables, controlled energization is used to minimize
the switching overvoltage on the line. Controlled de-energization can be used for
ensuring re-strike free operation of the circuit breaker.
Details on each application type, including predefined controlled switching strategies,
are given in the following subsections. For better understanding, all switching targets
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Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Section 3
Application
1MRK 511 346 C
are given with reference to their positive going zero crossing of individual phase
voltage or currents.
These considerations always assume
•
•
•
•
Solidly grounded source of the power system
Phase rotation L1-L2-L3
Idealized circuit breaker (i.e. high RDDS and RRDS, no scatter)
Single-pole operated circuit breaker
Different configurations of the power system are taken into account automatically, as
are the properties of the “real” circuit breaker. If the source/system is ungrounded then
the controlled switching strategies for an ungrounded load are applied.
For three-pole operated/mechanically staggered breakers, a user-defined strategy
shall be defined, considering construction philosophy and connection configuration
of the load and the circuit breaker.
3.4.1
Capacitor bank
3.4.1.1
Reference signals
For controlled switching, the following analog signals should be connected to the
Switchsync PWC600 IED, and configured in SST.
Table 4:
Reference signals for controlled switching of capacitor banks
Purpose
3.4.1.2
Recommended signals
Alternate signals
Controlled closing reference
Source voltage (1 or 3 phases)
-
Controlled opening reference
Source voltage (1 or 3 phases)
Load current (3 phases)
Adaptive correction, re-strike
detection
Load current (3 phases)
Load voltage (3 phases, phaseto-ground)
Energization
Energization of a capacitor bank may cause high inrush currents, which in turn may
lead to voltage dips and transient overvoltages. These can be minimized by closing the
circuit breaker at instantaneous voltage zero across each breaker pole. As the capacitor
bank can be assumed discharged, the optimal energization instants are derived directly
from the source voltage signals.
Table 5 shows the predefined controlled energization strategies for capacitor banks of
different configurations.
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
27
Section 3
Application
1MRK 511 346 C
Table 5:
Controlled energization strategies for capacitor banks, assuming L1 lead phase
Load configuration Lead phase
selection
L1 (lead phase)
making target
L2 making target
L3 making target
120° after lead
phase
240° after lead
phase
Yn (wye/star,
grounded)
Random
Positive-going
zero crossing of
lead phase-toground voltage
Y (wye/star,
ungrounded) or Δ
(delta)
Random
Positive-going zero crossing of phasephase voltage L1-L2
270° after lead
phase
Figure 5 demonstrates controlled energization of a grounded Y connected capacitor
bank, near positive-going zero crossings of the individual phase-to-ground voltage.
Here, L1 was randomly selected as lead phase. The actual targets are chosen slightly
after voltage
zero to statistically minimize the making voltage, given the scatter of
Controlled Switching of grounded Y connected capacitor bank using SWITCHSYNC Relay
ABB
operating time and RDDS in the circuit breaker.
Energization
Current_L1
Contact_Gap_Dielectric_Strength_L1
Vsource_L1
Electrical Target_L1
Pre-arcing_Time_L1
L1
18 deg
18 deg
18 deg
Current_L2
Contact_Gap_Dielectric_Strength_L2
Vsource_L2
Electrical_Target_L2
Pre-arcing_Time_L2
Time (ms)
70
60
Only for De-enrgization
Only for De-enrgization
Only for De-enrgization
50
40
30
20
Lead phase
Making target, Lead phase
Making target, second phase
Making target, third phase
Current_L3
Contact_Gap_Dielectric_Strength_L3
Vsource_L3
Electrical_Target_L3
Pre-arcing_Time_L3
GUID-9BFA5B49-5380-4DB6-9E95-0FFD503F4D31 V2 EN
Figure 5:
3.4.1.3
Target definitions during closing operation (Source voltage
reference)
De-energization
De-energization of a capacitor bank may cause re-strikes in the circuit breaker, which
may damage the interrupter. Although most modern circuit breaker types are
classified as having low or very low probability of re-strike, controlled opening can
further reduce the probability of re-strikes.
Optimal interruption instants are defined with respect to the load current in each
phase. Alternatively, they can be derived from the source voltage by adding a 90°
phase shift. Mechanical contact separation must precede interruption by several
milliseconds, to ensure that the instantaneous dielectric strength will always exceed
the TRV. This arcing time is chosen as long as possible, usually between a quarter and
half a power cycle, taking into account the properties of the circuit breaker.
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Switchsync™ PWC600
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Section 3
Application
1MRK 511 346 C
Table 6 shows the predefined controlled de-energization strategies for capacitor banks
of different configurations.
Table 6:
Controlled de-energization strategies for capacitor banks, assuming L1 lead phase
Load configuration Lead phase
selection
L1 (lead phase)
interrupting target
L2 interrupting
target
L3 interrupting
target
Yn (wye/star,
grounded)
Random
Positive-going
zero crossing of
lead phase
current
120° after lead
phase
240° after lead
phase
Y (wye/star,
ungrounded) or Δ
(delta)
Random
Positive-going
zero crossing of
lead phase
current
90° after lead
phase
90° after lead
phase
Target arcing times depend on the power frequency. The limit values listed in Table 7
apply to all three poles. By default, the arithmetic mean of minimum and maximum
arcing times is used.
Table 7:
Target arcing times for de-energization of capacitor banks
System frequency
Minimum arcing time
Maximum arcing time
50 Hz
4.5 ms
6.5 ms
60 Hz
3.6 ms
5.6 ms
Figure 6 demonstrates controlled de-energization of a grounded Y connected
capacitor bank at positive-going zero crossings of the individual phase current (which
Controlled Switching of grounded Y connected capacitor bank using SWITCHSYNC Relay
ABB
coincide
with voltage peaks). Here, L1 was randomly selected as lead phase.
De-energization
Current_L1
Vtrv_L1
Contact_Gap_Dielectric_Strength_L1
Arcing_Time_L1
Vsource_L1
Current_L2
Vtrv_L2
Contact_Gap_Dielectric_Strength_L2
Arcing_Time_L2
Vsource_L2
Remenance Flux R
Remenance Flux Y
Remenance Flux B
Time
(ms)
## PU
## PU
## PU
60
50
L1
0 deg
0 deg
0 deg
40
30
20
10
Lead phase
Interrupting target, Lead phase
Interrupting target, second phase
Interrupting target, third phase
Current_L3
Vtrv_L3
Contact_Gap_Dielectric_Strength_L3
Arcing_Time_L3
Vsource_L3
GUID-A721BEA2-60BE-41C8-A24D-196A84571FCF V2 EN
Figure 6:
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Target definitions during opening operation (load current references)
29
Section 3
Application
1MRK 511 346 C
3.4.2
Shunt reactor
3.4.2.1
Reference signals
For controlled switching, the following analog signals should be connected to the
Switchsync PWC600 IED, and configured in Switchsync Setting Tool.
Table 8:
Reference signals for controlled switching of shunt reactors
Purpose
3.4.2.2
Recommended signals
Alternate signals
Controlled closing reference
Source voltage (1 or 3 phases)
-
Controlled opening reference
Source voltage (1 or 3 phases)
Load current (3 phases)
Adaptive correction, re-ignition
detection
Load current (3 phases)
Load voltage (3 phases, phaseto-ground)
Energization
Energization of a shunt reactor may lead to fully asymmetric phase currents, which
may impose excessive electromagnetic stress on the reactor windings, and cause maloperation of protection relays. This is avoided by energizing each phase in such a
manner as to ensure symmetric reactor currents in each phase.
Table 9 lists the predefined controlled switching strategies for energization of 3-phase
shunt reactors with a single-pole operated circuit breaker, assuming L1 was chosen as
lead phase in all cases.
Table 9:
Winding
connections
Yn (wye/star,
grounded)
Y (wye/star,
ungrounded)
or Δ (delta)
Y (wye/star)
with neutral
grounding
reactor
Controlled energization strategies for shunt reactors, assuming L1 lead phase
Core design
L1 (lead phase) L2 making
making target
target
L3 making
target
Random
Positive peak
of lead phaseto-ground
voltage
120° after lead
phase
240° after lead
phase
3-limb
Fixed (L1)
Positive peak
of L1 phaseto-ground
voltage
112° after L1
phase
85° after L1
phase
Bank
Random
Positive peak of phase-phase
voltage L1-L2
90° after lead
phase
3-limb
Fixed (L1)
Positive peak of phase-phase
voltage L1-L2
90° after L1
phase
Bank
Random
Positive peak
of lead phaseto-ground
voltage
ΦC after lead
phase
240° after lead
phase
Fixed (L1)
Positive peak
of L1 phaseto-ground
voltage
ΦC after L1
phase
240° after L1
phase
Bank
4/5-limb
4/5-limb
4/5-limb
3-limb
30
Lead phase
selection
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Section 3
Application
1MRK 511 346 C
ΦC is calculated from the ratio K, which is defined as neutral reactance divided by
phase reactance. For high values of K (K ≥ 2), the reactor is considered ungrounded
and the respective controlled energization strategy is applied.
The actual value of ΦC and the selected strategy are displayed in Switchsync Setting
Tool after entering all relevant data.
Figure 7 demonstrates controlled energization of a grounded Y-connected reactor
bank at positive peaks of the individual phase-to-ground voltage signals. Here, L1 was
Switching of grounded Y connected reactor bank using SWITCHSYNC Relay
Controlled
randomly
selected as lead phase.

Energization
Current_L1
Contact_Gap_Dielectric_Strength_L1
Vsource_L1
Electrical_Target_L1
Pre-arcing_Time_L1
Only for De-enrgization
Only for De-enrgization
Only for De-enrgization
Current_L2
Contact_Gap_Dielectric_Strength_L2
Vsource_L2
Electrical_Target_L2
Pre-arcing_Time_L2
R
Y
B
35
L1
90 deg
90 deg
90 deg
25
5
15
Lead phase
Making target, Lead phase
Making target, second phase
Making target, third phase
Time (ms)
Current_L3
Contact_Gap_Dielectric_Strength_L3
Vsource_L3
Electrical_Target_L3
Pre-arcing_Time_L3
GUID-6CFC7AAF-6F91-4EA1-8683-2733C4FFCD38 V2 EN
Figure 7:
Target definitions during closing operation (source voltage
reference)
For reactors with 3-limb core (magnetically coupled poles), and with
load voltage selected as feedback signal for making instant detection,
adaptive correction of closing times is disabled for the last pole to
close. The reason is that the voltage across that breaker pole is close to
zero as soon as the second pole closes and hence exact determination
of the current making instant is not possible.
3.4.2.3
De-energization
During de-energization of a reactor, the TRV rises very quickly, which results in a
high probability of re-ignition. The same can be minimized by creating sufficient
dielectric strength across breaker contacts at the time of current interruption. This is
achieved by controlling the instant of mechanical contact separation to ensure arcing
times within the re-ignition free window of the circuit breaker (which is determined
during type testing) or, where such does not exist, at a point to minimize the impact of
re-ignitions. In selecting the target instants in each phase, the construction
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
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Section 3
Application
1MRK 511 346 C
philosophies of the core (3-limb, 4/5-limb, or single-phase bank) as well as the
winding configuration are taken into account.
Table 10 lists the predefined controlled switching strategies for de-energization of 3phase shunt reactors with a single-pole operated circuit breaker, assuming L1 was
chosen as lead phase in all cases.
Table 10:
Winding
connections
Yn (wye/star,
grounded)
Y (wye/star,
ungrounded)
or Δ (delta)
Controlled de-energization strategies for shunt reactors, assuming L1 lead phase
Core design
Lead phase
selection
L3 interrupting
target
Random
Positive-going
zero crossing
of lead phase
current
120° after lead
phase
60° after lead
phase
3-limb
Fixed (L1)
Positive-going
zero crossing
of L1 phase
current
120° after L1
phase
60° after L1
phase
Bank
Fixed (L1)
Positive-going
zero crossing
of L1 phase
current
90° after L1
phase
90° after L1
phase
Fixed (L1)
Positive-going
zero crossing
of L1 phase
current
120° after L1
phase
ΦO after L1
phase
Bank
4/5-limb
4/5-limb
3-limb
Y (wye/star)
with neutral
grounding
reactor
L1 (lead phase) L2 interrupting
target
interrupting
target
Bank
4/5-limb
3-limb
ΦO is calculated from the ratio K, which is defined as neutral reactance divided by
phase reactance. For high values of K (K≥2), the reactor is considered ungrounded and
the respective controlled de-energization strategy is applied.
The actual value of ΦO and the selected strategy are displayed in Switchsync Setting
Tool after entering all relevant data.
Target arcing times depend on several factors, as shown in Table 11. They are based
on Tamin and Tamax, which are the minimum and maximum arcing times for re-ignition
free interruption. These limit values are taken from circuit breaker data obtained
during type tests.
Table 11:
Target arcing times for de-energization of shunt reactors, assuming L1 lead phase
Winding connections
32
L1 (lead phase)
L2
L3
Yn (wye/star,
grounded)
(Tamin + Tamax) / 2
(Tamin + Tamax) / 2
(Tamin + Tamax) / 2
Y (wye/star,
ungrounded) or Δ
(delta)
(1.5·Tamin + Tamax) / 2
(0.87·Tamin + Tamax) / 2
(0.87·Tamin + Tamax) / 2
Y (wye/star) with
neutral grounding
reactor
((1+K/4)·Tamin +
Tamax) / 2
(Tamin + Tamax) / 2
((1+K/4)·Tamin +
Tamax) / 2
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Section 3
Application
1MRK 511 346 C
Figure 8 demonstrates controlled de-energization of an Yn connected reactor bank at
positive-going zero crossings of the individual phase current (which coincide with
grounded Y connected reactor bank using SWITCHSYNC Relay
Controlled
voltage
peaks). Switching
Here, L1ofwas
randomly selected as lead phase.

De-energization
Current_L1
Vtrv_L1
Contact_Gap_Dielectric_Strength_L1
Arcing_Time_L1
Vsource_L1
Current_L2
Vtrv_L2
Contact_Gap_Dielectric_Strength_L2
Arcing_Time_L2
Vsource_L2
Time (ms)
60
50
L1
0 deg
0 deg
0 deg
40
30
20
Lead phase
Interrupting target, Lead phase
Interrupting target, second phase
Interrupting target, third phase
Current_L3
Vtrv_L3
Contact_Gap_Dielectric_Strength_L3
Arcing_Time_L3
Vsource_L3
GUID-7E2C1278-17F2-41C3-A617-54CCC0DDE560 V2 EN
Figure 8:
Target definitions during opening operation (load current reference)
For reactors with 3-limb core (magnetically coupled phases), and with
load voltage selected as reference signal for re-ignition detection,
adaptive correction of opening times is not done for the first phase to
open. The reason is that the voltage across that breaker pole is still
close to zero after opening and hence exact determination of the
current interruption instant is not possible.
3.4.3
Power transformer
3.4.3.1
Reference signals
For controlled switching, the following analog signals should be connected to the
Switchsync PWC600 IED, and configured in Switchsync Setting Tool.
Table 12:
Reference signals for controlled switching of power transformers
Purpose
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Recommended signals
Alternate signals
Controlled closing reference
Source voltage (1 or 3 phases)
-
Controlled opening reference
Source voltage (1 or 3 phases)
None (load current not to be
used)
Adaptive correction, re-ignition
detection
Mechanical status indication
from auxiliary contacts
Load voltage (3 phases, phaseto-ground)
33
Section 3
Application
1MRK 511 346 C
Auxiliary contacts should meet certain accuracy requirements on operating times.
3.4.3.2
Controlled switching strategies
During energization of power transformers, high levels of inrush currents are
observed. To mitigate the inrush it is required that the resultant fluxes generated in
individual windings of the transformer should have lowest asymmetry so that the core
would not go in saturation. This minimizes the inrush current to near no-load current.
Achieving symmetrical flux on energization requires consideration of residual fluxes
in the core, winding configurations (vector group), and design philosophies (3 limb,
4/5 limb or single-phase bank) of the transformer.
The switching strategy in this case targets at energization of individual poles on the
reference voltage waveform in such a way that the resultant dynamic fluxes will be
symmetric. The required knowledge of residual fluxes is obtained by controlled
opening as a support for the subsequent controlled closing. The purpose of controlled
opening is to set a repeatable pattern of residual fluxes. The controlled opening
strategy is to target contact parting just prior to final current zero, which will minimize
current chopping and thereby the residual fluxes. The subsequent closing for
individual poles is targeted in such a way that the resultant flux will have minimum
level of asymmetry. The predefined switching targets in absence of residual fluxes for
different transformer configurations are given in Table 13.
Table 13:
Winding
2 or 3 is Δ
(delta)
Core
design
Interrupting targets
L1 (lead
phase)
L2
L3
L1 (lead
phase)
L2
L3
Yn (wye/star,
grounded)
No
Bank
Positive
peak of
L1
phasetoground
voltage
120° after
L1 phase
60° after
L1 phase
Positive
peak of
L1
phasetoground
voltage
120°
after L1
phase
240°
after L1
phase
Yn (wye/star,
grounded)
Yes
Positive
peak of
L1
phasetoground
voltage
120° after
L1 phase
60° after
L1 phase
Positive
peak of
L1
phasetoground
voltage
112°
after L1
phase
85° after
L1 phase
Yn (wye/star,
grounded)
Either
3-limb
Positive
peak of
L1
phasetoground
voltage
120° after
L1 phase
60° after
L1 phase
Positive
peak of
L1
phasetoground
voltage
112°
after L1
phase
85° after
L1 phase
Y (wye/star,
ungrounded)
Either
Any
Positive
peak of
L1
phasetoground
voltage
90° after
L1 phase
90° after
L1 phase
Positive peak of
phase-phase voltage
L1-L2
Winding 1
Δ (delta)
34
Controlled energization and de-energization strategies for power transformers
4/5-limb
Bank
4/5-limb
Making targets
90° after
L1 phase
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Section 3
Application
1MRK 511 346 C
For a transformer with Yn primary winding and coupled phases, the
ideal making targets for L2 and L3 are 90 degrees after L1. The "odd"
values of 112 and 85 degrees were implemented to ensure inverse
phase sequence even with non-ideal circuit breakers.
Controlled switching strategies for power transformers always use fixed phase
sequence with L1 as lead phase, for both opening and closing. Winding 1 represents
the winding that is switched by the circuit breaker controlled by PWC600.
The target arcing time value for transformer de-energization is taken from circuit
breaker type data, identical in all three poles.
Figure 9 demonstrates the ideal making targets in absence of residual flux, for
controlled energization of an Yn connected transformer having at least one Δ
connected winding, from the Yn connected side. The lead phase for fixed-sequence
strategies is L1 and the targets are shown considering a single-pole operated CB.
 Controlled Switching of Power Transformer using SWITCHSYNC Relay

Source_Flux_L1
Resultant_Flux_L1
Target_L1
Pre-arcing_L1
30
20
Residual flux L1
Residual flux L2
Residual flux L3
Source_Flux_L2
Resultant Flux_L2
Target_L2
Pre-arcing_L2
0.00 pu
0.00 pu
0.00 pu
Time ms
40
L1
90 deg
60 deg
300 deg
10
Lead phase
Making target, L1
Making target, L2
Making target, L3
Source_Flux_L3
Resultant_Flux_L3
Target_L3
Pre_arcing_L3
10
Current_L1
Vsource_L1
Gap_Dielectric_Strength_L1
Gap_Voltage_L1
Current_L2
Vsource_L2
Gap_Dielectric_Strength_L2
Gap_Voltage_L2
Current_L3
Vsource_L3
Gap_Dielectric_Strength_L3
Gap_Voltage_L3
GUID-6C6103A8-8A53-4319-AC8D-8C50CA92AEE0 V2 EN
Figure 9:
Target definitions during closing operation, no residual flux in
transformer
Controlled de-energization leaves a low level of residual flux in the transformer core.
Therefore, the recommendation for on-site commissioning is to perform the first
operation at ideal targets assuming zero residual fluxes, followed by controlled
opening operation leaving low level of residual fluxes. In the next step, targets can be
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
35
Section 3
Application
1MRK 511 346 C
manually adjusted based on inrush current signature and relative value of current
peaks for individual phases obtained during the first energization operation. These
adjustments are individual to each transformer. The result is shown in Figure 10 and
Figure 11.
 Controlled Switching of Power Transformer using SWITCHSYNC Relay

Source_Flux_L1
Resultant_Flux_L1
Target_L1
Pre-arcing_L1
30
20
Residual flux L1
Residual flux L2
Residual flux L3
Source_Flux_L2
Resultant Flux_L2
Target_L2
Pre-arcing_L2
0.00 pu
0.15 pu
-0.15 pu
Time ms
40
L1
90 deg
60 deg
300 deg
10
Lead phase
Making target, L1
Making target, L2
Making target, L3
Source_Flux_L3
Resultant_Flux_L3
Target_L3
Pre_arcing_L3
10
Current_L1
Vsource_L1
Gap_Dielectric_Strength_L1
Gap_Voltage_L1
Current_L2
Vsource_L2
Gap_Dielectric_Strength_L2
Gap_Voltage_L2
Current_L3
Vsource_L3
Gap_Dielectric_Strength_L3
Gap_Voltage_L3
GUID-19E903BA-1030-4596-9655-9F03E58DE073 V2 EN
Figure 10:
36
Closing on default targets in presence of residual fluxes
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Section 3
Application
1MRK 511 346 C
 Controlled Switching of Power Transformer using SWITCHSYNC Relay

Source_Flux_L1
Resultant_Flux_L1
Target_L1
Pre-arcing_L1
30
20
Residual flux L1
Residual flux L2
Residual flux L3
Source_Flux_L2
Resultant Flux_L2
Target_L2
Pre-arcing_L2
0.00 pu
0.15 pu
-0.15 pu
Time ms
40
L1
90 deg
67 deg
307 deg
10
Lead phase
Making target, L1
Making target, L2
Making target, L3
Source_Flux_L3
Resultant_Flux_L3
Target_L3
Pre_arcing_L3
10
Current_L1
Vsource_L1
Gap_Dielectric_Strength_L1
Gap_Voltage_L1
Current_L2
Vsource_L2
Gap_Dielectric_Strength_L2
Gap_Voltage_L2
Current_L3
Vsource_L3
Gap_Dielectric_Strength_L3
Gap_Voltage_L3
GUID-AAEDD383-F61C-4993-A153-863A80116F39 V2 EN
Figure 11:
Closing on corrected targets in presence of residual fluxes
For transformers with a 3-limb core or with a secondary or tertiary
delta winding (magnetically coupled phases), and with load voltage
selected as feedback signal for detection of making instants and reignitions, adaptive correction of closing times is disabled for the last
pole to close. The reason is that the voltage across that breaker pole is
close to zero as soon as the second pole closes and hence exact
determination of the current making instant is not possible. Similarly
for controlled opening, adaptive correction of opening times is not
done for the first pole to open.
3.4.4
Transmission line and power cable
3.4.4.1
Reference signals
For controlled switching, the following analog signals should be connected to the
Switchsync PWC600 IED, and configured in Switchsync Setting Tool.
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
37
Section 3
Application
1MRK 511 346 C
Table 14:
Reference signals for controlled switching of transmission lines and power cables
Purpose
3.4.4.2
Recommended signals
Alternate signals
Controlled closing reference
Source voltage (1 or 3 phases)
-
Controlled opening reference
Source voltage (1 or 3 phases)
Load current (3 phases); only if
line charging current
1) primary is ≥10% of “nominal
load current” entered in SST
2) secondary is minimum 50 mA.
Adaptive correction, re-strike
detection
Load current (3 phases);
preferred for long lines and
cables that draw higher charging
currents
Load voltage (3 phases, phaseto-ground); preferred for short
lines and cables where the
charging current may be too low
for reliable detection
Energization
During energization of long EHV/UHV transmission lines, switching overvoltages
are generated, in particular at the far end of the line. Controlled switching, along with
transmission line surge arresters (SA) connected at both ends of the line, can be used
to reduce the level of switching overvoltages below the switching impulse withstand
level (SIWL) of the line. In this case, the energization targets are aimed just after
positive-going zero crossings of the source side voltages in each phase, see Table 15.
However, it is advised to perform a system study on each case to ensure proper
coordination of the controlled switching system with the ratings of the surge arrestors,
so that overvoltages can be brought below SIL with sufficient margin. The targets are
the same for any configuration (uncompensated or shunt compensated) of
transmission lines and do not require load side voltage measurement.
The same energization strategy is applied to power cables, in order to minimize the
switching overvoltage.
Table 15:
Controlled energization strategies for transmission lines and power cables, assuming
L1 lead phase
Load configuration Lead phase
selection
Any
Random
L1 (lead phase)
making target
Positive-going
zero crossing of
lead phase-toground voltage
L2 making target
L3 making target
120° after lead
phase
240° after lead
phase
Figure 12 demonstrates energization of an uncompensated transmission line in
discharged condition with above mentioned switching targets, adjusted to the
properties of the actual circuit breaker. Here, L1 was randomly selected as lead phase.
38
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Section 3
Application
1MRK 511 346 C
Controlled Switching of uncompensated transmission line using SWITCHSYNC Relay

Energization
Vgap_L1
Contact_Gap_Dielectric_Strength_L1
Pre-arcing_Time_L1
Electrical_Target_L1
Vline_L1
Vgap_L2
Contact_Gap_Dielectric_Strength_L2
Pre-arcing_Time_L2
Electrical_Target_L2
Vline_L2
0.2 PU
0.0 PU
0.0 PU
Remenance Flux R
Remenance Flux Y
Remenance Flux B
Time (ms)
55
deg Trapped Charge R
deg Trapped Charge Y
deg Trapped Charge B
45
L1
18
18
18
35
25
Lead phase
Making target, Lead phase
Making target, second phase
Making target, third phase
Vgap_L3
Contact_Gap_Dielectric_Strength_L3
Pre-arcing_Time_L3
Electrical_Target_L3
Vline_L3
GUID-7304E619-6536-486B-A88D-5F6EE604D0E3 V2 EN
Figure 12:
Controlled energization of discharged uncompensated line (source
voltage reference)
Moreover, the same controlled energization strategy can be employed during reenergization. However, trapped charges are not taken into account. Thus, the
switching overvoltage will likely be higher than during energization of a discharged
line or cable, but lower than worst-case uncontrolled reclosing.
3.4.4.3
De-energization
De-energization of an unloaded transmission line or power cable may cause re-strikes
in the circuit breaker, which may damage the interrupter. Although most modern
circuit breaker types are classified as having low or very low probability of re-strike,
controlled opening can further reduce the probability of re-strikes. Optimal
interruption instants are defined with respect to the load current in each phase.
Alternatively, they can be derived from the source voltage by adding a 90° phase shift.
Table 16 shows the predefined controlled de-energization strategies for transmission
lines and power cables.
Table 16:
Controlled de-energization strategies for transmission lines and power cables,
assuming L1 lead phase
Load configuration Lead phase
selection
Any
Random
L1 (lead phase)
interrupting target
Positive-going
zero crossing of
lead phase
current
L2 interrupting
target
120° after lead
phase
L3 interrupting
target
240° after lead
phase
Target arcing times depend on the power frequency. The limit values listed in Table 17
apply to all three phases. By default, the arithmetic mean of minimum and maximum
arcing times is used.
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
39
Section 3
Application
1MRK 511 346 C
Table 17:
Target arcing times for de-energization of transmission lines and power cables
System frequency
Minimum arcing time
Maximum arcing time
50 Hz
4.5 ms
6.5 ms
60 Hz
3.6 ms
5.6 ms
An example for controlled de-energization of an uncompensated transmission line is
Controlled Switching of uncompensated transmission line using SWITCHSYNC Relay

shown
in Figure 13. Here, L1 was randomly selected as lead phase.

De-energization
Current_L1
Vgap_L1
Contact_Gap_Dielectric_Strength_L1
Arcing_Time_L1
Vsource_L1
Current_L2
Vgap_L2
Contact_Gap_Dielectric_Strength_L2
Arcing_Time_L2
Vsource_L2
Time (ms)
Remenance Flux R
Remenance Flux Y
Remenance Flux B
50
40
L1
0 deg
0 deg
0 deg
30
20
10
Lead phase
Interrupting target, Lead phase
Interrupting target, second phase
Interrupting target, third phase
Current_L3
Vgap_L3
Contact_Gap_Dielectric_Strength_L3
Arcing_Time_L3
Vsource_L3
GUID-38524DED-19AF-45A3-AB14-4AF635777A1E V2 EN
Figure 13:
3.4.5
Controlled de-energization of uncompensated transmission line
(load current reference)
System configuration
Mitigation of switching surges highly depends on the state of the surrounding system
when a controlled switching operation is executed.
In some substation configurations, the same circuit breaker can be used to switch
different loads. For example, in a 1½ breakers diameter, the tie breaker (middle
breaker) sees a different piece of equipment connected to each terminal. If both loads
are to be switched under point-on-wave control, the controlled switching scheme
requires two Switchsync PWC600 IEDs plus a suitable selection scheme (to
determine which IED controls the switching operation under what circumstances).
For a transfer bus coupler bay, the controlled switching scheme may require multiple
Switchsync PWC600 IEDs. The number of IEDs shall be carefully assessed, based on
equipment connected to various bays of the substation. It can be further optimized by
arranging same type of equipment to be switched with a single IED. However, the
mitigation effect may be achieved only partially in this case.
For circuit breakers with pre-insertion resistors (PIR), controlled switching is
recommended only in de-energization operations as energization transients are
40
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Opening Instant L1
25.000
Opening Instant L2
31.667
Opening Instant L3
38.333
## PU
## PU
## PU
Section 3
Application
1MRK 511 346 C
mitigated by the PIR. Therefore, it is recommended to wire and configure the
Switchsync PWC600 IED to only control CB opening operations in this case.
3.5
Circuit breaker monitoring
All signals acquired by the Switchsync PWC600 IED are primarily used for execution
and optimization of controlled switching operations. In addition, the same signals can
be used for monitoring and supervision of the circuit breaker’s switching performance
and its aging (due to number of operations or interrupter wear).
On receiving a switching command, the available compensation signals are evaluated
for compensation values. After issuing a switching command, the IED monitors the
input signals for status changes. The sequence of these events is evaluated to
determine actual operating times and further conditions such as re-ignitions/restrikes. All these data are recorded in the operation log.
The very first operation records (default: 20) are stored as “fingerprint records” in a
separate buffer for later reference.
Table 18 summarizes the use of external signals (if available).
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
41
Section 3
Application
1MRK 511 346 C
Table 18:
Circuit breaker monitoring features
Signals
Current through CB
Controlled switching optimization Monitoring and supervision
•
•
Adaptive correction of
electrical switching times
Idle time compensation of
mechanical switching
times
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Load voltage
•
•
Adaptive correction of
electrical switching times
Idle time compensation of
mechanical switching
times
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Auxiliary contacts status
•
•
Adaptive correction of
mechanical switching
times
Idle time compensation of
mechanical switching
times
•
Electrical switching target
errors
Electrical making time/
interrupting time
Re-ignition/re-strike
Interrupter wear (contact
ablation, nozzle erosion)
Circuit breaker status
(open, closed)
Idle time (time since last
CB operation)
Externally initiated
switching operation
Operation count
Count of successful
controlled switching
operations
Electrical switching target
errors
Electrical making time/
interrupting time
Re-ignition/re-strike
Circuit breaker status
(open, closed)
Idle time (time since last
CB operation)
Externally initiated
switching operation
Operation count
Count of successful
controlled switching
operations
•
Mechanical switching
target errors
Mechanical closing time/
opening time
Initial delay time, moving
time
Contact velocity
Idle time
Externally initiated
switching operation
Operation count
•
•
•
•
•
DC control voltage
•
Voltage compensation of
mechanical switching
times
•
Limit supervision
Temperature
•
Temperature
compensation of
mechanical switching
times
•
Limit supervision
Table continues on next page
42
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Section 3
Application
1MRK 511 346 C
Signals
Controlled switching optimization Monitoring and supervision
Drive pressure
•
Pressure compensation of
mechanical switching
times
•
Limit supervision
Spring charge
•
Spring charge
compensation of
mechanical switching
times
•
Limit supervision
Additional quantity (user
defined)
•
Additional compensation
of mechanical switching
times
•
Limit supervision
For estimating interrupter wear, it is recommended to use protection
class CT cores.
Various supervision alarms have been defined to indicate if the associated parameter
crosses the limit. Each alarm can have two stages: warning and alarm, for which user
can define the limits, and which can be individually enabled or disabled.
3.5.1
Electrical operations monitoring
Following every controlled switching operation, certain parameters are extracted
from recorded voltage and current signals. They are summarized in Table 19. Close
and Open commands refer to the control signals given to the circuit breaker drive.
Table 19:
Monitored electrical parameters
Parameter
Definition
Remarks
Circuit breaker status
Current through CB, or load
voltage, is above threshold
For loads of type power
transformer, transmission line,
or power cable, the nominal load
current needs to be set to the
expected charging current
under no-load conditions.
Current making angle
Detected instant of current
inception, relative to positivegoing reference signal zero
crossing
Relevant for CB closing
operations only.
Electrical operating time
(making time, interrupting time)
Closing (current making): Time
from Close command to current
inception
Obtained from CB current or
load voltage signals
Opening (current interruption):
Time from Open command to
final current interruption
Arcing time
Time from estimated instant of
mechanical separation of arcing
contacts to final current
interruption
Relevant only for CB opening
operations.
Table continues on next page
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
43
Section 3
Application
1MRK 511 346 C
Parameter
3.5.1.1
Definition
Electrical target error
Difference between actual
(measured) electrical operating
time and target electrical
operating time
Re-ignition/re-strike
Re-occurrence of CB current (or
load voltage) detected after the
expected current interruption
instant
Interrupter wear
Combined figure of contact
erosion, nozzle ablation, and so
on, based on interrupted primary
current
Remarks
Every detected re-ignition/restrike increases a counter and
increases the target arcing time
(up to a set limit).
Detection of circuit breaker electrical operation
Switchsync PWC600 attempts to detect electrical operation of the circuit breaker
(current making or current interruption) from the primary current or load voltage
signals. The strategies employed vary by the set load type.
•
•
For capacitor bank and shunt reactor type loads, it can be assumed that load
current is generally above dead-band value when energized. Hence, a
straightforward level detection is applied, assuming the CB closed whenever the
RMS current exceeds the fixed threshold. Alternately when load voltage is used,
the presence of voltage is detected.
Power transformers exhibit very low magnetizing currents when energized.
These currents are usually too low for reliable electrical operation detection.
Electrical status detection is therefore based on load voltage only, if available.
Electrical and magnetic coupling between phases can mislead the
status detection algorithm. Hence, it is recommended to connect
auxiliary contacts to the IED to allow mechanical status detection
especially when load voltage is not used to detect the electrical
operations.
•
For transmission lines and cables, the charging current depends on the length and
other parameters. Therefore, Switchsync PWC600 specially analyzes the first ten
controlled switching operations, to determine whether the charging current is
above dead-band value. If yes, the same level detection as for a capacitor bank is
applied. If not, then electrical operations monitoring is not performed and timing
values are shown as zero. In this case, it is recommended to use load voltage as
reference signal for electrical operation detection.
During the first ten controlled switching operations, the operation
mode (in operation log) is displayed as “N/A”.
44
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Section 3
Application
1MRK 511 346 C
•
For user-defined loads, the algorithm determines whether the load type is fixed
(for example, Capacitor bank and Reactor) during the first ten switching
operations. If yes then electrical status is also evaluated based on load current. If
not then load voltage must be used, or electrical status detection is not possible.
•
In case of electrical or magnetic coupling of the phases in the load, with load
voltage being used for electrical operation detection, special filtering algorithms
are employed to detect the current making and current interruption instants in
each phase.
In case of a weak source, switching operations may cause voltage
interference between phases for loads that are not solidly grounded.
Therefore it is recommended to use current as feedback signal.
For most load types (excluding transmission line or cable or power transformer),
electrical status detection (conducting or isolating) is also performed based on load
current. If load voltage is set as reference signal, electrical status detection is always
performed based on these signals. The results can be used for displaying CB status or
for idle time compensation.
3.5.1.2
Calculation of interrupter wear
In new condition, a circuit breaker is rated for a certain number of mechanical
operations, that is, interrupting no or very low currents. It is also rated for a certain
(low) number of operations interrupting maximum fault current. Between these
extremes, the interrupted current in every Open operation causes some erosion of the
contacts and ablation of the nozzles, until the CB loses its ability to reliably switch off
currents. This interrupter wear characteristic is often given in form of a curve.
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
45
Section 3
Application
1MRK 511 346 C
Number of switching operations
10000
1000
100
10
0
IntTh1
10
20
30
40
50
interrupted current (kA)
60
70
IntTh2
GUID-3DCD06E6-F638-4749-BF54-34B54D94B140 V1 EN
Figure 14:
Example of interrupter wear characteristic of a circuit breaker rated
for 10000 mechanical operations (interrupting currents up to 3500 A)
or 20 interruptions of 63 kA fault current
Switchsync PWC600 calculates interrupter wear as the equivalent number of
mechanical operations that the circuit breaker has lost after interrupting a specific
current. The algorithm for calculation of interrupter wear is explained in the Technical
Manual.
It is recommended to contact ABB for obtaining the optimal
coefficients for interrupter wear of any circuit breaker type that is not
included in the CB library of SST.
3.5.2
Mechanical operations monitoring
Following every switching operation, certain parameters are calculated from recorded
instants of auxiliary contacts' changeover. They are summarized in Table 20,
assuming both contact types (NO/52a and NC/52b) are connected to the Switchsync
PWC600 IED. Close and Open commands refer to the control signals given to the
circuit breaker drive.
46
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Section 3
Application
1MRK 511 346 C
Table 20:
Monitored mechanical parameters
Parameter
Definition
Remarks
Initial delay time
Closing: TNC = Time from Close
command to opening of NC
(52b) contact
Opening: TNO = Time from Open
command to opening of NO
(52a) contact
Can be calculated only if
respective auxiliary contact
signals are available.
Moving time TNONC
Closing: TNO – TNC = Time from
opening of NC (52b) to closing of
NO (52a) contact
Opening: TNC – TNO = Time from
opening of NO (52a) to closing of
NC (52b) contact
Can be calculated only if both
auxiliary contact signals are
available.
Linear contact velocity vNONC
(dNO – dNC)/TNONC = Nominal
distance between NC (52b) and
NO (52a) contacts divided by
moving time
Not necessarily identical to true
velocity obtained from travel
sensor signal. Can be calculated
only if both auxiliary contact
signals are available.
Mechanical operating time
(closing time, opening time)
Closing: Tmain = Time from
Close command to estimated
point of contact touch
Opening: Tmain = Time from
Open command to estimated
point of contact separation
Linear estimation, based on
contact velocity (vNONC).
Mechanical target error
Difference between actual
(measured) mechanical
operating time and target
mechanical operating time
Unstable operating times
Fluctuation between several
consecutive operating times
higher than threshold
Indication of unstable operating
times must be cleared manually.
Figure 15 shows a typical circuit breaker Close operation, to demonstrate the
mechanical monitoring parameters. The main portion of the linear travel curve (gray)
is approximated by a straight line (black) connecting the changeover points of NC
(52b) and NO (52a) auxiliary contacts. The vertical axis marks the time when the
closing command is given to the CB drive (t=0).
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
47
Section 3
Application
1MRK 511 346 C
dNC
dNO
travel
time
TNC
(Tmain)
TNO
GUID-54A36C70-49D1-40A3-AE26-A8C7A5B44E9E V1 EN
Figure 15:
48
Definition of mechanical monitoring parameters for a CB Close
operation. Definition for Open operations is equivalent.
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Section 4
Installation
1MRK 511 346 C
Section 4
Installation
4.1
Unpacking, inspecting and storing
4.1.1
Removing transport packaging
IEDs require careful handling.
1.
2.
Examine the delivered products to ensure that they have not been damaged
during the transport.
Remove the transport packing carefully without force.
The cardboard packaging material is 100% recyclable.
4.1.2
Inspecting the product
4.1.2.1
Identifying the product
1.
2.
4.1.2.2
Locate the IED's order number from the label attached to the IED's case.
Compare the IED's order number with the ordering information to verify that the
received product is correct.
Checking delivery items
Check that all items are included in the delivery in accordance with the delivery
documents.
4.1.2.3
Inspecting the IED
IEDs require careful handling before installation on site.
•
Check the IED to see if any damage occurred during transportation.
If the IED has been damaged during transportation, make a claim against the transport
contractor, and notify the local ABB representative.
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
49
Section 4
Installation
4.1.2.4
1MRK 511 346 C
Returning an IED damaged in transit
If damage has occurred during transport, appropriate actions must be taken against the
latest carrier. Please inform the nearest ABB office or representative. Notify ABB
immediately if there are any discrepancies in relation to the delivery documents.
4.1.3
Storing
If the IED is stored before installation, it must be done in the original transport
packaging in a dry and dust free place. Observe the environmental requirements stated
in the technical data section.
4.2
Checking environmental conditions and mounting
space
The mechanical and electrical environmental conditions at the installation site must be
within the limits described in the technical data.
•
•
•
4.3
Rack mounting the IED
1.
50
Avoid installation in dusty, damp places.
Avoid places susceptible to rapid temperature variations, powerful vibrations and
shocks, surge voltages of high amplitude and fast rise time, strong induced
magnetic fields or similar extreme conditions.
Check that sufficient space is available.
Sufficient space is needed at the front and rear of the IED to allow access to wires
and optical fibres and to enable maintenance and future modifications.
Attach the mounting brackets to both ends of the IED using the screws enclosed
with the rack mounting kit.
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Section 4
Installation
1MRK 511 346 C
1
1
2
2
D0E523T201305141600 V1 EN
Figure 16:
Mounting the brackets
1 Mounting brackets
2 Screws
2.
3.
4.
Tighten the screws using a Torx T25 screwdriver.
Mount the IED with the rack mounting panels to the 19" rack.
Tighten the screws.
E
A
D
B
C
D0E526T201305141600 V2 EN
Figure 17:
Rack mounted 3U IED
A
57.2 mm (2.25 inches)
B
224 mm (8.82 inches) + 12 mm (0.47 inches) with ring-lug connector
C 25.5 mm (1 inch)
D 482 mm (19 inches)
E
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
132 mm (5.20 inches), 3U
51
Section 4
Installation
4.4
1MRK 511 346 C
Arranging ventilation
Ventholes are located at the bottom and on the back plate of the IED. Reserve
sufficient space around the IED to ensure adequate ventilation.
•
•
•
52
Reserve at least 2U below and above the unit.
Reserve for rack mount approximately 10 cm behind the unit, measured from the
surface of the cover.
Ensure sufficient space for the wiring and the installation of cable ducts.
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Section 5
Hardware interfaces
1MRK 511 346 C
5.1
Connectors
X9 X10
X1 X2 X3
X324 X329
X102
X8
X321 X326
X319
X101
X0
X420
Hardware interfaces
X317
Section 5
GUID-79B91E2D-81CF-4D4C-9DD3-708CC2BA7204 V2 EN
Figure 18:
Rear panel connectors
Table 21:
Interfaces used in the default pre-configuration of the Switchsync PWC600 IED
Connector
Description
X0
Connection for Detached HMI (Not used in Switchsync PWC600)
X1
Station bus: IEC61850-8-1, Web interface
X2
Redundant station bus, optional
X3
Process bus, sampled values from IEC 61850-9-2LE compliant merging units
X8
EIA-485 and IRIG-B serial connection
X9
Legacy optical serial communication (Not used in Switchsync PWC600)
X10
Optical 1PPS signal input for time synchronisation
X101, X102
Conventional CT and VT inputs
X317, X326
Signalling outputs
X319
IRF (Internal failure output)
X321
Open and close command outputs
X324
Circuit breaker auxiliary switch position inputs
X329
Close/Open command and CB drive energy status inputs
X420
Auxliary supply voltage input
5.2
Physical connections
5.2.1
Connecting protective earthing
Connect the IED to earth using a 16.0 mm2 flat copper cable. Use an earth lead of
maximum 1500 mm. Notice that extra length is required for door mounting.
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
53
Section 5
Hardware interfaces
1MRK 511 346 C
1.
Loosen the nut from the protective earth pin to connect a separate earth
protection lead.
D0E13861T201305151403 V1 EN
Figure 19:
The protective ground pin is located to the left of connector
X101 on the 3U full 19” case
Each IED must have its own earth lead connected to the earth
circuit connector.
2.
3.
4.
5.
5.2.2
Connect the earth lead to the earth bar.
Thread the copper cable on the protective earth pin.
Tighten the nut on the protective earth pin.
Support the earth lead so that it cannot break or weaken.
Observe the situations for mechanical, chemical or electrochemical conditions.
Connecting wires
1.
2.
3.
4.
Connect each signal connector terminal with one 0.5...2.5 mm2 wire or with two
0.5...1.0 mm2 wires.
Connect each compression type (X101 and X102) terminal for CTs/VTs with
one 0.5...6.0 mm2 wire or with two of maximum 2.5 mm2 wires.
Connect each terminal on the communication module for IRIG-B with one 0.2
- 1.0 mm2 wire.
Connect each terminal on the communication module for EIA-485 with one 0.2
- 1.0 mm2 wire.
See the sections for product-specific terminal assignments in the preconfiguration.
54
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Section 5
Hardware interfaces
1MRK 511 346 C
5.2.2.1
Connecting to screw-compression type terminals
Terminal blocks of screw-compression type are used for electrical connections.
1.
2.
Open the screw terminal before inserting a wire into it for the first time. To open
the screw terminal, turn the fixing screw anti-clockwise until the terminal hole
is wide open (the inside of the terminal hole is surrounded by metal).
Insert the wire and turn the fixing screw clockwise until the wire is firmly fixed.
5.3
Inputs
5.3.1
Measuring inputs
Each terminal for CTs/VTs is dimensioned for one 0.5...6.0 mm2 wire or for two wires
of maximum 2.5 mm2.
Table 22:
Connector
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Conventional CT and VT inputs
Pin
Signal
X101
1
L1 I N
X101
2
L1 I L
X101
3
L2 I N
X101
4
L2 I L
X101
5
L3 I N
X101
6
L3 I L
X101
7
-
X101
8
-
X101
9
L1 V1 N
X101
10
L1 V1 L
X102
1
L2 V1 N
X102
2
L2 V1 L
X102
3
L3 V1 N
X102
4
L3 V1 L
X102
5
L1 V2 N
X102
6
L1 V2 L
X102
7
L2 V2 N
X102
8
L2 V2 L
X102
9
L3 V2 N
X102
10
L3 V2 L
Description
Software signal
L1 phase current
TRM_2.CH1(I)
L2 phase current
TRM_2.CH2(I)
L3 phase current
TRM_2.CH3(I)
Not used
TRM_2.CH4(I)
Source voltage L1 / L1-L2 /
only available single phase
TRM_2.CH5(U)
Source voltage L2 / L2-L3
TRM_2.CH6(U)
Source voltage L3 / L3-L1
TRM_2.CH7(U)
Load voltage L1 (optional)
TRM_2.CH8(U)
Load voltage L2 (optional)
TRM_2.CH9(U)
Load voltage L3 (optional)
TRM_2.CH10(U)
55
Section 5
Hardware interfaces
1MRK 511 346 C
A single-phase reference VT shall always be connected to terminals
X101:9-10, regardless which system phase(s) it measures. If it does
not measure L1 then the application configuration should be adjusted
for proper recording and display of the signals.
The CT connector features an automatic short-circuit mechanism for
the current terminals. Therefore, detaching the connector from the
unit will not open the secondary circuit of the CT, which otherwise
could cause dangerously high voltages.
To avoid mismatch between CT and VT connections the connectors are mechanically
encoded and cannot be inserted in the wrong location.
5.3.2
Auxiliary supply voltage input
The auxiliary voltage of the IED is connected to terminals X420-1 and X420-2/3. The
terminals used depend on the power supply.
The permitted auxiliary voltage range of the IED is marked on the identification
sticker on the IED's enclosure.
Table 23:
Auxliary supply voltage input
Connector Pin
Signal
Description
X420
1
UB-
IED supply voltage (battery
voltage)
X420
2
UB+ Me
IED supply voltage (battery
voltage) for 48…125V DC
variant
X420
3
UB+ Hi
IED supply voltage (battery
voltage) for 110… 250V DC
variant
Software signal
PSM_102.BATTAMPL
Connect the power supply only to connector X420. Since connectors
X420 and X319 are the same size, make sure not to accidentally
connect the power supply to connector X319.
5.3.3
Binary inputs
Each connector terminal is connected with one 0.5...2.5 mm2 wire or with two 0.5...1.0
mm2 wires.
56
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Section 5
Hardware interfaces
1MRK 511 346 C
Table 24:
Connector
Circuit breaker auxiliary switch position inputs
Pin
Signal
Description
Software signal
X324
1
L1 NO/52a -
UB-
PIO_3.PBI4
X324
2
L1 NO/52a +
L1 auxiliary contact NO (52a), the other
pole of which is connected to UB+
X324
3
L2 NO/52a -
UB-
X324
4
L2 NO/52a +
L2 auxiliary contact NO (52a), the other
pole of which is connected to UB+
X324
5
L3 NO/52a -
UB-
X324
6
L3 NO/52a +
L3 auxiliary contact NO (52a), the other
pole of which is connected to UB+
X324
7
L1 NC/52b -
UB-
X324
8
L1 NC/52b +
L1 auxiliary contact NC (52b), the other
pole of which is connected to UB+
X324
9
L2 NC/52b -
UB-
X324
10
L2 NC/52b +
L2 auxiliary contact NC (52b), the other
pole of which is connected to UB+
X324
11
L3 NC/52b -
UB-
X324
12
L3 NC/52b +
L3 auxiliary contact NC (52b), the other
pole of which is connected to UB+
X324
13
L1 prim -
UB-
X324
14
L1 prim +
L1 primary contact (make available on
terminal; only used during
commissioning)
X324
15
L2 prim -
UB-
X324
16
L2 prim +
L2 primary contact (make available on
terminal; only used during
commissioning)
X324
17
L3 prim -
UB-
X324
18
L3 prim +
L3 primary contact (make available on
terminal; only used during
commissioning)
PIO_3.PBI5
PIO_3.PBI6
PIO_3.PBI7
PIO_3.PBI8
PIO_3.PBI9
PIO_3.PBI10
PIO_3.PBI11
PIO_3.PBI12
For full timing accuracy, a resistor for discharging the cable capacitance should be
permanently connected in parallel to each precision binary input. Resistance value and
power rating depend on the length of the wires between IED and the circuit breaker,
and the nominal battery voltage.
Table 25 lists some suggested values.
Table 25:
Cable length
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Recommended shunt resistor ratings for precision binary inputs
110…127 V supply
220…250 V supply
Up to 30 m
100 kΩ, 0.5 W
100 kΩ, 2 W
Up to 150 m
33 kΩ, 2 W
33 kΩ, 5 W
Up to 300 m
15 kΩ, 3 W
15 kΩ, 15 W
Above 300 m
4.7 kΩ, 10 W
4.7 kΩ, 30 W
57
Section 5
Hardware interfaces
1MRK 511 346 C
Table 26:
Connector
Inputs for close/open commands and CB drive energy level
Pin
Signal
X329
1
Close in -
X329
2
Close in +
X329
4
Open in -
X329
5
Open in +
X329
8
X329
Description
Software signal
Close command input from bay control
BIO_4.BI1
Open command input from bay control
BIO_4.BI2
L1 Spr -
L1 spring charge level (common
terminal)
*
9
L1 Spr OCObk +
L1 spring charge level: OCO blocked
BIO_4.BI4
X329
10
L1 Spr CObk +
L1 spring charge level: CO blocked
BIO_4.BI5
X329
12
L2 Spr -
L2 spring charge level (common
terminal)
*
X329
13
L2 Spr OCObk +
L2 spring charge level: OCO blocked
BIO_4.BI6
X329
14
L2 Spr CObk +
L2 spring charge level: CO blocked
BIO_4.BI7
X329
16
L3 Spr -
L3 spring charge level (common
terminal)
*
X329
17
L3 Spr OCObk +
L3 spring charge level: OCO blocked
BIO_4.BI8
X329
18
L3 Spr CObk +
L3 spring charge level: CO blocked
BIO_4.BI9
X321
13
LED Rst -
Reset latched status LEDs
PIO_3.PBI1
X321
14
LED Rst +
Reset latched status LEDs
* No separate software designation, as this is the common terminal for the next two signals.
5.4
Outputs
5.4.1
Outputs for circuit breaker control
Each connector terminal is connected with one 0.5...2.5 mm2 wire or with two 0.5...1.0
mm2 wires.
Table 27:
Connector
Open and close command outputs
Pin
Signal
X321
1
L1 Close -
X321
2
L1 Close +
X321
3
L2 Close -
X321
4
L2 Close +
X321
5
L3 Close -
X321
6
L3 Close +
X321
7
L1 Open -
X321
8
L1 Open +
Description
Software signal
Controlled close command output
L1
PIO_3.PBO1
Controlled close command output
L2
PIO_3.PBO2
Controlled close command output
L3
PIO_3.PBO3
Controlled open command output
L1
PIO_3.PBO4
Table continues on next page
58
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Section 5
Hardware interfaces
1MRK 511 346 C
Connector
5.4.2
Pin
Signal
X321
9
L2 Open -
X321
10
L2 Open +
X321
11
L3 Open -
X321
12
L3 Open +
Description
Software signal
Controlled open command output
L2
PIO_3.PBO5
Controlled open command output
L3
PIO_3.PBO6
Outputs for signalling
Signal output contacts are used for signalling alarms and warning conditions.
Each signal connector terminal is connected with one 0.5...2.5 mm2 wire or with two
0.5...1.0 mm2 wires.
Table 28:
Connector
5.4.3
Signalling outputs
Pin
X317
13
X317
14
X317
15
X317
16
X317
17
X317
18
X326
7
X326
8
X326
9
X326
10
X326
11
X326
12
X326
Signal
Description
Software signal
Al Discr NO
Alarm: Breaker testing discrepancy
trip
PSM_102.BO7_SO
Al 9-2 NO
Warning: Loss of 9-2 data or
synchronization
PSM_102.BO8_SO
Al SigPr NO
Alarm: Error in signal processing
PSM_102.BO9_SO
Wa Reig NO
Warning: Re-Strike / re-ignition
detected
BIO_4.BO4_SO
Wa Accur NO
Warning: Reduced accuracy of last
controlled switching operations
BIO_4.BO5_SO
Wa LComp NO
Warning: Loss of compensation
signal
BIO_4.BO6_SO
13
Wa Thresh NO
Threshold supervision warning
BIO_4.BO7_SO
X326
14
Al Thresh NO
Threshold supervision alarm
BIO_4.BO8_SO
X326
15
Thresh Com
Threshold supervision (common)
-
X326
16
Wa Uncont NC
17
Wa Uncont NO
Warning: Controlled switching not
possible
BIO_4.BO9_SO
X326
X326
18
Wa Uncont
Com
IRF
The IRF contact functions as a change-over output contact for the self-supervision
system of the IED. Under normal operating conditions, the IED is energized and one
of the two contacts is closed. When a fault is detected by the self-supervision system
or the auxiliary voltage is disconnected, the closed contact drops off and the other
contact closes.
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
59
Section 5
Hardware interfaces
1MRK 511 346 C
Each signal connector terminal is connected with one 0.5...2.5 mm2 wire or with two
0.5...1.0 mm2 wires.
Table 29:
Connector
5.5
Internal failure output
Pin
Signals
Description
X319
1
IRF NO
Closed: no IRF, and Ub connected
X319
2
IRF NC
Closed: IRF, or Ub disconnected
X319
3
IRF Com
IRF, common
Communication interfaces
The IED's LHMI is provided with an RJ-45 connector. This interface is intended for
configuration and setting purposes.
Station bus and process bus communication runs on the communication module via
the optical interfaces (LC Ethernet connectors) on the rear panel. If both are used, the
process bus shall run as a separate network from the station bus to prevent interference
of control data with the sampled values stream.
Rear communication via the X8/EIA-485/IRIG-B connector uses a communication
module with the galvanic EIA-485 serial connection.
The HMI connector X0 and the serial interface X9 are not used in Switchsync
PWC600.
5.5.1
Ethernet RJ-45 front connection
The IED's LHMI is provided with an RJ-45 connector designed for point-to-point use.
This interface is intended for configuration and setting purposes. The interface on the
PC has to be configured in a way that it obtains the IP address automatically if the
DHCP server is enabled in LHMI. The DHCP server inside the IED can be activated
for the front interface only.
Usually this port is used only for temporary connection, thus no permanent wiring is
required. Events, setting values and all input data such as operation records and
waveform records can be read via the front communication port.
Only one of the possible clients can be used for parametrization at a time.
•
•
•
PCM600
LHMI
WHMI
The default IP address of the IED through this port is 10.1.150.3.
60
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Section 5
Hardware interfaces
1MRK 511 346 C
The front port supports TCP/IP protocol. A standard Ethernet CAT 5 crossover cable
with RJ-45 connector is used with the front port.
5.5.2
Station communication rear connection
The default IP address of the IED through the rear Ethernet port is 192.168.1.10. The
physical connector is X1/LAN1 A. The communication speed is 100 Mbps for the
100BASE-FX LC interface.
For redundant communication, X1/LAN1 A and X2/LAN1 B can be used.
Table 30:
Station bus
Connector
Pin
Signals
Description
X1
All
LAN1 A
Station bus
X2
All
LAN1 B
Redundant station bus, optional
For specification of the optical fibers to be used, see the corresponding technical data
table.
5.5.3
EIA-485 serial rear connection
The communication module follows the EIA-485 standard and is intended to be used
in multi-point communication.
Table 31:
Connector
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
EIA-485 and IRIG-B connections
Pin
Signals
Description
X8
1
RS485_GNDC
RS485 ground through capacitance
X8
2
RS485_RXTERM
Termination for RS485 receiver
X8
3
RS485_RX +
RS485 receiver
X8
4
RS485_TXTERM
Termination for RS485 transmitter
X8
5
RS485_SIGGND
Signal ground for RS485
X8
6
IRIG-B -
Time synchronization input
X8
7
IRIG-B_GNDC
IRIG-B ground through capacitance
X8
8
RS485_GND
RS485 ground
X8
9
RS485_RX -
RS485 receiver
X8
10
RS485_TX +
RS485 transmitter
X8
11
RS485_TX -
RS485 transmitter
X8
12
RS485_SIGGND
Signal ground for RS485
X8
13
IRIG-B +
Time synchronization input
X8
14
IRIG-B_GND
IRIG-B ground
61
Section 5
Hardware interfaces
1MRK 511 346 C
EIA-485 communication is not enabled in this product.
5.5.4
Process bus rear connection
Switchsync PWC600 can receive digital sampled values (voltage and/or current) via
IEC 61850-9-2(LE) on its X3/LAN2 A interface. Up to four logical merging units can
be connected, which are distinguished by their sampled values ID (svID). The
specifications of X3 are identical to X1 and X2.
Hardware synchronization of the sampled values is achieved by a 1PPS signal
received on optical input X10. Time synchronization via SNTP or IRIG-B cannot be
used for this purpose.
If the 9-2 process values to Switchsync PWC600 originate from two
or more separate physical merging units, they should be synchronized
to the same master. Otherwise, occasional communication
interruptions may occur.
Table 32:
Connector
X3
Table 33:
Connector
X10
Process bus
Pin
Signals
All
9-2LE
Description
Process bus: sampled values from one or more
merging units compliant to IEC 61850-9-2 LE
Optical 1PPS signal
Pin
Signals
Rx
1PPS
Description
Optical 1PPS signal from time synchronization master
For specification of the optical fibers to be used, see the corresponding technical data
table.
5.5.5
Recommended industrial Ethernet switches
ABB recommends ABB industrial Ethernet switches.
5.6
Connection diagrams
The connection diagrams are delivered on the IED Connectivity package DVD as part
of the product delivery. They can be accessed through the IED's context menu (item
Documentation), or directly on the DVD.
62
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
1MRK 511 346 C
Section 5
Hardware interfaces
The latest versions of the connection diagrams can be downloaded from
http://new.abb.com/high-voltage/monitoring/switchsync.
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
63
64
Section 6
Setting up a project
1MRK 511 346 C
Section 6
Setting up a project
6.1
PCM600 projects
A typical project in PCM600 contains a plant structure including one or several IED
objects, where each IED object contains the engineering data created or modified
using the different PCM600 tools.
Several projects can be created and managed by PCM600, but only one project can be
active at a time.
Use the Run as administrator option while opening PCM600. Selection is available
on right click of PCM600 icon.
Switchsync PWC600 requires PCM600 Ver.2.5 or higher.
6.2
Installing Connectivity packages
A Connectivity package contains the complete description of the IED data signals,
parameters and protocol addresses for a certain IED type and version. Several types of
IEDs can be managed in one PCM600 project, thus the corresponding Connectivity
package has to be installed on the PC. Connectivity Packages and Connectivity
Package Updates are managed in Update Manager.
PCM600 must be installed before the connectivity packages can be
installed.
6.2.1
Installing IED Connectivity package from DVD
The Connectivity package is available on the DVD that is distributed with the IED.
1.
2.
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User manual
Close PCM600 before running the IED connectivity package installation.
Select and run setup.exe. It is recommended to run the .exe as ‘Run as
administrator’.
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GUID-0780D726-2EC9-4C00-906A-572003095984 V2 EN
Figure 20:
3.
4.
5.
6.2.2
Installing Switchsync™ PWC600 Connectivity Package
Select the connectivity package and modules to install by marking the
corresponding check boxes.
Press Install to start installation of the selected packages.
Press Next to confirm the selection. The user will be guided through the
installation of various packages.
Installing IED Connectivity package from Update Manager
Update Manager has been installed together with, but is a separate program from,
PCM600. It gives access to the latest updates of software and documentation for ABB
Relion products.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
66
Close PCM600 before running Update Manager.
Start Update Manager by double-clicking on the desktop icon, or from the
corresponding Start menu item.
If queried whether Update Manager should be started with Administrator rights,
click Run As Administrator.
Confirm the User Account Control question by clicking Yes, to allow Update
Manager to make changes to the computer.
After start-up, Update Manager automatically checks for available software
updates. This is indicated by a status message with animated icon in the bottom
left corner of the main window. Wait until the message “Update completed” is
displayed there.
In the left frame, click Get Connectivity Packages. The right frame brings up
a list of available products.
In the right frame, check the checkbox for “PWC600 Series”. This will include
all product related software and documentation in the installation.
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8.
If desired, click on the + icon for expanding the tree node, to individually select
or deselect individual software modules.
9. Click Download and Install to start the installation.
10. Read and accept the license agreement and click OK.
11. Installation progress is indicated by text with animated icon in the bottom left
corner of the main window. Wait until the message “Completed” is displayed
there.
12. After completing the installation, you may exit Update Manager by clicking
Close.
6.3
Project managing in PCM600
Different project management task are possible in PCM600.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Opening existing projects
Importing projects
Creating new projects
Exporting projects
Deleting projects
Renaming projects
Copying and pasting projects
Migrating projects from one product version to another
It is possible to open projects created in previous versions of
PCM600 to the current version, but the opposite is not possible.
Extensions of the exported project file is *.pcmp and those files are only used for
exporting and importing the projects between different instances of PCM600.
Creating a new project
1.
2.
3.
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Select File and Open/Manage Project to see the projects that are currently
available in the PCMDataBases.
Open Projects on my computer.
Click the New Project icon. To create new project, currently open projects and
object tools must be closed.
The New Project window opens, see Figure 21.
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Figure 21:
4.
6.4
PCM600: Create a new project window
Name the project and include a description (optional) and click Create.
PCM600 sets up a new project that is listed under Projects on my computer.
Building a plant structure
The plant structure is used to identify each IED in its location within the substation
organization. It is a structural image of the substation and the bays within the
substation. The organization structure for the IEDs may differ from the structure of the
primary equipment in the substation. In PCM600 it is possible to set up a hierarchical
structure of five levels for the IED identification.
Build up the plant structure according to the project requirements. PCM600 offers
several levels to build the hierarchical order down to the IEDs in a bay.
Five levels are available.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
68
Project = Project name
Substation = Name of the substation
Voltage Level = identifies to which grid type or part in the substation the IED
belongs to
Bay = Bay within the voltage level
IED = selection of the IED, which is used in the bay. Several IEDs are possible
within a bay, for example one bay controller, one point-on-wave controller and
two protection IEDs.
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Figure 22:
PCM600: Set up a plant structure
Once a plant structure is built each level in the structure should be renamed by the
names/identifications used in the grid. Use the right mouse button to build the plant
structure by selecting the elements from the context menu. Rename the level after
insertion, using the Rename option or the Object Properties. Figure 22 shows the
start of a project with one IED placed but not yet individually renamed.
The plant structure can be built to correspond to the complete grid
including the needed IEDs.
Build a plant structure in one of the alternative ways.
•
•
•
6.4.1
Right-click the plant structure and select New and Create from Template.
Right-click in the plant structure and select New/General and select one of the
elements IED Group or Substation.
Click View in the menu bar and select Object Types. Select the needed elements
and drag and drop them into the plant structure. Close the window if it does not
close automatically.
IEC 61850 naming conventions to identify an IED
This section is only applicable when the IEC 61850 standard is used for station bus
communication. According to IEC 61850-6 clause 8.4, the SCL model allows two
kinds of project designation in the object properties.
•
•
A technical key is used on engineering drawings and for signal identifications.
The technical key is used within SCL for referencing other objects. Observe that
name is a relative identification within a hierarchy of objects.
A user oriented textual designation is contained in attribute desc. Attributes are
not allowed to contain carriage return, line feed or tab characters. The semantics
of desc shall also be relative within an object hierarchy.
PCM600 takes care of these two possibilities. The two possible signal designations are
available per object in the object properties for all hierarchical levels beginning with
the station as the highest level. The IED’s object property Caption is copied to the desc
attribute in the SCL file, the technical key to the name attribute.
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The technical key is automatically generated based on the rules and type
specifications of IEC 81346 and the extended definitions done for substations by a
technical committee. The technical key is shown in the Object Properties under SCL
Technical Key and Technical Key.
•
•
•
•
The station level is predefined by "AA1", where 1 is the index.
The voltage level is predefined by "J1", where 1 is the index.
The bay level is predefined by "Q01", where 01 is the index.
The IED is predefined by "A1", where 1 is the index.
The predefined full path name of the technical key for the first IED would be
AA1J1Q01A1.
For all practical engineering purposes (both towards the IED and towards the 61850
engineering process), the user should keep the default SCL technical key. It is
however possible, due to for example company naming policies, to rename the SCL
technical key for the station level, voltage level, bay level and IED level using the
Object properties window as shown in Figure 23.
•
•
•
•
The station level has been renamed as "DMSTAT"
The voltage level has been renamed as "C1"
The bay level has been renamed as "Q1"
The IED has been renamed as "SB1"
The renamed full path name of the technical key for the IED would be
DMSTATC1Q1SB1.
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IEC08000374.vsd
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Figure 23:
6.5
PCM600: IEC 61850 object designation concept
Inserting an IED
The context menu or the Object Types view shows the available IEDs possible to
insert, on the bay level in the plant structure, according to the installed connectivity
package.
On the bay level in the plant structure it is possible to:
•
Insert an IED in Offline mode or in Online mode:
•
•
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User manual
Online mode: When the IED is already connected to PCM600 and the
communication is established, PCM600 can read the configuration directly
from the physical IED. This is useful when an order specific IED is used.
The order configuration is written to the IED at the factory and can be
accessed by PCM600. The housing type, the used overlay version for local
HMI and the IO boards included in the IED will be read from the IED
directly.
Offline mode: When the physical IED is not available or not connected to
PCM600 the engineering steps are done without any synchronization with
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the IED. The offline configuration in PCM600 can be synchronized with
the physical IED at a later state by connecting the IED to PCM600.
•
•
Import a template IED available in the template library as a *.pcmt file.
Import a configured IED available as a *.pcmi file.
Since the SST tool in PCM600 has a dependency on the preconfiguration, import a configured IED, that is, *.pcmi file. The pcmi
file is supplied on the DVD distributed with the IED.
6.5.1
Inserting a configured IED
Configured IEDs in PCM600 are available as *.pcmi files and include all information
that is related to the IED object in PCM600. The configured IEDs are bound to a
specific hardware configuration. Configured IEDs are available on the Connpack
DVD as .pcmi files in the folder named Configurations.
1.
Right-click the bay and select Import to select the IED configuration file
(*.pcmi).
IEC09000644-1-en.vsd
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Figure 24:
2.
3.
4.
5.
72
Import an IED from the context menu
Import the *.pcmi file from the bay level in the plant structure.
Click OK to insert the new IED object in the plant structure.
Modify the configuration according to the needed application.
Write the configuration to the IED.
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6.5.2
Inserting an IED from the template library
A template is a complete description of an IED including the full configuration as well
as the parameter values of the tool components. ABB provides default templates
through Update Manager. Furthermore, an IED in the plant structure can be exported
as a template (*.pcmt). The user can build up a template library with all the exported
IED templates. It is possible to insert an IED from the template library to create a new
IED in the plant structure. Change the IP address, the name and the technical key that
corresponds to the physical IED after a template IED has been imported.
A template IED can only be inserted when the bay is selected in the
plant structure.
1.
2.
Right-click the Bay in the plant structure.
Select New and Create from Template to open the Create New Object from
Template window.
GUID-1A34A545-3F93-4F87-8FBA-A4C4EB84E27A V2 EN
Figure 25:
3.
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User manual
Creating new object from template
Under Available Object Types, open the Transmission IEDs object tree and
select PWC600.
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4.
Under Available Templates for 'PWC600', select the appropriate IED from the
list of available IEDs.
The available default templates shown in the list depend on the
Pre Configuration selection in Settings of Update Manager.
5.
Click the icon in the right column of the list of available templates to open
Template Properties. Verify the template information, and click Close to close
the window.
D0E1092T201305141505 V3 EN
Figure 26:
6.
PCM600: IED Template Properties
Click Delete Template to delete the template, click Import Template to import
a template from the selection window or click Create to insert the selected IED
to the bay.
It is possible to insert more than one IED from the Create New
Object from Template window. The selection window remains
open until the user clicks Close.
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6.5.3
Setting an IED's IP address in the project
The IED object in PCM600 must have the same IP address and subnetwork mask as
the front or rear port on the physical IED to which the PC is connected. The IP address
of the physical IEDs front and rear port cannot be set from PCM600 but only from
LHMI.
Set the IP address via the IP address property of the IED in the Object Properties
window.
1.
2.
Select the IED to enter the IP address.
Right-click the IED and select the port that shall be used for communication with
the IED.
GUID-5C035EF2-6C3D-46A1-A77D-B994B07AA0D7 V1 EN
Figure 27:
3.
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User manual
Selecting communication port
Open the Object Properties window.
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Figure 28:
4.
Setting IP address via IED Object Properties window
Place the cursor in the IP address field and enter the IP address.
The IP address of each IED in the PCM600 project has to be unique for
the communication to the IED to work.
6.6
Setting up communication between PCM600 and the
IED
The communication between the IED and PCM600 is independent of the
communication protocol used within the substation or to the NCC.
The communication media is always Ethernet and the used protocol is TCP/IP.
Each IED has an RJ-45 Ethernet interface connector on the front. The front Ethernet
connector can be used for communication with PCM600.
When an Ethernet-based station protocol is used, PCM600 communication can use
the same Ethernet port and IP address.
To connect PCM600 to the IED, two basic variants must be considered.
•
•
76
Direct point-to-point link between PCM600 and the IED front port.
Indirect link via a station LAN or from remote via a network.
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The physical connection and the IP address must be configured in both cases to enable
communication.
The communication procedures are the same in both cases.
1.
2.
3.
4.
If needed, set the IP address for the IEDs.
Set up the PC or workstation for a direct link (point-to-point), or
Connect the PC or workstation to the LAN/WAN network.
Configure the IED IP addresses in the PCM600 project for each IED to match the
IP addresses of the physical IEDs.
Setting up IP addresses
The IP address and the corresponding mask must be set via the LHMI for each
available Ethernet interface in the IED. Each Ethernet interface has a default factory
IP address when the IED is delivered. This is not given when an additional Ethernet
interface is installed or an interface is replaced.
•
The default IP address for the IED front port is 10.1.150.3 and the corresponding
subnetwork mask is 255.255.255.0, which can be set via the local HMI path Main
menu/Configuration/Communication/TCP-IP configuration/ETHFRNT:1.
Setting up the PC or workstation for point-to-point access to IEDs front
port
A special cable is needed to connect two physical Ethernet interfaces together without
a hub, router, bridge or switch in between. The Tx and Rx signal wires must be crossed
in the cable to connect Tx with Rx on the other side and vice versa. These cables are
known as cross over cables. The maximum length is 2 m. The connector type is
RJ-45.
IED
RJ-45
PCM600
Tx
Tx
Rx
Rx
IEC09000096-2-en.vsd
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Figure 29:
Point-to-point link between IED and PCM600 using a cross-over
Ethernet cable
The following description is an example valid for standard PCs using Microsoft
Windows operating system. The example is taken from a Laptop with one Ethernet
interface.
Administrator rights are required to change the PC communication
setup. Some PCs have the feature to automatically detect that Tx
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signals from the IED are received on the Tx pin on the PC. In this case,
a straight (standard) Ethernet cable can be used.
When a PC is connected to the IED and the setting DHCPServer is set to On via the
local HMI path Main menu/Configuration/Communication/TCP-IP
configuration/ETHFRNT:1/DHCPServer, the IED's embedded DHCP server for
the front port assigns an IP address for the PC. The PC must be configured to obtain its
IP address automatically as described in the following procedure.
1.
2.
Select Search programs and files in the Windows Start menu.
Type View network connections and click on the View network connections
icon.
IEC13000058-1-en.vsd
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Figure 30:
3.
78
Click View network connections
Right-click on Local Area Connection and select Properties.
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IEC13000059-1-en.vsd
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Figure 31:
4.
Right-click Local Area Connection and select Properties
Select the TCP/IPv4 protocol from the list of configured components using this
connection and click Properties.
IEC13000060-1-en.vsd
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Figure 32:
5.
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Select the TCP/IPv4 protocol and open Properties
Select Obtain an IP address automatically if the parameter DHCPServer is set
to On in the IED.
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Figure 33:
6.
80
Select: Obtain an IP address automatically
Select Use the following IP address and define IP address and Subnet mask if
the front port is used and if the IP address is not set to be obtained automatically
by the IED, see Figure 34. The IP address must be different from the IP address
chosen for the IED.
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IEC13000062-1-en.vsd
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Figure 34:
7.
Select: Use the following IP address
Close all open windows by clicking OK and start PCM600.
Setting up the PC to access the IED via a network
This task depends on the used LAN/WAN network.
The PC and IED must belong to the same subnetwork for this set-up
to work.
Security warning
Communication with the IED installs the server certificate. If the User Account
Control setting is set to high, Windows sends a notification indicating the change. A
popup window appears containing a security warning message.
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GUID-74BB5228-520F-4031-A753-1F84E9DFF9F7 V1 EN
Figure 35:
Security warning
Select Yes to install the certificate. When selected, the security warning message does
not appear for the next communication with the IED.
Change in the IED technical key or IP address of the IED results in the
installation of a new server certificate.
Notification of certificate installation can be permanently disabled by
changing User Account Control settings in Windows Control Panel to
"Never notify". However, this is not recommended as it reduces
system security.
6.7
Setting technical key
Both a physical IED and an IED object in PCM600 have a technical key. The purpose
of the technical key is unique identification of an IED, for example, to prevent
download of a configuration to wrong IED. The technical key in the IED and PCM600
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must be the same, otherwise it is not possible to download a configuration. Each IED
in a PCM600 project must have a unique technical key. It is therefor not possible to set
the same technical key for several IEDs in the same PCM600 project.
The technical key property in PCM600 corresponds to the IED name
attribute in SCL files. Avoid changing the IED name attribute outside
PCM600, because data in PCM600 might be lost when importing SCL
files.
The IED technical key and the PCM600 technical key must be the
same for successful communication between the IED and PCM600.
When using PCM600 for writing to the IED, it is important that the
LHMI or WHMI is not in a menu position where settings can be
modified. Only one active transaction, from LHMI, WHMI, or
PCM600, is allowed at any one time.
When writing a configuration to the IED, PCM600 checks for matching technical keys
in the PCM600 IED object and in the physical IED. For communication between the
IED and PCM600 the technical key must be the same. Users have the option to read
the technical key from the IED and update it to PCM600 or write the PCM600
technical key to the IED. The user can also define an own technical key. The error
message displayed due to mismatch between PCM600 and IED technical key is
shown in Figure 36.
IEC09000378-1-en.vsd
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Figure 36:
Error message due to mismatch between PCM600 and IED technical
key
Be sure that the IED object in PCM600 has the same IP address as the
physical IED, which is intended to be connected through the technical
key concept.
The technical key for an IED object in PCM600 can also be changed
in the Object properties window.
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1.
2.
Select the IED in Plant Structure.
Right-click and select Set Technical Key, see Figure 37.
D0E1496T201305141505 V1 EN
Figure 37:
3.
PCM600: Set technical key menu at IED level
A dialog box opens to inform about the technical key concept.
Click OK in the dialog box.
The technical key is read from the IED and the technical key editor window
opens, see Figure 38.
IEC09000380-1-en.vsd
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Figure 38:
PCM600: Technical key editor
Using Technical Key Editor certain selections are possible.
•
•
•
84
Use the existing technical key in the IED
Use the existing technical key defined for the IED object in PCM600 or
Set a user defined technical key, which changes the technical key for both
the physical IED and IED object in PCM600.
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Do not use a technical key with more than 13 characters.
4.
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User manual
Click OK to confirm the selection.
It is not possible to set a user defined name or select Technical key in IED if the
value is the same as already given to another IED object in the PCM600 project.
A dialog box opens if this is the case.
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Section 7
Application engineering
Switchsync PWC600 comes with a default pre-configuration that covers most
controlled switching applications. All necessary adjustments to the actual installation
are done by settings. These settings can be entered and modified by a dedicated
PCM600 tool, Switchsync Setting Tool.
If necessary, the application configuration can be viewed and
modified using other tools in PCM600.
7.1
Engineering process overview
This process applies to a Switchsync PWC600 IED object, which has been created and
set up in PCM600.
1.
2.
Enter or modify settings in Switchsync Setting Tool (offline)
Write settings to the IED in Parameter Setting tool (online)
7.2
Using Switchsync Setting Tool
7.2.1
General functions
Switchsync Setting Tool, SST, works with a pre-configuration of Switchsync
PWC600 product. Switchsync PWC600 is delivered with a default configuration
loaded. However, in most cases, the configuration settings and parameters do not
match the actual application. SST guides the user through the selection of network
parameters, type and properties of circuit breaker, switched load, etc. The aim is to
consolidate all the relevant settings for clarity and ensure that no important settings are
overlooked. Completed or partial configurations can be loaded or saved to/from file,
duplicated and modified for use in another IED.
The wizard guides the user through each setting. The setting depends on the type of
application, model of Switchsync PWC600, breaker data. It also depends on choices
during previous steps.
If the information required is not available at the moment, save the partial
configuration and exit the wizard. Continue and finish the setup process later. The
wizard completes the final step by saving the configuration.
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SST is an offline tool. The parameters are stored in the data server of PCM600 after
saving the complete configuration. Parameters can be written to IED using Parameter
Setting Tool or Common Write tool.
The application setup wizard stores all the user inputs together with the resulting data.
The fields are pre-populated with the previously entered data, when running the
wizard for the same IED again.
7.2.2
Starting Switchsync Setting Tool from PCM600
1.
In Plant Structure, right-click PWC600 and select Switchsync Setting Tool.
All other tools in PCM600 must be closed before invoking
Switchsync Setting Tool.
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GUID-7DA47A93-E102-4DFF-BC8C-C1701E4CEF44 V2 EN
Figure 39:
2.
In the Switchsync Setting Tool dialog box, select the appropriate option.
•
•
3.
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Starting SST from the plant structure in PCM600
Select Start new session to start the tool with new settings for a newly
inserted IED, or with the existing settings that had previously been entered
through Switchsync Setting Tool.
Select Continue with partially saved settings to run the tool with saved
settings.
Click OK.
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GUID-B4DEBE95-E22C-4406-91D0-48DC76F6A4F3 V2 EN
Figure 40:
7.2.3
Switchsync Setting Tool starting options
Navigating between steps
1.
Click Next or Back to navigate between the steps.
It is also possible to navigate between the steps by selecting the milestones on the
left pane. It navigates to the first page of the milestone.
GUID-358BF810-ED82-4F67-B24E-46518387460A V2 EN
Figure 41:
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Navigating between steps
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All the milestones are not displayed initially. Each milestone
appears when the first step related to that milestone is entered.
7.2.4
Setting parameters overview
The Switchsync PWC600 application is configured by setting the parameters
categorized under various milestones.
Configure PWC600
Settings
Power
System
System Time
Breaker
Control
Circuit
Breaker
Circuit Breaker Type Data
Breaker
Data
[New/Display/Edit]
[Apply]
General
Mechanical
Electrical
Save
Monitoring
Compensation
Interrupter
wear
Controlled Switching
Application
Reference Signals
Adaptive Correction
Compensation
Alarms Enabling
Time Synchronization
CB Operating Times
Finish
GUID-17154EC9-CEC3-458D-B26A-0B6F563FC8C7 V3 EN
Figure 42:
Workflow
Switchsync Setting Tool guides the user through each setting. On selecting a setting,
an explanatory tip appears at the bottom of the page.
The same text appears as a tool tip when moving the mouse pointer over the setting.
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GUID-89787998-8440-427D-8C69-D6519EB5A193 V2 EN
Figure 43:
Setting parameters with tooltips
The setting depends on the type of application, model of Switchsync PWC600 and
breaker data. It can also depend on the choices entered in earlier steps.
All references to a circuit breaker pole actually designate the system
phase to which that pole is connected, e.g. CB pole "L1" refers to the
pole connected to system phase L1.
Switchsync Setting Tool supports certain parameter types.
•
•
•
•
Numerical parameter type
String parameter type
Date/Time parameter type
MultiChoice parameter type
When entering numerical data, only use a dot (.) for decimal point.
Switchsync Setting Tool checks that the entered value is valid and within the setting
range. A red border with exclamation is marked around the setting control to indicate
error. Move the cursor to the exclamation mark to display the message. The message
describes the error and correct format for the parameter.
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GUID-7FA8100C-E4AC-4444-B44D-A65828490E2A V2 EN
Figure 44:
Validation of entered values
On any data validation error or missing data, navigation between the
steps with Next and Milestone is disabled.
7.2.5
Saving parameters partially
It is possible to exit Switchsync Setting Tool (for example, to request additional
information which is not available at the moment) before completing all steps, and
save the partial configuration.
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Click X or Cancel to exit the Switchsync Setting Tool.
In the confirmation dialog, click Yes.
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GUID-8A1CF2E5-7DA0-486E-9BEA-A0EC409C42DA V2 EN
Figure 45:
Saving the configuration partially
Switchsync Setting Tool can be started by selecting Continue
with previously saved settings from the step where it was left
earlier.
7.2.6
Saving parameters
1.
94
On the final screen of Switchsync Setting Tool, click Finish to save the changed
parameters to the database.
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GUID-E167AEFF-6DAE-4DCD-8DB8-27CF2ED77D43 V3 EN
Figure 46:
Saving parameters
Saving parameters also copies the names of Substation, Bay, and
IED from the plant structure to the TERMINALID function.
GUID-CD2E7675-2C9F-4EAA-BE3B-A698C8F0EDF1 V1 EN
Figure 47:
Automatic copying of object identifiers to the TERMINALID
function
Switchsync Setting Tool is an offline tool. After completing the
steps, the Finish operation stores the parameters in the PCM600
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database. The parameters must be written to the physical IED
with Parameter Setting tool or Common write.
User-defined circuit breaker types are stored only on the local
PC. If these data should be reused on another PC, they need to be
transferred manually.
7.3
Writing parameters to the IED
Settings and parameters entered or modified through SST are stored locally in the
PCM600 database. Writing them to the IED requires online connection to the IED.
1.
96
In Plant Structure, right-click the Switchsync PWC600 object and select
Parameter Setting.
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GUID-39977FFC-58BE-4CF2-8510-2304F83A157C V1 EN
Figure 48:
2.
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Opening the Parameter Setting tool
Click View/Parameter layer/Advanced parameters or the corresponding
button in the toolbar to enable advanced parameters.
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GUID-E404133C-E0C8-4B0B-A5A8-7011B18C0E33 V1 EN
Figure 49:
3.
Enabling advanced parameters
Click IED/Write parameters to IED or the corresponding button in the toolbar
to initiate writing parameters to the IED.
GUID-505FFF10-DFE0-41EB-A271-399AF9A3D411 V1 EN
Figure 50:
4.
Writing parameters to the IED
In the Write parameters to Switchsync PWC600 dialog box, select All
parameters and click OK.
GUID-EDB6BBB0-F0CE-4316-BC45-95772258E5A1 V1 EN
Figure 51:
Selecting all parameters
Progress of the writing operation is displayed by a progress bar.
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GUID-AAA7459D-0816-4C7A-A7D2-1F53BCD4CAC0 V1 EN
Figure 52:
Progress bar
While writing the parameters to its non-volatile memory, the
IED replaces the bay name by an animated icon in the bottom
right corner of the IED.
GUID-63269CBC-B684-400D-A62B-672E764C3823 V1 EN
Figure 53:
LHMI icon
When the bay name is displayed again, then the updated
parameters are in use by the application. No restart of the IED is
required.
If Read back was enabled in the Write parameters to
Switchsync PWC600 dialog box, the Parameter Setting tool
automatically reads back all the parameters from the IED after
completion of the write operation, displaying a similar progress
bar.
5.
After writing the parameters to the IED, wait until the animated Write icon on the
screen has disappeared and the Ready LED is steadily on before doing any
further operation on the IED.
7.4
Modification of the default pre-configuration
7.4.1
Precautions
Switchsync PWC600 is delivered with a default pre-configuration that has been
proven to work for different applications. In most cases, changes to this configuration
should not be necessary.
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Modifying the pre-configuration may cause loss of functionality, in
particular with respect to Switchsync Setting Tool.
However, if changes are wanted, the given information must be observed.
Proper functioning of Switchsync PWC600 and associated tools requires specific
interaction between certain function blocks. To ensure integrity of these essential
connections, some of the pages in Application Configuration are locked.
Do not make any modifications to the locked pages in Application
Configuration without approval from ABB.
Switchsync PWC600 configuration in PCM600 Graphical Display Editor (GDE) has
three pages by default. These pages are specifically designed for CB Test mode user
interface and do not appear in the usual location (Control/Single line diagram) of the
LHMI menu.
The three default GDE pages must not be changed, removed or
rearranged.
GUID-3558C61B-6F04-483E-AF42-8B8E2BC8AA1F V1 EN
Figure 54:
Default display pages in GDE
If additional display pages are wanted, they must be added after the Avg closing times
page, that is, to the right of the Avg closing times tab. All pages added in this manner
are shown in the Control/Single line diagram menu of the LHMI.
7.4.2
General information to work with PCM600
PCM600 supports online help feature which can be accessed using the Help menu in
PCM600. Internet connection is not required to access this help. All the tools used for
configuring the Switchsync PWC600 application are available in the shortcut menu of
the IED or its subordinate tree nodes (child nodes). The tools list is opened by rightclicking the IED or any other tree node. The number of tools listed varies by the tree
node.
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GUID-86332C5A-6B76-497E-B160-787F07930334 V1 EN
Figure 55:
Tools list
The following sections contain specific information required for modifying the
default pre-configuration.
7.4.3
Working with the Application Configuration tool
The Application Configuration tool is a graphical engineering tool for configuring the
software application running in an IED. The application can be distributed over
several worksheets, each of which includes one or more pages.
The symbol
at the top left corner of an application worksheet
implies that the page is locked and cannot be modified.
•
7.4.3.1
Right-click the IED and click Application Configuration to open the
Application Configuration tool.
Adding application worksheets in the configuration
Additional functionality, not included in the default configuration, should be defined
on a separate application worksheet.
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Activate the application worksheet after which a new worksheet is to be inserted
by clicking the respective tab.
On the main menu, select Insert/MainApplication or click the Insert
MainApplication button.
GUID-2EEAE5D8-F4AB-431D-9A98-37F551E18404 V1 EN
Figure 56:
3.
102
Adding an application worksheet
Change the name of the new worksheet in Object Properties.
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GUID-B6DE81BF-3A24-4A7F-A011-3F7BD46D76B4 V1 EN
Figure 57:
Naming the application worksheet
The application page added appears as a subordinate tree node under IED\Application
Configuration.
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GUID-97DE7288-8431-44F7-9FC5-4616057C2BB0 V1 EN
Figure 58:
7.4.3.2
Adding a function to the application
1.
104
IED tree structure
Click the Object Types button to display the list of functions.
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GUID-4102E4C2-F9B6-4838-AF56-FAD2B7936E82 V1 EN
Figure 59:
2.
Enabling the function list (Object Types) view
Different function categories are listed under Object Types.
Select the desired function and drag the function to the worksheet.
GUID-084BAAD5-826F-4A33-8CAF-EE3A6F347CFD V1 EN
Figure 60:
Adding the function to application worksheet
User-defined names can be added to the function blocks.
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GUID-62EC1A21-B8F0-43A3-9109-C0E0A9765286 V1 EN
Figure 61:
7.4.3.3
Adding user defined name for the function blocks
Function blocks
Function blocks are the main elements of an application configuration. They are
designed for a various number of functions and organized in type groups. The
different function block types are shown in the Object Types view. Figure 62 presents
an overview of the main parts that are relevant for function blocks.
•
Set user-defined names for function blocks and signals marked with blue text.
Signals with a user-defined name created in Application
Configuration become visible in Parameter Setting only after the
IED configuration has been written to the IED and read back from
PCM600.
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Characters other than a...z, A...Z, 0...9 and _ are not allowed in
user-defined names of signals and function blocks, since they
might not display properly in the LHMI. The space character
should also be avoided.
•
•
•
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Lock function blocks.
Set visibility for execution order, cycle time and instance number.
Manage signals, for example hide, show and rearrange.
Invert Boolean inputs and Boolean outputs.
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Figure 62:
ACT: Function block overview (example from REC650)
1
Connection(s)
2
User defined function block name
3
Function block, selected (red)
4
Mandatory signal (indicated by a red triangle if not connected)
5
Function block name
6
Function block, locked (red)
7
ANSI symbol
8
Inverted output
9
Hardware, binary output channel
10
Hardware, analog input channel
11
User defined signal name
12
Hardware, binary input channel
13
Execution order
14
Cycle time
15
Instance number
16
Inverted input
17
Signal description note
Mandatory signals must be connected.
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Function blocks with disconnected outputs are not executing and
hence may show improper values on the outputs.
7.4.3.4
Signals and signal management
Every function block has a set of input and output signals.
A function block can contain more signals than needed in that application part. A
signal that is not used in a particular application can be hidden in the function block
view in Application Configuration. It is not necessary to connect all inputs and outputs
at a function block. If not connected, the signals always have a default value. The
default value can be seen when moving the pointer over the signal.
Signals are located on both sides of the middle position up and down. When there is
space left, move some signals up or down for a better visibility and connection routing.
Boolean input and output signals may need to be inverted to fulfill the logic.
Application Configuration supports adding the inversion logic to a binary signal.
The input signal on glue logic function blocks can only be inverted if
a glue logic function block with a lower execution order in the same
cycle time is available. Correspondingly, the output signal can only be
inverted if a glue logic function block with a higher execution order in
the same cycle time is available. Up to two input signals and two
output signals can be inverted for glue logic blocks in the same cycle
time.
Even though current is injected to the IED and the IED is connected to
PCM600 in online mode, the signal value of TRM and Merging Unit
channels in Application Configuration is probably shown as zero.
All signals which are not mandatory, have a default value that is used when not
connected.
7.4.3.5
Adding user-defined names
Some function blocks in the IED support assigning names to generic signals, for
example, the input signals of LED, event and disturbance handling block (BxRBDR
and AxRADR) and alarm handling function block (MONEVG).
1.
2.
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Right-click the function block and select Manage signals to add names to these
signals.
Enter the name in the User Defined Name column for the corresponding
signal.
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The maximum number of characters supported for user-defined signal names is
13.
GUID-59C33E22-A351-400A-8979-A3910F2EA489 V1 EN
Figure 63:
Adding user-defined names for LHMI visualization
For some functions, the parameter list view also displays the userdefined names assigned to the inputs. To show the changes to the userdefined names in the parameter list view, the application
configuration must be written to the IED and then read back from
PCM600.
7.4.3.6
Function block execution parameters
Three function block execution parameters have influence on the runtime execution
of the function block within the application configuration.
•
•
•
Execution order
Cycle time
Instance number
Each time a new function block is selected these parameters have to be selected. In
fixed mode user selects parameters from the drop down lists in ACT. In automatic
mode best suitable instance is selected automatically. Depending on the function
block type not all three parameters are selectable. The cycle time may be predefined
to one value. The instance number is a counter for the total possible number of
function blocks of that type used within an application configuration.
The Execution Order and Instance Number are a combination that is predefined
within a product. It is possible to select a pair out of the list. Figure 64 shows an
example how the drop down list could look like.
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Figure 64:
ACT: function block organization parameters
In Switchsync PWC600, the Cycle Time is fixed at 5 ms.
A function block that is placed after another function block in the
execution flow must have a higher execution order to ensure
execution in the proper sequence, see Figure 65.
GUID-4731FDA5-91EF-4C9D-9387-88FFBEA930F0 V1 EN
Figure 65:
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Execution order
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Connections and variables
A connection is the link or "wire" between function block outputs and inputs.
Connections can be created by dragging a line between two signals or by linking two
signals using variables.
It is possible to search and replace variable names in Application
Configuration.
The signals used in the pre-configuration already have variable names assigned. If
signals that are part of a locked worksheet need to be modified, the worksheet first
needs to be unlocked. An existing connection is removed by clicking the line and then
pressing Delete.
Connection validation
A connection is only useful and possible between two signals of the same data type.
Attempting to connect two incompatible signals generates an error message.
IEC08000304.vsd
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Figure 66:
7.4.3.8
Warning message by signal mismatch for a connection
Single-phase reference signal
If the reference signal for controlled switching is obtained from a single-phase VT,
that VT output must be connected to the L1 source voltage input (see section on
Hardware interfaces). If the measured voltage is not L1 then the connections to the
waveform recorder ("disturbance recorder") shall be adjusted accordingly. See Figure
67 for an example where the single-phase VT is located in system phase L2. The actual
input signal is represented by the variable SOURCE_VOLT[1]_AI1.
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GUID-42330D1B-FD0A-4928-AC8F-FD559D5C705E V1 EN
Figure 67:
7.4.3.9
Re-connecting the waveform recorder for a single-phase VT
measuring L2 voltage
Validation
Validation checks the application configuration on errors about the rules and
restrictions defined for doing a MainApplication on three levels.
•
•
•
During creating the logic while doing a connection or placing a function block.
On demand by starting the validation.
When writing the application configuration into the IED.
Validation when creating the application configuration
Validation is made when creating the application configuration, for example:
•
•
A connection between two input signals or two output signals is not possible.
A connection between two different data types is not possible, for example a
binary output to an analog input.
Validation on demand
To check the validity of an application configuration, click the 'Validate
Configuration' icon in the toolbar. ACT will check the application configuration for
formal correctness. Found problems are qualified in:
•
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Warnings, marked by a yellow warning icon
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•
•
•
Example: A variable connected to an output signal that is not connected.
Example: If the user connects output from higher execution order function
to inputs of lower execution order function.
Errors, marked by a red circle with a cross
•
Example: A mandatory input signal that is not connected.
Warnings will not prevent writing to the IED. Errors have to be corrected before
writing the application configuration to the IED. An application configuration can be
saved and ACT can be closed with open errors, but not written to the IED, see Figure
68.
These problems are listed in the Output View under the Tab Application
Configuration. A double-click in the error or warning row will navigate to the
MainApplication>Page>Area where the problems are identified.
D0E1469T201305141505 V2 EN
Figure 68:
Validation on demand
Manual validation of the Switchsync PWC600 pre-configuration may
list some warnings. These can be ignored.
Validation when writing to the IED
When writing the application configuration to the IED an automatic validation is
performed. The validation is the same as the manually demanded validation. Errors
will abort the writing.
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7.4.4
Working with the Parameter Setting tool
For a standard application, parameters are configured using Switchsync Setting Tool
(SST). In some cases, the parameters which are not handled from SST need to be
modified when the default pre-configuration is modified. These parameters are
modified using the Parameter Setting tool.
1.
2.
3.
7.4.5
Right-click the IED and click Parameter Setting to open the Parameter Setting
tool.
to display the advanced and basic parameters, and click
to
Click
display the parameters of all the child nodes under the selected main node.
While modifying the default configuration, it is recommended to select these
options.
Click the IED and the sub-tree nodes to display the parameters of a function or
a group of functions.
Local HMI engineering
LEDs are assigned to signals or groups of signals in the default pre-configuration. The
pre-configuration also includes a configured function key and a sample single-line
diagram (SLD) for display on the screen. LEDs, function keys, and SLD can be
modified following the process described in this section.
7.4.5.1
Local HMI engineering process
The engineering process of the LHMI involves several steps. Figure 69 presents the
pre-engineering step, the main steps in the engineering process and the required
sequences.
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Local HMI
ACT / SMT
Select and configure
HMI function blocks
SAVE
PST
Set function
keys and LEDs
SAVE
GDE / ACT
Create the
single line diagram
SAVE
END
IEC09000622_1_en.vsd
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Figure 69:
7.4.5.2
LEDs and function keys
•
Application Configuration tool with possible assistance of Signal Matrix tool
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
To use the function keys and LEDs on the LHMI, the corresponding special
function blocks must be inserted for these operation element groups.
The function blocks for the LEDs are organized as a single function block
per LED but indexed to the group identification, for example GRP1_LED3
(indication LED 3 in virtual LED group 1).
The function blocks for LHMI are visible by default for the Parameter
Setting tool.
Use the Application Configuration tool to connect the signals from
application functions to LED function blocks.
Parameter Setting tool
•
116
LHMI: Engineering process flowchart
The operation mode of the function keys and the LEDs is defined in the
Parameter Setting tool.
The presented text labels on the LCD for LHMI keys and LEDs.
Graphical Display Editor with assistance of Application Configuration tool, for
example
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•
•
•
Making the single line diagram of the primary process part.
Making the dynamic links for the apparatus.
Making the dynamic links for measurements.
Application Configuration tool and local HMI function blocks
A set of special function blocks is available for all the operation element groups on
LHMI.
See the technical manual for more information about function blocks.
LHMI function blocks that are available in the Application Configuration tool:
•
•
•
•
•
FNKEYMD1 to FNKEYMD5
LEDGEN
GRP1_LED1 to GRP1_LED15
GRP2_LED1 to GRP2_LED15
GRP3_LED1 to GRP3_LED15
The function blocks for the LEDs are organized in function blocks per LED.
Figure 70 describes the basic LHMI and the operation element groups. These are the
15 LEDs and their text elements on the LCD [A]. The other group is the five function
keys with their LEDs and the corresponding text elements on the LCD [B].
B
A
D0E1694T201305141505 V1 EN
Figure 70:
Local HMI: Placement of local HMI operation elements
Function block LEDGEN
•
•
•
•
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Handles an external acknowledge signal as source to acknowledge the LEDs.
Generates an additional pulse for general purposes whenever the LEDs are
acknowledged by the operator.
Generates a pulse whenever a new LED signal occurs. It may be used to trigger
an acoustical alarm.
Handles the timer tReset and tMax for the LED operation mode 'LatchedReset-S'.
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The LEDGEN function block is a part of the pre-configuration. The reset input is
connected to a combination of signals including function key 1, external binary input
or next switching command. This can be modified according to the requirements.
GUID-BFB87428-937C-4FBB-8DCF-851A6CDA4606 V2 EN
Figure 71:
LEDGEN default configuration
Function blocks GRP1_LED1 to GRP3_LED15
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
The 15 LEDs on the right side of the LCD can indicate in total 45 alarms,
warnings or other signals to the operator. They are organized in three groups 1 to
3.
LEDs in Group 1, except LED 10, are used in the pre-configuration for specific
functions. LEDs in Groups 2 and 3 are not used.
Each signal group belongs to one function block.
Each LED illuminates in one of the three colors: RED, YELLOW or GREEN.
The organization of flashing, acknowledgment and group selection is done
directly between the function blocks and the basic LHMI keys, the 'Multifunction'
key to toggle between the three groups or the 'Clear' key to acknowledge or reset
the LEDs.
Only the programming of the signals is needed for the LEDs.
The operation mode of the LEDs is defined in the Parameter Setting tool.
The input signals support naming of signals. The name added to these signals is visible
in the LHMI menu Tests/Function status/Monitoring/HMI/LEDs/All indication
LEDs.
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GUID-6E3A530D-26F0-4EA6-8D5F-E693E0913241 V1 EN
Figure 72:
LED connection in Application Configuration for function block
signals
The text added to the Label settings appears adjacent to the LED according to the
active signals connected to the LED input. When no signals are active, text assigned
to the LabelOff setting is displayed.
In default pre-configuration, no text is assigned to the LabelOff
settings.
The LEDs have a number of different operation modes, which are explained in the
Technical Manual.
Function block FNKEYMD1 to 5
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Every function key has an own FNKEYMD function block.
The five function keys on the left side of the LCD [B] can be used to process
demands.
The function block handles the signal for the LED included in the key as input
signals.
The LED signal of the key is independent of the key function and must be
programed to process demands.
The function block handles the operators command when the key is pressed as
output signal.
The functions are activated whenever a key is pressed the first time. The
corresponding text elements, which are configured using the Label setting, for the
five keys appear on the left side of the LCD. No execution of the function is done.
So the first push is used to activate the presentation only.
The next key push is handled as activate function and the output signal of the
function block is set.
The operation mode of the function key is defined in the Parameter Setting tool
(pulse, toggle).
Function key 1 is already a part of the pre-configuration.
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Parameter Setting tool and function block configuration
The operation mode of the function keys and the LEDs must be defined per key and
LED in the Parameter Setting tool.
The function key can operate a pulsed or toggle signal or as a menu short cut.
•
Pulsed signal
•
•
•
•
Toggle signal
•
•
•
Each push forces a pulse of a configured time.
The pulse time can be set in the Parameter Setting tool.
The default pulse time is 200 ms.
Each push changes the state of the signal: OFF-ON-OFF-ON-OFF...
The default position after power up or reset is OFF.
Menu shortcut
•
When pressing a key configured for that purpose, the function key panel is
hidden and LHMI opens directly in the configured menu.
GUID-85BB0617-459A-44E3-B0EA-1115B3D60F27 V1 EN
Figure 73:
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Opening parameter view of the function key function block
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Figure 74:
7.4.5.3
LHMI: function key operation mode
Single-line diagram engineering
Concept description to present and generate diagrams in graphical
display editor
Additional concept information to use GDE, see Figure 75:
•
•
•
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Different GDE windows
HMI display grid layouts
Drawing lines (doing a Link)
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HMI display
window pages
Symbol library
window
Regard the
squence of pages
IED HMI
display window
IEC08000123.vsd
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Figure 75:
GDE: Screen image with active GDE
Procedure
1.
2.
3.
Start GDE to open a presentation of the tool.
GDE has a fixed symbol library window on the left side of the display.
The presentation is empty when no page exists for the IED.
The Switchsync PWC600 pre-configuration includes three pages
titled Operation, Avg opening times, and Avg closing times. These
pages are used for CB timing test mode and must not be changed.
Display window and sequence order
It is important to link correctly between the HMI display page and the
corresponding bay that is presented as a single line diagram on this
HMI page.
Rules to handle HMI pages:
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•
•
•
•
•
Several single line diagrams can be created for one bay.
The IED supports one bay.
The sequence order of the HMI pages in the Graphical Display Editor starts from
left to right.
Measurements and the single line diagram can be shown on the page in any
possible order and placement.
All symbol objects, for example apparatus, text and measurement, on the HMI
page must be linked to the correct function block in the application configuration
in order to present the correct process values.
Symbol library
The symbol library window contains some panes that include drawing symbols or
elements to create a single line diagram, measurements and texts on a page. Click on
the name bar of the selected element to open the pane.
The library shows the symbols either in ANSI standard or in IEC standard. The
standard is selected by the drop down list box located on top of the display window.
Switchsync PWC600 does not support ANSI symbols. Only IEC
symbols are displayed on the LHMI.
Select the different panes and their symbols to become familiar with the available
symbols.
Measurements (Measurands) are presented in one format that explains itself when
selected. Select the format and drop it in the drawing area. Use the object properties
to make adaptations.
Special symbols for dynamic text
In the text pane the symbol library contains a set of special symbols to present text that
depends on the status of variables. A set of three symbols is valid to present a double
point information. The corresponding function block in ACT is VSGGIO.
•
•
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Dynamic Text or Indication Button is used when a position shall be monitored on
single line diagram, Figure 76
Select Button is used when a function shall be controlled from a single line
diagram.
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D0E1397T201305141505 V1 EN
Figure 76:
GDE: Dynamic Text symbols
The standard (IEC or ANSI) for the symbols and the selection of the font size for the
text elements can be changed using the two selector boxes on top of the page window.
HMI display grid layout and text font selection
The grid in the page changes from symbol presentation to text presentation when a text
object is selected and vice versa.
The text can be presented in two different font sizes:
•
•
UniCode characters (6 x 12 pixel)
UniCode characters (13 x 14 pixel)
The total size of the presented white area (page) represents the visible part of the local
HMI display without header and foot-line.
The visible display for a single line diagram is organized in a grid of 13 x 8 (columns
x rows). Each symbol presented by 24 x 24 pixels included by the drag and drop
method must be dropped in a grid box. The apparatus object name can be placed in all
four directions around the symbol. The name is part of the apparatus object.
Handling text
The grid switches when text is selected in a grid of 45 x 15 (columns x rows). One grid
box is the placeholder for one character. A text element must be placed in the position
of the grid. The signal name can changed either by double click or via the property
window. Unit and scaling of the signal can only be changed via the property window.
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Select and toggle Show Texts using the IED Fonts to get a view how it will look like
later on the real HMI display.
Drawing lines
The line width has to fit to the line width used for the symbols. The standard size is 2.
Choose the line width in a selection box placed in the upper area above the page. A line
that is not connected to a symbol may be done in any line width in the range 1...5. Lines
can be drawn only between connection points.
For the procedure to draw lines when the apparatus symbols are placed, see Figure 77.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Place the apparatus or transformer symbols by drag and drop in a grid box.
Place connection symbols by drag and drop in a grid box.
Center the mouse pointer over a connection point, indicated by two circles, to
start drawing a line.
Click and hold the mouse button and move the mouse pointer. Center the mouse
pointer over the destination connection point and release the mouse button to
finish drawing the line.
Draw all line elements that are necessary.
IEC05000598-2-en.vsd
D0E1379T201305141505 V1 EN
Figure 77:
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
GDE: Drawing a line
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Supported single-line diagram symbols
Table 34:
Category
Supported symbols
IEC Symbol name
Symbol
type
Connections
Junction
1
Connections
Busbar junction
2
Connections
Earth
10
Connections
Feeder end
21
Measuring
transformers
Current
transformer
5
Measuring
transformers
Voltage transf. 2
windings
6
Measurands
Measurand
11
Others
Capacitor
7
Others
Surge arrestor
8
Others
Generator
9
Others
Reactor
14
Others
Motor
15
Others
Coil
18
Power
transformers
Transformer 2
winding
16
Power
transformers
Transformer 3
winding
17
Power
transformers
Autotransformer
23
IEC Symbol
definitions
ANSI Y32.2/
IEEE 315
Symbol
definitions
Function block
type
CBLEARN
CMMXU
CMSQI
CNTGGIO
CVMMXN
GFGDE
MVGGIO
VMMXU
VMSQI
VNMMXU
Table continues on next page
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Category
Switchgear
IEC Symbol
definitions
ANSI Y32.2/
IEEE 315
Symbol
definitions
Function block
type
IEC Symbol name
Symbol
type
Isolator indication
only, 00 = Middle
position
25
DPGGIO
GFGDE
26
DPGGIO
GFGDE
33
DPGGIO
GFGDE
35
DPGGIO
GFGDE
Isolator indication
only, 01 = Open
Isolator indication
only, 10 = Closed
Isolator indication
only, 11 =
Undefined
Switchgear
Breaker indication
only, 00 = Middle
position
Breaker indication
only, 01 = Open
Breaker indication
only, 10 = Closed
Breaker indication
only, 11 =
Undefined
Switchgear
Isolator2
indication only, 00
= Middle position
Isolator2
indication only, 01
= Open
Isolator2
indication only, 10
= Closed
Isolator2
indication only, 11
= Undefined
Switchgear
Breaker2
indication only, 00
= Middle position
Breaker2
indication only, 01
= Open
Breaker2
indication only, 10
= Closed
Breaker2
indication only, 11
= Undefined
Texts
Static text
0
Texts
Dynamic text
29
VSGGIO
Table continues on next page
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Category
Texts
1MRK 511 346 C
IEC Symbol name
Symbol
type
Select button, 00 =
Middle position
IEC Symbol
definitions
ANSI Y32.2/
IEEE 315
Symbol
definitions
Function block
type
30
VSGGIO
31
VSGGIO
Select button, 01 =
Open
Select button, 10 =
Closed
Select button, 11 =
Undefined
Texts
Indication button,
00 = Middle
position
Indication button,
01 = Open
Indication button,
10 = Closed
Indication button,
11 = Undefined
Others
Resistor
39
Others
Star point
40
Others
Field winding
41
Single-line diagram pre-configured signals
Table 35:
SLD pre-configured signals
Signal identification
Description
Category of symbol: Measurand
Category of signal: Voltage and current
CB_CURR;CMMXU:1.IL1
Current in L1 phase
CB_CURR;CMMXU:1.IL2
Current in L2 phase
CB_CURR;CMMXU:1.IL3
Current in L3 phase
CB_CURR;CMMXU:1.IL1ANGL
Phase angle of current in L1 phase
CB_CURR;CMMXU:1.IL2ANGL
Phase angle of current in L2 phase
CB_CURR;CMMXU:1.IL3ANGL
Phase angle of current in L3 phase
SOURCE_VOLT;VNMMXU:1.UL1
Source voltage of L1 phase
SOURCE_VOLT;VNMMXU:1.UL2
Source voltage of L2 phase
SOURCE_VOLT;VNMMXU:1.UL3
Source voltage of L3 phase
Table continues on next page
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Signal identification
Description
SOURCE_VOLT;VNMMXU:1.UL1ANGL
Phase angle of source voltage of L1 phase
SOURCE_VOLT;VNMMXU:1.UL2ANGL
Phase angle of source voltage of L2 phase
SOURCE_VOLT;VNMMXU:1.UL3ANGL
Phase angle of source voltage of L3 phase
LOAD_VOLT;VNMMXU:1.UL1
Load voltage of L1 phase
LOAD_VOLT;VNMMXU:1.UL2
Load voltage of L2 phase
LOAD_VOLT;VNMMXU:1.UL3
Load voltage of L3 phase
LOAD_VOLT;VNMMXU:1.UL1ANGL
Phase angle of load voltage of L1 phase
LOAD_VOLT;VNMMXU:1.UL2ANGL
Phase angle of load voltage of L2 phase
LOAD_VOLT;VNMMXU:1.UL3ANGL
Phase angle of load voltage of L3 phase
Category of signal: Compensation
SPGCH_BN_L1;GFGDE:1.OUTRL
Stored energy level of circuit breaker drive in L1 phase, in
%
SPGCH_BN_L2;GFGDE:2.OUTRL
Stored energy level of circuit breaker drive in L2 phase, in
%
SPGCH_BN_L3;GFGDE:3.OUTRL
Stored energy level of circuit breaker drive in L3 phase, in
%
DRVPRESS_L1;GFGDE:4.OUTRL
Pressure of driving mechanism in L1 phase
DRVPRESS_L2;GFGDE:5.OUTRL
Pressure of driving mechanism in L2 phase
DRVPRESS_L3;GFGDE:6.OUTRL
Pressure of driving mechanism in L3 phase
TEMP_L1;GFGDE:7.OUTRL
Temperature in L1 phase
TEMP_L2;GFGDE:8.OUTRL
Temperature of L2 phase
TEMP_L3;GFGDE:9.OUTRL
Temperature of L3 phase
ADDLQTY1_L1;GFGDE:13.OUTRL
Additional quantity1 for compensation of L1 phase
ADDLQTY1_L2;GFGDE:14.OUTRL
Additional quantity1 for compensation of L2 phase
ADDLQTY1_L3;GFGDE:15.OUTRL
Additional quantity1 for compensation of L3 phase
ADDLQTY2_L1;GFGDE:16.OUTRL
Additional quantity2 for compensation of L1 phase
ADDLQTY2_L2;GFGDE:17.OUTRL
Additional quantity2 for compensation of L2 phase
ADDLQTY2_L3;GFGDE:18.OUTRL
Additional quantity2 for compensation of L3 phase
Category of signal: General
OPER_CNT_L1;GFGDE:10.OUTINTRL
Count of mechanical close-open (CO) operation cycles of
L1 phase
OPER_CNT_L2;GFGDE:11.OUTINTRL
Count of mechanical close-open (CO) operation cycles of
L2 phase
OPER_CNT_L3;GFGDE:12.OUTINTRL
Count of mechanical close-open (CO) operation cycles of
L3 phase
ABL_PERCNT_L1;GFGDE:25.OUTRL
Contact wear in L1 phase, in % of alarm threshold
ABL_PERCNT_L2;GFGDE:26.OUTRL
Contact wear in L2 phase, in % of alarm threshold
ABL_PERCNT_L3;GFGDE:27.OUTRL
Contact wear in L3 phase, in % of alarm threshold
Category of symbol: Switchgear
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
CB_POS_L1;GFGDE:28.OUTPOS
Circuit breaker position of L1 phase
CB_POS_L2;GFGDE:29.OUTPOS
Circuit breaker position of L2 phase
CB_POS_L3;GFGDE:30.OUTPOS
Circuit breaker position of L3 phase
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Signals that are not listed in Table 35 are also displayed while
assigning the signals to the symbols. Ignore these signals, as they do
not carry any information to display, when the IED is in service. For
assigning any other analog signals, either GFGDE or MVGGIO
function block can be used. The measurand supports display of only
analog signals.
GUID-462C4B93-447C-40F9-8D3C-694569D1EE2E V1 EN
Figure 78:
MVGGIO and GFGDE connection in Application Configuration
Phase angles are shown as radians in the single line diagram (GDE
measurand) symbols but in degrees in other views on the LHMI.
An integer signal can be converted using the GFGDE function and assigned to a
measurand symbol. In this case, the Digits after decimal point property should be set
to “0”. GFGDE function block Operation parameter should be set to “On”.
GUID-064D3BF8-884E-4959-B3FE-7BB15A980F3D V1 EN
Figure 79:
DPGGIO connection in Application Configuration
For MVGGIO and DPGGIO function blocks to work, IEC 61850-8-1 Operation
should be set to “On”. Furthermore, in every GFGDE function block, BASIN must be
connected to BASOUT as shown in Figure 78.
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Bay configuration engineering
A page with a single-line diagram and measurements contains active living objects.
The object values are updated by the IED periodically (measurement) or in case of an
event. Once the symbols are placed on the HMI page they must be linked to the
corresponding function block in the application configuration, which protects or
controls the object that the symbol on the HMI page represents.
Creating a complete HMI display page
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
Make a sketch of the single line diagram.
Place the apparatus, transformer and other symbols that are needed for the single
line diagram into the raster boxes.
Add connection points where needed.
Link the apparatus symbols with line elements.
Adjust the text symbols while writing to north, east, south or west using the
Object Property window.
Place measurements when needed.
Edit the name, unit and number of decimals of the measurements.
Select each object that has a dynamic link and create the link to the
corresponding process object, see Figure 80.
Check to select the correct function block.
Function blocks of the same type can have different instance numbers.
Validate that all links are done.
Save the complete picture.
Repeat the steps for all pages when more than one is needed.
Write the display configuration to IED from the Graphical Display Editor tool.
IEC09000666-1-en.vsd
D0E1493T201305141505 V1 EN
Figure 80:
Switchsync™ PWC600
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GDE: Establish a dynamic object link
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Linking process objects
To describe a process object within an IED, it needs to be established in the application
configuration, configured when given with its parameters by Parameter Setting and
linked to be displayed in the HMI. Three tools are involved for the described steps.
•
•
•
Application Configuration to program the application function block for
apparatus and/or measurements.
Parameter Setting to adapt the settings and/or configuration parameter of the
application function block.
Graphical Display Editor to establish the link for updating the selected data
attribute in the HMI of the application function block.
See Table 35 for the pre-configured GDE signals.
Follow the given procedure to link process objects.
1.
Right-click the apparatus symbol and select Select Input Signal. A list of
engineered switch control application function blocks opens.
D0E1394T201305141505 V1 EN
Figure 81:
2.
3.
4.
GDE: Input signal selection
Select the switch control application function block that corresponds to the
selected apparatus.
Right-click the measurement symbol and select Select Input Signal. A list of
the engineered measurement application function blocks opens.
Select the measurement application function block that corresponds to the
selected symbol.
The order number in the selection window of the process objects corresponds to the
number given in the Parameter Setting tree and to the application function block in
Application Configuration.
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Only those apparatus and measurements are shown that are configured in the
application configuration.
GUID-A6F7E58D-EDF1-4A8A-840F-56FB2B41F01D V1 EN
Figure 82:
GDE: Object properties windows for text insertion
The single line diagram screen can display different values, with the
help of the dynamic text fields. These values are displayed by default
in SI units, for example, active power is displayed in W. Modify Scale
Factor in the object properties (see Figure 83) to display values in
more readable units (for example MW). Be sure to write the proper
unit under the Unit Text field.
As the function delivers angles in radians, use a scale factor of 180/π
= 57.3 to display the angle in degrees
IEC10000174.vsd
D0E1676T201305141505 V1 EN
Figure 83:
7.4.6
GDE: Object properties window for unit change
Modification of event and waveform record signals
In total, 96 signals can be configured for creating binary events, which can be accessed
either from LHMI, WHMI or the PCM600 Event Viewer tool.
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The function blocks used for event configuration are B1RBDR, B2RBDR, B3RBDR,
B4RBDR, B5RBDR, and B6RBDR. Each of these function blocks allows the
configuration of 16 binary signals.
GUID-B413D6B1-DAD2-4A4E-8DB7-D87DE6878798 V1 EN
Figure 84:
Function block for Event configuration
Current and voltage signals appearing in the waveform record can be configured using
A1RADR, A2RADR and A3RADR function blocks. Only A1RADR is used in the
default configuration. Other analog signals can be configured using A4RADR. Each
of these function blocks allows the configuration of ten signals.
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GUID-CF2D50DD-EFD1-4923-8410-D972A6D82FB5 V1 EN
Figure 85:
Function block for current and voltage signal configuration
The signals configured in the function blocks, BxRBDR and
AxRADR, appear in the waveform record.
If logical function blocks, for example, OR or AND, are used in the
configuration to create a combination signal for event generation, it is
recommended to select the function with an execution order lower
than the BxRBDR and higher than the function blocks that generate
the original event signals.
The user-defined name assigned to each input signal in the function block, for
example, MULodVolTstMd for INPUT96 in Figure 84, is the event label which
appears in the LHMI, WHMI and PCM600 Event Viewer tool. User-defined name
assigned to the input in the AxRADR function block appears as the signal name in the
waveform record.
The input signals connected to BxRBDR can be configured to trigger a waveform
(TrigDR = “On”), to switch on the Start or Trip LED on the LHMI (SetLED selection)
and to assign the signal to be a part of snapshot event associated with a waveform
record (IndicationMa). Additionally, the triggering of the event can be configured for
“0” to “1” or “1” to “0” transition of the connected input signal (TrigLevel).
Figure 86 and Figure 87 show the view in the Parameter Setting tool for the 81st input
of the B6RBDR function and the step to display the parameter list. All parameters
related to this input are suffixed with the number 81.
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GUID-7B98E918-9CF7-4C1B-81F7-A9A329D022BF V1 EN
Figure 86:
Opening parameter view of the event recorder function block
GUID-C6F896E4-9DA4-4B6A-B7A2-FEF80B081D5E V1 EN
Figure 87:
Event recorder function block parameters
See Figure 88 and Figure 89 to enable (Operation = “On”) and disable (Operation =
“Off”) the waveform recording of the connected channels to the input of AxRADR
function.
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GUID-A3A26243-809B-4BDA-8772-BAE766BF3457 V1 EN
Figure 88:
Opening parameter view of current and voltage signal recorder
function block
GUID-061E5F4A-30B0-48AF-8551-ECFEE0E593D2 V1 EN
Figure 89:
7.4.7
Current and voltage signal recorder function block parameters
Modification of alarm signals
Total 64 signals can be connected for alarm generation. Alarms can only be viewed in
the WHMI.
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GUID-7F24EDB1-EDAE-4E72-BFFF-81FE9B771DD7 V1 EN
Figure 90:
Function block for alarm generation
The name given to each input signal in the function block (for example, EopnTrErWrn
for INPUT12) is the label of the alarm which appears in the WHMI.
The icon for the alarm signals appearing in the WHMI can be configured using the
parameter shown in Figure 92.
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GUID-CA491BE6-005F-4494-9FC9-6EC7C3D5CA8A V2 EN
Figure 91:
Opening parameter view of the alarm function block
GUID-4EAA601C-F290-4879-8AB9-E7C637A143E0 V2 EN
Figure 92:
Alarm function block parameters
Figure 92 shows the step to open the parameters list. The supported selections are
Alarm, Warning and Sensor error.
7.4.8
Modification of operation log input
The default pre-configuration has all the possible signals connected for storing data
into the operation log. This functionality does not support enabling or disabling the
storing using a parameter in the function block. It needs to be manually removed. If the
signals are not supported in the site-specific configuration (for example, temperature
is not available as an input from field), the operation log always shows value zero. For
storing a three-phase value (for example, temperature for phase L1, L2 and L3), the
signals from each phase must be connected to the corresponding function blocks
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numbered 1, 2 and 3. If the temperature input is not available, it is recommended to
disconnect the input signals connected to these function blocks, in this example the
signal connected to INPUT4 of all three function blocks.
GUID-13A5EBAA-AD05-462D-B721-7874623620DE V1 EN
Figure 93:
Operation log connection
The product supports configuration of two additional analog signals for
compensation. These analog signal values can be stored in the operation log. INPUT7
and INPUT8 of the function block are used for this purpose. It is recommended to
assign a meaningful name to these input signals according to the field input signals
connected. The number of characters supported for the user-defined signal names is
13.
7.4.9
Modification of binary inputs and outputs
Most binary inputs on PIO and BIO modules are required for various pre-configured
IED functions. If certain functions are not used in a specific installation, the respective
inputs can be used for other purposes. For example, if no level indication signals are
available for the CB drive’s energy storage, BI4…BI9 on BIO_4 can be used for other
purposes; or correspondingly PBI1 on PIO_3, if not used for resetting the LEDs. The
IED includes two spare binary inputs, which are not used in the pre-configuration.
The binary outputs on the PIO modules are reserved for controlling circuit breaker
operations. Some binary outputs on the BIO and PSM modules are pre-configured for
signaling. The BIO and PSM modules further include three and six binary outputs
respectively designed for operating circuit breakers or other switches that are not used
in the pre-configuration. They can be connected for signaling purposes if required,
even though these contacts have higher current carrying capacity.
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Spare binary inputs and outputs are available in the pre-configuration
in the BIN_IN and BIN_OP worksheets of Application Configuration
in PCM600.
7.4.9.1
Adding binary inputs and outputs to Application Configuration
1.
2.
Click Hardware I/O under Object Types to open the input and output list.
Drag Binary Input or Binary Output to the Application Configuration
window.
GUID-19F59EE1-5690-48F8-9EE5-87E961DC2A70 V1 EN
Figure 94:
3.
Dragging a binary input to Application Configuration
On the Hardware Module list, select the module.
GUID-FE09019A-5128-4535-9019-29D5B5604265 V1 EN
Figure 95:
4.
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Selecting the hardware modules
On the Hardware Channel list, select one of the channels PBI1...PBI12.
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GUID-B776C48F-2E14-473A-A6CF-1B1A8DF714C2 V1 EN
Figure 96:
5.
Selecting the hardware channels
Type the name in the User Defined Name box.
GUID-10F9B260-126E-4294-8199-5DDCBC02A1B4 V1 EN
Figure 97:
Entering a user-defined name
While adding a binary input, the Hardware Channel list includes the
already configured channels. Conversely, while adding a binary
output, only channels that are not yet configured appear in the list.
7.4.10
Generic IEC61850 function block configuration
The default pre-configuration contains standard logical node types SSXCBR,
SSCPOW, ACBMSCBR, CMMXU and VNMMXU. The data objects available on
these logical nodes are listed in the MICS (Model Information Conformity Statement)
document and in the IEC 61850 communication protocol manual. For transmitting
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other binary signals, either SPGGIO (single signals) or SP16GGIO (up to 16 signals)
can be used. MVGGIO function block is used for the analog signals.
7.4.11
Connection of GOOSE close and open commands
If Close and Open commands are given through GOOSE messages from another IED,
for example a bay controller, the commands need to be connected to the
GOOSESPRCV function from the Goose Receive tab of the Signal Matrix tool.
GUID-A7DD18EE-CCD3-4607-9EB1-F0631CB6415D V1 EN
Figure 98:
Opening Goose Receive tab of Signal Matrix
Two instances of GOOSESPRCV with user-defined names GOOSE_CLOSE and
GOOSE_OPEN are provided for close and open commands respectively.
GUID-BD1903C6-A88C-4562-9DDA-2FD3E40A58C9 V1 EN
Figure 99:
7.4.12
Connecting commands in Signal Matrix
Connection of compensation signals via analog GOOSE
In this version of Switchsync PWC600, analog compensation signals from external
sensors can be connected only through analog GOOSE. Figure 100 shows a possible
product configuration using ABB RIO600 as an example.
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User manual
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GUID-EE13E74C-0AB2-4B3B-80BC-284FE7CF6031 V1 EN
Figure 100:
Acquiring analog values via GOOSE communication using ABB
RIO600
Some knowledge of IEC 61850 engineering is required for performing this
configuration. The function block GOOSEMVRCV, available under the category
Station communication of Object Types, supports subscribing to analog data over
GOOSE. One GOOSEMVRCV function block allows subscribing to one analog
value. These functions are available on the COMPENSATION worksheet in
Application Configuration.
Figure 101 shows the output and input connection of this function block.
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GUID-347360F1-558E-4411-BB35-81A493490BCE V1 EN
Figure 101:
7.5
Subscribing to analog GOOSE values in Signal Matrix tool
Writing the configuration to the IED
The entire IED configuration must be written to the IED in any of the listed cases.
•
•
•
•
•
1.
2.
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
The IED is blank, meaning no configuration has been written to it.
A new IED object has been created in PCM600.
The application configuration has been modified in ACT or SMT, possibly in
PST, SST, or GDE as well. (Changes made in PST or GDE can be written to the
IED directly from these tools.)
The communication configuration has been modified in IEC 61850
Configuration tool (or in an external tool such as IET600).
The configuration has been migrated to another version.
Ensure that Ethernet connection is established and that the technical key has
been set to identical values both in the IED and in PCM600.
Right click the IED object and select Write to IED.
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Figure 102:
3.
146
Initiating common write to IED
Click Yes in the Read/Write window.
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Figure 103:
4.
5.
6.
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User manual
Confirming common write to IED
If applicable, select Yes in the Update Communication window to update the
communication configuration part in the IED.
Wait until the progress indication indicates success.
After writing to the IED, wait until the animated Write icon on the screen has
disappeared and the Ready LED is steadily on before doing any further operation
on the IED.
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At delivery, logging on is not required and the user has full access until users and
passwords are created with PCM600 and written into the IED.
Commands, changing parameter values and resetting indications, for example, are
actions requiring password when the password protection is activated. Reading
information on the LHMI is always allowed without password.
Utility security policies and practical consideration should always be
taken on the feasibility of using passwords. In emergency situations,
the use of passwords could delay urgent actions. On the other hand
when security issues must be met, the two factors must be seriously
considered.
Do not switch off the auxiliary power supply to the IED before
changes, for example, setting parameter or local/remote control state
changes are saved.
A mechanism for limiting the number of writings per time period is included in the
IED to prevent the flash memory to be worn out due to too many writings. As a
consequence it may take up to an hour to save changes. If the auxiliary power is
interrupted before a change is saved, that change is lost.
8.1
Local HMI elements
D0E1319T201305141540 V1 EN
Figure 104:
Local human-machine interface
The LHMI of the IED contains the following elements:
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•
•
•
•
Display (LCD)
Buttons
LED indicators
Communication port for PCM600 or WHMI
The LHMI is used for setting, monitoring and controlling.
8.1.1
Display
The LHMI includes a graphical monochrome display with a resolution of 320 x 240
pixels. The character size can vary. The amount of characters and rows fitting the view
depends on the character size and the view that is shown.
The display view is divided into four basic areas.
IEC13000063-1-en.vsd
D0E1348T201305141540 V1 EN
Figure 105:
Display layout
1 Path
2 Content
3 Status
4 Scroll bar (appears when needed)
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•
•
•
•
The path shows the current location in the menu structure. If the path is too long
to be shown, it is truncated from the beginning, and the truncation is indicated
with three dots.
The content area shows the menu content.
The status area shows the current IED time, the user that is currently logged in and
the object identification string which is settable via the LHMI or with PCM600.
If text, pictures or other items do not fit in the display, a vertical scroll bar appears
on the right. The text in content area is truncated from the beginning if it does not
fit in the display horizontally. Truncation is indicated with three dots.
D0E1333T201305141540 V1 EN
Figure 106:
Truncated path
The number following the function name, for example ETHFRNT:1, indicates the
instance number.
The display is updated either cyclically or based on changes in the source data such as
parameters or events.
The function key panel shows on request what actions are possible with the function
keys. Each function key has a LED indication that can be used as a feedback signal for
the function key control action. The LED is connected to the required signal with
PCM600.
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Figure 107:
Function key panel
The alarm LED panel shows on request the alarm text labels for the alarm LEDs. Three
alarm LED pages are available.
D0E1200T201305141540 V1 EN
Figure 108:
Alarm LED panel
The function key and alarm LED panels are not visible at the same time. Each panel
is shown by pressing one of the function keys or the Multipage button. Pressing the
ESC button clears the panel from the display. Both the panels have dynamic width that
depends on the label string length that the panel contains.
8.1.2
LEDs
The LHMI includes three status LEDs above the display: Ready, Start and Trip. In
Switchsync PWC600, only the Ready and Start LEDs are used.
There are 15 programmable alarm LEDs on the front of the LHMI. Each LED can
indicate three states with the colors: green, yellow and red. The alarm texts related to
each three-color LED are divided into three pages and can be browsed with the
Multipage button.
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There are 3 separate pages of LEDs available. The 15 physical three-color LEDs in
one LED group can indicate 45 different signals. Altogether, 135 signals can be
indicated since there are three LED groups. The LEDs can be configured with
PCM600 and the operation mode can be selected with the LHMI or PCM600.
The functions and operation modes of the LEDs on page 1 are defined in the default
pre-configuration.
8.1.3
Keypad
The LHMI keypad contains push-buttons which are used to navigate in different
views or menus. The push-buttons are also used to acknowledge alarms, reset
indications or provide help.
The keypad also contains programmable push-buttons (function keys) that can be
configured either as menu shortcut or control buttons. The first function key is
assigned in the default pre-configuration for resetting the alarm LEDs.
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23
18
1
19
2
20
3
21
4
17
5
22
6
7
8
9 10 11 12 13
14 15 16
D0E1311T201305141540 V2 EN
Figure 109:
LHMI keypad (IEC variant) with object control, navigation and
command push-buttons and RJ-45 communication port
1...5 Function key
6
Close
7
Open
8
Escape
9
Left
10
Down
11
Up
12
Right
13
User Log on
14
Enter
15
Remote/Local
16
Uplink LED
17
Ethernet communication port (RJ-45)
18
Multipage
19
Main menu
20
Clear
21
Help
22
Programmable alarm LEDs
23
Protection status LEDs
8.1.4
Local HMI functionality
8.1.4.1
Status and alarm indication
Status indicators
The status indicator LEDs are Ready and Start.
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Since there are no protection functions available in Switchsync
PWC600, Start and Trip LEDs are not used for application related
signalling.
Table 36:
Ready LED (green)
LED state
Description
Off
Auxiliary supply voltage is disconnected.
On
Normal operation
Flashing
IED starting up, or internal fault
Table 37:
Start LED (yellow)
LED state
Description
Off
Normal operation.
Flashing
The IED is in test mode and functions are blocked.
•
The indication disappears when the IED is no longer in test mode and
blocking is removed.
Alarm indicators
The 15 programmable three-color LEDs are used for alarm and status indication.
Individual alarm/status signals are connected to the LED function blocks of Alarm
Group 1 in the pre-configuration.
8.1.4.2
Parameter management
The LHMI can be used to access the IED parameters. Three types of parameters can
be read and written.
•
•
•
Numerical values
String values
Enumerated values
Numerical values are presented either in integer or in decimal format with minimum
and maximum values. Character strings can be edited character by character.
Enumerated values have a predefined set of selectable values.
8.1.4.3
Front port communication
The RJ-45 port in the LHMI enables Ethernet communication with a PC.
•
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The green uplink LED on the left is lit when the cable is successfully connected
to the port.
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Figure 110:
RJ-45 communication port and green indicator LED
1 RJ-45 connector
2 Green indicator LED
When a computer is connected to the IED front port with a crossed-over cable, the
IED's DHCP server for the front interface assigns an IP address to the computer if
DHCPServer = On. The default IP address for the front port is 10.1.150.3.
Do not connect the IED front port to a LAN. Connect only a single
local PC with PCM600 to the front port.
8.2
Logging on
When IED users have been defined in PCM600, a user must log on to perform any
action.
1.
2.
156
to activate the logon procedure.
Press
The logon is also activated when attempting a password-protected operation.
Select the user name by scrolling with
and
.
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D0E1094T201305141540 V1 EN
Figure 111:
3.
Selecting the user name
Enter the password when prompted and select OK.
•
•
Activate the character to be entered with
Enter the character with
and
.
and
.
Upper and lower case letters are also found by scrolling the 255 characters with
and
.
D0E1091T201305141540 V1 EN
Figure 112:
Entering the password
Passwords are case sensitive.
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Only characters A - Z, a - z and 0 - 9 shall be used in user names.
User names are not case sensitive. For passwords see the
Password policies in PCM600.
4.
Press
to confirm the logon or
to cancel the procedure.
If the logon fails, a message is displayed on the display.
D0E1299T201305141540 V1 EN
Figure 113:
Error message indicating an incorrect password
The logon dialog appears if the attempted operation requires another
level of user rights.
Once a user is created and written into the IED, logon is possible with
the password assigned in the tool. If there is no user created, an attempt
to log on causes the display to show a corresponding message.
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Figure 114:
8.3
No user defined
Logging off
The user is automatically logged off after the display timeout. The IED returns to a
state where only reading is enabled. Manual logoff is also possible.
1.
2.
.
Press
To confirm logoff, select Yes and press
.
D0E1302T201305141540 V1 EN
Figure 115:
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Logging off
To cancel logoff, press
or select No and press
.
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8.4
1MRK 511 346 C
Navigating in the menu
Navigate the menus and change the display views on the screen with the keypad.
•
•
•
•
•
•
8.4.1
To move to the Main menu or default view, press
.
To move up or down in a menu, press
or
.
.
To move down one level in the menu tree, press
To move up one level in the menu tree, press
.
To enter setting mode, press
.
.
To leave setting mode without saving, press
Menu structure
The Main menu contains main groups which are divided further into more detailed
submenus.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
8.4.2
Control
Operation records
Fingerprint records
Events
Measurements
Disturbance records
Settings
Configuration
Diagnostics
Tests
Clear
Languages
Scrolling the display
If a menu contains more rows than the display can show at a time, a scroll bar is
displayed on the right.
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IEC13000064-1-en.vsd
D0E986T201305141540 V1 EN
Figure 116:
•
•
•
To scroll the view upwards, press
.
To scroll the view downwards, press
.
To jump from the last row to the first row, press
•
8.4.3
Scroll bar on the right
Press
again.
to jump from the first row to the last row.
Changing the default view
The default view of the display is Main menu unless set otherwise.
1.
2.
3.
Select Main menu/Configuration/HMI/Screen/SCREEN:1, select the
parameter DefaultScreen and press
.
Change the default view with
or
.
Press
to confirm the selection.
The default pre-configuration includes a graphical display page
named "Home". The text elements on the page need to be manually
modified in Graphical Display Editor for the specific application.
Other pre-defined pages are reserved for circuit breaker timing test
mode.
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Identifying the device
The IED information includes detailed information about the device, such as revision
and serial number.
1.
2.
Select Main menu/Diagnostics/IED Status/Product identifiers.
Browse the information with
and
.
D0E983T201305141540 V2 EN
Figure 117:
8.6
IED information
Changing the local HMI language
Only one language (English) is supported for this Switchsync
PWC600 release. It is not possible to change the LHMI language.
8.7
Browsing setting values
1.
2.
.
Select Main menu/Settings/IED Settings and press
Press
to select Yes and to view the setting group values.
•
Press
or
to select No and
to exit.
Only setting group 1 is supported in this release of Switchsync
PWC600.
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D0E997T201305141540 V1 EN
Figure 118:
3.
Selecting a setting group
To browse the settings, scroll the list with
. To move back to the list, press
.
and
and to select a setting press
D0E1336T201305141540 V1 EN
Figure 119:
Setting alternatives in the selected setting group
The content of the list depends on the pre-configuration or on the functions
configured with PCM600.
8.8
Editing values
•
8.8.1
To edit values, log in with the appropriate user rights.
If the user rights are not sufficient for editing values, the login dialog opens.
Editing numerical values
1.
Select Main menu/Settings and then a setting.
The last digit of the value is active.
•
•
•
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
When the symbol in front of the value is ↑, the active value can only be
increased.
When the symbol is ↓, the active value can only be decreased.
When the symbol in front of the value is ↕, the active value can either be
increased or decreased.
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Figure 120:
2.
Last digit is active and it can be increased or decreased
to increase or
to decrease the value of an active digit.
Press
One press increases or decreases the value by a certain step. For integer values,
the change is 1, 10, 100 or 1000 (...) depending on the active digit. For decimal
values, the change can be fractions 0.1, 0.01, 0.001 (...) depending on the active
digit.
For parameters with defined steps, digits smaller than the step
value cannot be edited.
3.
4.
or
to move the cursor to another digit.
Press
To select the minimum or maximum value, select the arrow symbol in front of
the value.
•
•
To set the value to the maximum, press
To set the value to the minimum, press
.
.
, the previous value can be restored by pressing
once, and
After pressing
vice versa. Another press of
or
sets the value to the lower or higher limit.
The symbol in front of the value is ↕, when the previous value is shown.
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Figure 121:
8.8.2
Restoring the previous value
Editing string values
1.
2.
3.
Activate the setting mode and select a setting.
When editing string values, the cursor moves to the first character.
Press
or
to change the value of an active character.
One press changes the value by one step.
Press
or
to move the cursor to another character.
•
•
To insert characters or space, press simultaneously
To delete characters, press simultaneously
and
and
.
.
Switchsync PWC600 supports Unicode characters.
8.8.3
Editing enumerated values
1.
2.
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Activate the setting mode and select a setting.
When editing an enumerated value, the selected value is shown inverted.
Press
or
to change the value of an active enumerated value.
One press changes the enumerated value by one step in the parameter specific
order.
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Changing time settings in LHMI
If there is a need to change the time setting in the LHMI (Main menu/Configuration/
Time/System time/SYSTEMTIME:1) the change will take affect immediately. To
confirm the new setting press
8.9
. To remove the change, press
.
Saving settings
Editable values are stored in the non-volatile flash memory. Most of the parameter
changes take effect immediately after storing, but some parameter changes require
application restart. Values stored in the flash memory remain in effect after reboot as
well.
1.
2.
3.
Press
to confirm any changes.
Press
to move upwards in the menu tree or
to enter the Main Menu.
To save the changes in non-volatile memory, select Yes and press
.
D0E1001T201305141540 V1 EN
Figure 122:
•
•
Confirming settings
To exit without saving changes, select No and press
.
To return to editing without saving settings, select Cancel and press
.
Pressing Cancel in the Save changes dialog closes only the Save
changes dialog box, but the IED remains in editing mode. All the
changes applied to any setting are not lost and the user can continue to
change settings. To leave the change setting mode, select No or Yes
in the Save changes dialog.
After changing any parameter marked with !, the IED restarts
automatically for the changes to take effect.
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8.10
Clearing and acknowledging
The Clear button is used to reset, acknowledge or clear all messages and indications,
including LEDs and latched outputs as well as registers and recordings. Press the
Clear button to activate a selection menu, and select the wanted clearance or reset
function. Events and alarms assigned to alarm LEDs are cleared with the Clear button
as well.
1.
Press
.
to activate the Clear menu, or select Clear in the Main menu and press
D0E1103T201305141540 V2 EN
Figure 123:
2.
3.
4.
8.11
The content of the Clear menu is configured with PCM600. For Switchsync
PWC600, the menu contents are defined in the default pre-configuration.
Select the item to be cleared with
or
.
Press , select OK to confirm the selection or Cancel to cancel the selection,
and press
.
Repeat steps 2 and 3 to clear other items.
Using the local HMI help
1.
2.
3.
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User manual
Clear menu
Press
to open the help view.
or
if the help text exceeds the display area.
Scroll the text with
To close the help, press
.
The help dialog is also closed when the display timeout expires.
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Figure 124:
168
Help menu
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Section 9
Web HMI
The Web HMI (WHMI) enables the user to access the IED via a Web browser. The
recommended Web browser version is Internet Explorer 9 or higher.
WHMI offers several functions.
•
•
•
•
•
Display operation records
Display waveform records
Display lists of alarms and events
Display graphical trend of selected data stored in operation records
View and edit settings
The WHMI can be accessed locally and remotely.
•
•
Locally by connecting the user's computer to the IED via the front
communication port.
Remotely over LAN/WAN through the rear Ethernet communication port.
For proper display of the WHMI, Compatibility View must be
switched off in the Tools menu of Internet Explorer.
9.1
Logging in
1.
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User manual
Connect to the IED by typing the IP address into the browser’s address bar.
A blank page with only the Login button
is displayed.
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Figure 125:
Initial view for logging into WHMI
For security reasons, no information about the IED is shown
until the user has successfully logged in.
2.
If the dialog box for entering user credentials does not open automatically, click
the Login button.
Type the user name and password, and click OK.
With no user accounts defined in the IED, type SuperUser for
both user name and password.
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Figure 126:
Entering user name and password
If wrong login credentials are entered for three times, server
redirects to an error page.
Maximum four concurrent users are supported. Two concurrent
sessions with the same user name are allowed, but inactivity
timeout is reduced to 30 seconds for the oldest session (Web
server setting is overridden).
9.2
Logging out
•
To log out, click Logout on the menu bar.
GUID-F2987898-7B18-48DF-847E-D7D933131753 V1 EN
Figure 127:
Logout
After a certain period of inactivity, the WHMI user is automatically logged out.
This Web client timeout is set in the Web server. The default timeout is 15
minutes.
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Menu structure
GUID-1C45F60E-D950-4A45-B17E-88A125D81E44 V1 EN
Figure 128:
•
•
•
•
9.4
Web HMI main menu
Home
Returns to the start page.
Lists
Contains Operation records, Waveform records (disturbance records), Events,
Alarms and Internal Events.
Trend
Contains Close operations and Open operations. Each has several submenus
containing Accuracy, CB times, CB switching, Ambient, Drive energy and
Additional.
Only those items that are available (enabled) in the settings of Switchsync
PWC600 are visible in the Trend menu. For example, if only controlled closing
is enabled, the Open operations submenu cannot be accessed. Similarly, if the
circuit breaker auxiliary contacts are not connected to Switchsync PWC600, no
measurements of the mechanical operation properties are available and the CB
times and CB switching menu entries are disabled. Furthermore, Trend submenus
are enabled only if the data from at least one controlled switching operation are
available in the IED's operation log.
Reports
Contains Status report and Configuration report.
Warning and error messages
In case the connection to a server is lost, an error message is shown.
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Figure 129:
•
•
Error message when the connection to server is lost
Click OK to continue using WHMI.
Click Cancel to logout.
When connection to the IED is re-established, it may be necessary to
log in again.
9.5
Accessing device information
The initial page shows information on the IED, the load type and the last switching
operation. This page can also be accessed from any other page.
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Click Home in the Switchsync PWC600 menu.
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Figure 130:
Device information (home page)
If no controlled switching operation is recorded, only the first row is
displayed in the Last controlled switching operation section, with
no values. The values under the Last controlled switching operation
section are updated every ten seconds.
9.6
Selecting a list view
The list view contains Operation records, Waveform records, Events, Alarms, and
Internal events.
•
174
Click the Lists tab on the menu bar.
A drop-down list is displayed.
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Figure 131:
9.7
Lists menu
Navigating between pages
Most list views can display a limited number of records on a single page. If the
maximum number of records is exceeded, the information is distributed over several
pages. Navigate between the display pages using the control elements on the screen.
GUID-34EF36C3-9C2C-409C-B735-21DB1C94101A V1 EN
Figure 132:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Page navigation controls
Select the Latest check box to view the latest records. In this mode, the page is
updated every five seconds. No page number is displayed in the Select page box.
Click
to go to the page containing the latest records. Page number 1 is
displayed in the text field and the Latest check box is automatically cleared.
Click
to go to the adjacent page containing newer records. The page number
displayed in the text field decreases and the Latest check box is automatically
cleared.
Click
to go to the adjacent page containing older records. The page number
displayed in the text field increases and the Latest check box is automatically
cleared.
Click
to go to the page containing the oldest records. The number of the last
page is displayed in the text field and the Latest check box is automatically
cleared.
Enter a page number in the Select page box and click Submit to go to a specific
page of records. The Latest check box is automatically cleared.
Navigation controls that cannot be used in a given situation are
disabled (dimmed). For example, when the last page is currently
displayed,
and
controls are inactive.
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1MRK 511 346 C
Operation records
Every switching command received at the command inputs of Switchsync PWC600
triggers an operation record. Each record is stamped with the date, time and the type
of operation request (Close or Open). This information is displayed in the WHMI
Operation records view, in the record list on the left, and it is used to identify the
individual operation records.
The same list also includes the record-specific information on electrical target errors
in each phase. This value is defined as the deviation of the actual (detected) instant of
current making or current interruption from the target instant. Color highlighting is
used in the record list to indicate controlled switching operation status.
Table 38:
Color highlighting of operation records
Background color
Explanation
Normal (alternating white and light gray)
Successful controlled switching operation
Red
Controlled switching operation where electrical target
error is above the limit in one or more phases.
The time stamp of an operation record is the same as the trigger time
of the associated waveform record.
Any operation record in the list can be selected by clicking the respective table row.
The selected record is highlighted bold. At the same time, all recorded data from that
operation are brought up in the right frame of the view.
The top header of the right frame repeats the record identification data. In addition, it
specifies the operation mode, which is an assessment of the switching operation. The
operation modes are defined by the software and cannot be changed by the user.
The numeric code of the operation mode is stored in the CSV file
exported from Trend views.
All data stored in relation to the respective switching operation are listed in tabular
form below the header. Most data are stored and displayed per phase. Data not
applying to a specific phase are listed in the L1 column.
Certain data, in particular current making angles, are relevant only for
Close operations and thus the values are always zero for Open
operations. Other data such as arcing times pertain only to Open
operations and are always zero for Close operations.
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9.8.1
Viewing and downloading operation records
The operation records page provides access to detailed data on the past controlled
switching operations.
•
Select Lists/Operation records on the menu bar. Alternatively, when another
list is already displayed, click the Operation records tab.
The initial view contains the latest Close and Open records. The left frame shows
a list of operations and the right frame gives details of the latest operation. The
selected row in the left frame is displayed in bold.
GUID-D5DA1433-39B5-467D-8F7C-3409EB448289 V3 EN
Figure 133:
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Operation records for open and close
To display detail data of another operation record, click the corresponding row in
the left frame.
To display or to hide the data for Close or Open operations, select or clear the
corresponding check box. At least one of the operation type should always be
checked.
Navigate between the pages with the arrow buttons if the list of operation records
covers more than one page.
To export the data into a CSV file, click
.
The downloaded CSV file contains all the operation records inside the IED.
To view the operation records from the very first operations controlled by this
IED, click the Fingerprint records button.
To prevent loss of operation data, do not power off the IED within one
hour of the last update to the operation log, that is, switching
operations. The same applies after clearing the operation log. This
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time constraint was introduced to minimize the number of write cycles
to internal flash memory and cannot be changed.
9.9
Waveform records
Every switching command received at the command inputs of Switchsync PWC600
triggers the disturbance recorder. It records the sampled voltage and current traces as
well as selected binary signals before and after the trigger event. Only those binary
channels which have been 1 at any time during the recording period are included.
For controlled switching, switching events are usually not triggered by a system
disturbance. Thus, within the context of Switchsync PWC600, disturbance records are
called waveform records in most places.
By default, Switchsync PWC600 stores waveform records of the latest 100
operations, overwriting the oldest one with the latest one. The waveform records are
stored in COMTRADE format, comprising three files with the same name but
different extensions (.dat, .cfg and .hdr). These can be viewed online or opened and
analyzed by tools such as WaveWin, which is included in the PCM600 installation
package. For easy transfer between devices, all files comprising one waveform record
are packed into a ZIP file.
9.9.1
Viewing and managing list of waveform records
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On the main menu, click Lists/Waveform records.
Alternatively, when another list is already displayed, click the Waveform
records tab.
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GUID-8D927441-61C5-417B-BBD9-E9AD864917CA V1 EN
Figure 134:
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To view a specific waveform record online, click the corresponding View icon.
The record is opened in the graphical viewer in WHMI.
To save a waveform record to the local computer, click the corresponding
Download icon.
Depending on the settings of the Web browser, one of the alternative actions
follows.
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List of waveform records in WHMI
The downloaded file is opened in the default program for handling ZIP
files.
A file selector dialog opens where the location and name of the ZIP file can
be entered.
The user is prompted to choose one of the above actions.
To delete one or more waveform records from the IED, select the corresponding
check boxes and click Delete.
Click OK in the confirmation dialog.
To select or deselect all records at once select the check box in the
header of the list.
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To manually initiate a waveform recording, click Manual trigger.
Delete and Manual trigger operations are available only to users
with engineer or installer privileges.
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Waveform viewer
Switchsync PWC600 provides an online viewer for displaying stored waveform
records graphically in the WHMI.
GUID-221BBEE6-8ABE-4C94-8D1B-19E7ECE801AA V1 EN
Figure 135:
Waveform viewer in WHMI
The waveform viewer can be used only for online display of
waveform records stored in Switchsync PWC600. It is optimized for
quick assessment of controlled switching operations. For offline
viewing and full-featured analysis of waveform records, the record
can be downloaded to the local system and opened in a COMTRADE
viewer such as WaveWin.
The Info table provides essential information about the waveform record.
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Station and Device identify the location of the controlled circuit breaker and
Switchsync PWC600, specified by the TERMINALID settings.
Start time gives the time stamp of the first sample in the record.
Trigger point gives the time stamp of the received switching command and is
shown in the list of waveform records. All other times within the record are
counted relative to this instant.
Channels gives the number of signals that are included in the record. Only those
binary channels which have been 1 at any time during the recording period are
included, hence the actual number is usually far lower than the maximum.
Sample rate specifies the number of samples per second, same for each channel.
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By default, the entire waveform record, containing all signals over the entire recording
period, is displayed in the graph area. The horizontal axis displays the time in
milliseconds relative to the trigger point, which is the time stamp of the waveform
record.
Each analog channel is auto-scaled individually. The calculated minimum and
maximum values of each channel are displayed under Min … Max in the signal list.
These values depend only on the recorded data and are arranged symmetrically to
zero; they cannot be changed by the user.
9.9.3
Viewing and managing waveform record graphs
1.
2.
Click the View icon of the requested record in the records list to open the
waveform record graph.
To hide one or more signals from the graph, clear the corresponding check box
in the signal list and click Update.
Select or deselect all channels at once by clicking the check box
in the header of the signal list.
3.
Use the mouse pointer to adapt the view.
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Position the mouse pointer over the plot area to control the vertical cursor.
The current time value of the cursor is displayed dynamically in the Time
field.
When the mouse pointer approaches a signal trace on the graph, it snaps to
the nearest actually recorded point, which is marked by a small circle. The
corresponding row in the signal list is highlighted in yellow. For analog
signals, the primary value of that point is displayed in the Value field.
Click and drag the pointer within the plot area to select a horizontal range.
The length of the selected range together with its limits are displayed in the
Selection field. Click anywhere inside the plot area to clear the selected
range.
While a horizontal range is selected, moving the mouse
pointer over the plot area continues to update the Time and
(if applicable) Value fields. No vertical cursor is
displayed.
4.
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Use the available buttons and the mouse pointer to navigate horizontally in the
graph.
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To enlarge the middle of the graph, click Zoom in. No horizontal range
should be selected.
To shrink the middle of the graph, click Zoom out.
To enlarge the area around the mouse pointer, turn the mouse wheel up (if
available). No horizontal range should be selected.
To shrink the area around the mouse pointer, turn the mouse wheel down
(if available).
To enlarge a specific area of the graph, select a horizontal range and click
Zoom in or turn the mouse wheel (if available) up.
To display the full time range of the record, click Reset zoom.
After zooming in, to move the displayed range along the time axis, click
the Pan left or Pan right buttons.
Vertical zooming is not possible in the online waveform viewer.
To enlarge an analog signal vertically, hide as many other
signals as possible. Alternatively, download the waveform
record to the local system and open it in a COMTRADE viewer
such as WaveWin.
5.
To save the entire waveform record to the local computer, click Download.
Depending on the settings of the Web browser, one of the alternative actions
follows.
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6.
7.
9.10
The downloaded file opens in the default program for handling ZIP files.
A file selector dialog opens for entering the location and name of the ZIP
file.
The user is prompted to choose one of the above actions.
To open another waveform record, click the appropriate navigation arrow
.
To close the waveform viewer and return to the list of waveform records, click
Close.
Alarms
Alarms are generated by abnormal conditions detected by Switchsync PWC600. Two
types of alarms are defined.
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Warnings report conditions that are not critical but may become critical if not
attended to.
Alarms report conditions that are considered critical and should be attended to at
once.
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GUID-A9B36768-E3A4-4B3A-AD56-259FE576DD7A V1 EN
Figure 136:
List of active alarms
Initially when raised, any entry in the alarms list is active. The user can acknowledge
an alarm. If the original alarm condition is gone, the alarm is removed from the list of
active alarms. Otherwise it is still shown although with different background color.
The user name and the time stamp of acknowledging are logged for each alarm and can
be viewed in the list of all alarms.
No special user privileges are required to acknowledge alarms.
9.10.1
Viewing and acknowledging alarms
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To view only active alarms, click Show active alarms.
This is the default view.
To view all active and acknowledged alarms, click Show all alarms.
To acknowledge one or more alarms, select the corresponding check boxes and
click Acknowledge.
To select several adjacent alarms, drag a rectangular selection
area over the respective list rows.
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9.11
To acknowledge all alarms on the page, click Acknowledge all.
Events and internal events
The lists of events and internal events contain time-stamped records of status changes
of specific signals. Events are created by the application and can be configured in
ACT. Conversely, internal events are created by the IED’s operating software and
cannot be modified.
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Each entry in the list contains the time stamp of the status change (date and time), the
name of the supervised signal and its final value after the status change. The list of
events can extend over several display pages, whereas all internal events are displayed
on a single page in WHMI.
9.12
Viewing trend graphs
The trend view graphically represents the data logged in operation records for a
selected set of signals.
1.
Click Trend on the menu bar, select the operation type (Close or Open) and the
category of trend data to view.
Only those signal categories can be selected for which data exist in the operation
records. If no operation records are stored in the IED, all signal categories are
disabled.
Updating the main menu to reflect a change in available data can
take up to two minutes.
2.
Click one of the available tabs to view the trend of the selected data logged in the
operation records.
The content of the list under each tab depends on the application configuration
(settings entered in Switchsync Setting Tool). Only those signal category tabs
are visible for which data exist in the operation records. When a trend page is
opened for the first time, certain data are selected by default. Once the selection
is changed, it is preserved for that specific login session, even if the user moves
to another page.
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3.
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To view electrical and mechanical target errors, click the Accuracy tab.
Electrical target errors are shown by default.
To view mechanical operating times, initial mechanical delay times and
mechanical moving times, click the CB times tab. If available, mechanical
operating times are shown by default.
To view primary contact velocity, current making angles and arcing times,
click the CB switching tab. Current making angles are shown by default
for Close operations and arcing times for Open operations.
To view control voltage, idle time and temperature, click the Ambient tab.
The idle time is shown by default.
To view drive pressure and spring charge levels, click the Drive energy
tab.
To view additional compensation quantities 1 and 2 with the user-defined
designations, click the Additional tab.
To define the signals to be displayed in the trend graph, select the corresponding
check boxes in the signal list and click Apply.
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The arcing time listed under the CB switching tab in the Trend
(Close operation) page is relevant only for Open operations.
Thus, the value is always zero if arcing time is selected.
Similarly, the current making angle listed under the CB
switching tab in the Trend (Open operation) page is relevant
only for Close operations. Thus, the value is always zero if the
current making angle is selected.
4.
5.
To save the currently selected trend data to the local computer, click
.
This works on the selection parameters as entered on the screen, even if the
actual graph has not been updated by clicking Apply.
Click the respective option under Select view to change the view mode to time
view or equidistant view.
By default, trend data are shown in the equidistant view.
When the mouse pointer is positioned over the plot area, it controls a vertical cursor.
On approaching a signal trace on the graph, it will snap to the nearest actually recorded
point (corresponding to a switching operation), which is marked by a small circle. A
tool tip displays the signal name, time stamp of the operation and the primary value of
that signal.
Trend views are not dynamically updated with addition or deletion of
the operation records.
9.12.1
Changing the range of data points in equidistant view
In the equidistant view mode, data points are plotted at equal horizontal spacing,
regardless of the actual time difference between them. The horizontal axis labels the
record numbers.
Up to 100 data points can be shown in a graph at once; this limit cannot be changed.
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GUID-56E752C8-4709-463A-A4F1-DAC849DA04A0 V1 EN
Figure 137:
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9.12.2
Equidistant trend view
Drag the sliders on the View records bar and click Apply to change the range of
data points to plot.
Changing the range of data points in time view
In the time view mode, data points are plotted at variable horizontal spacing reflecting
the actual time difference between them. The horizontal axis labels the time stamps of
the records. This is useful for visualizing the impact of the time on the viewed
quantities.
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GUID-8E569FBE-0DE3-439D-89AD-AE28904F6C8D V1 EN
Figure 138:
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Time view of trend
Adjust Start date and End date and click Apply to change the range of data
points to plot.
Up to 250 data points can be shown in a graph at once; this limit cannot be
changed. If a larger data range is selected, the Web interface combines adjacent
data points automatically and displays their average value as a single point. This
condition is flagged by a message text on the screen (Figure 139).
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GUID-1FFAB421-2590-4C28-87A0-A3F62435CED4 V1 EN
Figure 139:
Message for too many data points selected
Click the Date box to open a calendar control and select the date
with the mouse pointer.
Click the associated up and down buttons to adjust the Time
fields. Holding the button pressed increases the change rate.
If no data are recorded in the selected interval, an error message is displayed.
GUID-38CE2EA1-47BF-48B4-BB12-1AC31AED3516 V1 EN
Figure 140:
188
Error message for invalid time period
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9.13
Generating reports
Reports are useful in communicating with ABB for troubleshooting an IED.
1.
2.
Click Reports on the menu bar.
Click Configuration report to generate a configuration report.
A new window opens.
GUID-0718A2C5-3360-4A80-B215-796446E68D28 V2 EN
Figure 141:
3.
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Configuration report
Click Status report to generate a status report.
A new window opens.
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GUID-A51E5932-1918-4EC0-B61A-654164AF02C2 V2 EN
Figure 142:
Status report
To transfer the information from a report to another application, select
the report text and copy it to the operating system's clipboard.
9.14
IED menu
Clicking the IED tab opens the IED menu, which is similar in structure to the menu on
the LHMI. It allows online access to many data and functions that otherwise are
available only locally on the IED.
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GUID-10A9A35F-3B19-4790-A430-79A7AD3221AD V1 EN
Figure 143:
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IED menu in WHMI
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Section 10
Commissioning
10.1
Commissioning checklist
Before starting commissioning at site, ensure that the following items are available.
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10.2
Checking IED operation
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Single-line diagram including locations of connected measuring devices (CTs
and PTs) within the bay or the station
Specification and design configuration of the equipment to be switched
Specifications of connected current and voltage transformers (ratio, accuracy
class, burden)
Circuit diagram showing connections of the Switchsync PWC600 IED and the
controlled circuit breaker
Routine test results for individual poles of the circuit breaker
Equipment for primary or secondary injection of voltage and current
Equipment for measuring loop resistance and earthing resistance
Equipment for measuring insulation resistance
If CB timing test is to be performed: cables and accessories for connecting the
circuit breaker’s primary contacts to the designated binary inputs of Switchsync
PWC600
Intended switching duty and setting targets with expected results
PC with PCM600 installed along with the latest connectivity packages
corresponding to the IEDs to be tested
Project data file (.pcmp) or IED configuration files (.pcmi) containing the
configured IED objects, which are the output of the application engineering
process
Administrator rights on the PC to set up IP addresses if necessary
RJ-45 Ethernet cable (CAT 5, crossover)
Product documentation
Check all connections to external circuitry to ensure correct installation, before
energizing the IED and carrying out the commissioning procedures.
Energize the power supply of the IED to start it up.
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10.3
This could be done in a number of ways, from energizing a whole cubicle to
energizing a single IED.
Set the IED's system time in Main menu/Configuration/Time, if no time
synchronization source is configured.
Check the self-supervision function in Main menu/Diagnostics/Internal events
or Main menu/Diagnostics/IED status/General menu in local HMI to verify
that the IED is functioning properly.
Write the application configuration to the IED, as described in the Application
Engineering section, if not done previously.
Checking CT circuits
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•
Ensure that the wiring is in strict accordance with the supplied connection
diagram.
Perform a primary injection test to verify the current ratio of the CT, the correct
wiring up to the Switchsync PWC600 IED and correct phase sequence
connection (L1-L2-L3 or L1-L3-L2).
Measure CT secondary loop resistance to confirm that the current transformer
secondary loop DC resistance is within specification and that there are no high
resistance joints in the CT winding or wiring.
Check the earthing of the individual CT secondary circuits to verify that each
three-phase set of main CTs is properly connected to the station earth and only at
one electrical point.
Check the insulation resistance.
CT and VT connectors on the IED are pre-coded, and the CT and VT
connector markings are different. For more information, see the
installation section.
10.4
Checking VT circuits
Check that the wiring is in strict accordance with the supplied connection diagram.
Correct possible errors before continuing to test the circuitry.
Test the circuitry.
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194
Polarity check
VT circuit voltage measurement (primary injection test)
Earthing check
Phase relationship
Insulation resistance check
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The polarity check verifies the integrity of circuits and the phase relationships. The
check must be performed as close to the IED as possible.
The primary injection test verifies the VT ratio and the wiring all the way from the
primary system to the IED. Injection must be performed for each phase-to-neutral
circuit and each phase-to-phase pair. In each case, voltages in all phases and neutral
are measured.
10.5
Checking binary input and output circuits
10.5.1
Binary input circuits
Preferably, disconnect the binary input connector from the binary input cards. Check
that both input level and polarity of all connected signals are in accordance with the
IED specifications.
10.5.2
Binary output circuits
Preferably, disconnect the binary output connector from the binary output cards.
Check that both load and polarity of all connected signals are in accordance with the
IED specifications.
10.6
Checking optical connections
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Check that the Tx and Rx optical connections are correct.
Check the 9-2 LE optical connection and PPS connection in case the current or
voltages are from an IEC 61850 9-2 LE merging unit.
An IED equipped with optical connections requires a minimum
clearance of 180 mm for plastic fiber cables and 275 mm for glass
fiber cables. Check the allowed minimum bending radius from the
optical cable manufacturer.
10.7
Circuit breaker operating times
For accurate controlled switching, Switchsync PWC600 needs to know the
mechanical operating times of the controlled circuit breaker, that is, from switching
command to primary contact touch/separation. By default, it takes these from the type
data of the CB model selected in SST. However, if possible more accurate data of each
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circuit breaker pole should be used. These can be entered manually, or acquired
automatically by Switchsync PWC600 itself.
10.7.1
Entering operating times manually
If the actual mechanical operating times of the circuit breaker are available from
recent commissioning tests, they can be entered directly in the Switchsync Setting
tool.
1.
2.
3.
In PCM600, open the Switchsync Setting tool for the IED.
Select Start new session and click OK.
In the list of milestones in the left frame, click the last item Breaker Times.
The entire list of milestones is displayed only when the IED has
been configured previously through the Switchsync Setting tool.
4.
Enter the actual mechanical closing times of each circuit breaker pole.
For values that are unknown, leave the default values.
GUID-E0E7696B-F74E-43EE-852D-9F7688F3902D V2 EN
Figure 144:
Entering actual circuit breaker operating times for close
operations
The fields for entering auxiliary contact times are displayed only
when auxiliary contacts are connected and enabled by
corresponding settings under the Reference Signals milestone.
5.
196
Click Next.
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6.
7.
8.
Enter the actual mechanical opening times of each circuit breaker pole.
For values that are unknown, leave the default values.
Click Finish.
Write the settings to the IED, as described in the chapter on application
engineering.
The values entered here are applied only when in function block
CBLEARN the parameter AvgSetSet is set to the default value
SetOPisDefaultValues.
When different operating time values have been entered for the circuit breaker, reset
the CB unstable mode calculation in all three phases.
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10.7.2
In the Clear menu of the LHMI, select Clear CB cond. indicators/Clear
unstable mode/ACBMSCBR:1 and click OK to confirm the reset.
Repeat this procedure for ACBMSCBR:2 and ACBMSCBR:3.
Circuit breaker timing test mode
Circuit breaker test mode is a user interface for the commissioning engineer, which
automatically acquires the operating times of the main contacts and auxiliary contacts
(optionally). It is, however, not recommended in already live substations, where
electromagnetic fields may interfere with the measurements.
For mechanical switching operations, Switchsync PWC600 is inserted into the circuit
breaker control circuits. During each controlled operation it automatically measures
the mechanical closing and opening times of each circuit breaker pole. By default, five
close or open operations are performed, depending on which control signals are
connected to Switchsync PWC600. After each operation, the results are presented to
the operator to accept or reject them. When sufficient number of accepted results are
available, they are averaged for each pole and made available internally for use in
subsequent controlled switching operations.
In addition to primary contacts, the timing of auxiliary contacts - preferably one at the
start and one at the end of the motion - can be acquired and used for monitoring the
circuit breaker operations.
When the IED is installed for the first time, the operating times of the contacts follow
the default set value in CBLEARN, which is the application function in the preconfiguration. These values can be modified through SST (Switchsync Setting tool)
in PCM600.
10.7.2.1
Electrical connections
Circuit breaker test mode utilizes the electrical connections that are already in place
for a point-on-wave control of the circuit breaker.
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Close and/or open command inputs (BI)
Command outputs to close and/or trip coils (PBO)
Optionally, inputs (PBI) from auxiliary contacts NO (52a) and/or NC (52b)
L1
L2
+
L3
PWC600
X324
18
17
16
15
14
13
3x RD
–
GUID-440975EE-544A-49D9-9A42-83C6A9EE1BDC V1 EN
Figure 145:
Temporary wiring for DC measurement
Certain additional connections are needed for applying the circuit breaker test mode.
•
Each primary contact must be connected via a DC supply to PBI.
These connections are only temporary. During circuit breaker test mode execution it
is much like what is done during normal circuit breaker commissioning. The
corresponding inputs are otherwise assumed as unused in Switchsync PWC600.
RD are discharge resistors, which are defined in the binary inputs section. They can be
installed permanently or temporarily.
The contacts and the operation types for which timing is measured are defined by the
options selected in Switchsync Setting Tool.
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10.7.2.2
LHMI navigation
1.
2.
3.
198
Breaker Control/Controlled breaker operations
Reference Signals: Further Signals/Auxiliary contacts connected
Establish and verify all the electrical connections.
Activate the circuit breaker test mode on Switchsync PWC600.
For entering the CB test mode, select CB test mode in the Tests menu.
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GUID-3C3F5FF3-AECC-4BBC-9DE3-CC586780927B V1 EN
Figure 146:
CB test mode menu
Switchsync PWC600 should not be in IED test mode while
performing the CB test mode operation.
4.
Select Enter CB test mode to monitor and accept or reject the breaker contact
timings.
GUID-02C759A6-8B0B-411F-875F-68A8098869E3 V1 EN
Figure 147:
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CB test mode submenu
A confirmation dialog box is opened to enter into the CB test mode.
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GUID-009C86BC-85B5-4094-922A-BD0A14D51269 V1 EN
Figure 148:
6.
CB test mode activation dialog
With OK selected, press the Enter key.
CB test mode operation page opens.
LED_15 flashes continuously to confirm that Switchsync PWC600 is in circuit
breaker test mode.
6
5
4
1
3
2
GUID-8508A523-93FB-4EB6-984B-EC69B7774FE4 V2 EN
Figure 149:
CB test mode page
1 Position of the contact
2 Measured timing of last operation
3 Symbol for warning on inaccuracy or wiring error
4 Status of the last operation:
Ok = Successful
Failed = Operation failed
5 Count of operation
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6 Indication to show which operation was last
Reject last, Accept last, Finish, Abort are soft buttons for manual intervention. A
followed by
on the
selected soft button is operated by pressing the Close button
front panel.
The CB test average opening and closing time pages are accessed using the right arrow
key on the LHMI.
GUID-C7CB20AC-2055-48FC-98ED-1D346F808333 V2 EN
Figure 150:
CB test average opening times
GUID-02442740-2F91-425F-B6C9-EF0D9128609F V
Figure 151:
CB test average closing times
When Switchsync PWC600 is configured only for open operations,
the close operations are disabled which is indicated by a text
disabled beside the close count in Avg closing times page.
Switchsync™ PWC600
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Commissioning
1MRK 511 346 C
When Switchsync PWC600 is configured only for close operations,
the open operations are disabled which is indicated by a text
disabled beside the open count in Avg opening times page.
To exit the CB test mode display pages (Operation, Avg closing times, Avg opening
. Note that by doing this, CB test mode is still active. To re-enter the
times) press
CB test mode user interface repeat the steps explained in Figure 146, Figure 147 and
Figure 148.
10.7.2.3
Operation
Once Switchsync PWC600 is in CB test mode, open and close commands can be
executed.
Before giving any command check for static wiring errors, because
command will not be accepted until static wiring errors are cleared.
Table 39:
Expected status of inputs on entering CB test mode
L1
L2
L3
Main
Open
Open
Open
NO (52a)
Open
Open
Open
NC (52b)
Closed
Closed
Closed
So the breaker is in open position and there are no wiring errors.
•
Execute a close command externally
Table 40:
Expected status of inputs from breaker after close command
L1
L2
L3
Main
Closed
Closed
Closed
NO (52a)
Closed
Closed
Closed
NC (52b)
Open
Open
Open
The operating times for NO, NC, Main contacts and position of contacts
corresponding to the last close operation from LHMI screen are displayed as
shown in Figure 152.
202
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Section 10
Commissioning
1MRK 511 346 C
GUID-57F64E96-D239-495D-A9B3-4104E1AFAC8C V1 EN
Figure 152:
Last operation time corresponds to close command
On the LHMI screen the symbol (!!) beside the operating time indicates the
operating time alarm. The alarm is high because the operating time did not satisfy
the tolerance limit.
•
•
If the operating time is satisfactory, execute the next command or the
Accept last command.
Either of these actions updates the average close time.
Execute the Accept last command from LHMI.
Once this command is executed as explained in Figure 153 and Figure 154, the
last operation times values are sent for averaging and these values can be accessed
from the LHMI screen (Avg closing time) as shown in Figure 156 and last
operation times become zero as shown in Figure 155.
GUID-086BDFE1-5472-463E-B459-54802B5E2C94 V1 EN
Figure 153:
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Selection for Accept last soft button from LHMI using Up or Down
arrows
203
Section 10
Commissioning
1MRK 511 346 C
GUID-6DC9A32F-1BDC-4712-84C3-9B426DA931D2 V1 EN
Figure 154:
Confirmation for Accept last
GUID-0533266C-8DAA-48DA-9475-FE623D95BD35 V1 EN
Figure 155:
204
Last operation time after selecting Accept last
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Section 10
Commissioning
1MRK 511 346 C
GUID-71F1B6FA-E14E-44B4-ABEA-672D85E22DAE V1 EN
Figure 156:
•
CB test average closing times
Execute an open command externally
Table 41:
Expected status of inputs from breaker after open command
L1
L2
L3
Main
Open
Open
Open
NO (52a)
Open
Open
Open
NC (52b)
Closed
Closed
Closed
The operating times for NO, NC and Main contacts corresponding to the last open
operation from LHMI screen are displayed as shown in Figure 157.
GUID-EB8D2583-B5CB-496C-89CD-102E2242554B V1 EN
Figure 157:
•
•
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Last operation time corresponds to open command
If the operating time is unsatisfactory, select Reject last.
Execute reject command from LHMI.
Once the Reject last command is activated as explained in Figure 158 and Figure
159, the operating times of the last operation are reset to zero and the
corresponding operation count is decremented by 1 as shown in Figure 160. The
205
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Commissioning
1MRK 511 346 C
Avg switching times for the last operation will not be updated, as shown in Figure
161.
GUID-E1023E9B-74FC-450F-A485-8BAF9330FE1D V1 EN
Figure 158:
Selection for Reject last soft button from LHMI using Up or Down
Arrows
GUID-51BEAD2B-6742-4A5E-B31C-767BAE0EB5B1 V1 EN
Figure 159:
206
Confirmation for Reject last
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Section 10
Commissioning
1MRK 511 346 C
GUID-A2C187BA-5CCB-4BA0-98AF-B63672997412 V2 EN
Figure 160:
Last operation times after selecting Reject last
GUID-C7CB20AC-2055-48FC-98ED-1D346F808333 V2 EN
Figure 161:
•
•
•
•
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
CB test average opening times
Execute additional close operations and open operations, assessing each one as
described above.
For good statistics, it is recommended to perform at least five close/open cycles.
When the number of performed operations is sufficient, select Accept last, see
Figure 153, Figure 154 and Figure 155.
Read out the final average operating times, as described above, and write them
down for later reference.
Select Finish as explained in Figure 162 and Figure 163.
Once the Finish command has been given, the function deactivates circuit
breaker test mode (LED_15 stops flashing).
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Commissioning
1MRK 511 346 C
GUID-2B3D7778-C13E-4E6B-A533-AEA61BA27739 V1 EN
Figure 162:
Selection for Finish button from LHMI using Up or Down arrows
GUID-9B7EE391-B13F-4C98-B158-6AE76DB00B28 V1 EN
Figure 163:
Confirmation for Finish
To prevent loss of the learned CB operating times, do not power
off the IED within one hour of finishing circuit breaker timing test
mode.
After completing the circuit breaker timing test, before putting IED into operation,
clear Adaptive correction and the information stored inside the application for the
detection of Unstable CB operation from LHMI.
The paths for clearing Adaptive correction
Main menu/Clear/Clear CB cond. indicators/Clear adaptive comp/
ACBMSCBR:1
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Commissioning
1MRK 511 346 C
Main menu/Clear/Clear CB cond. indicators/Clear adaptive comp/
ACBMSCBR:2
Main menu/Clear/Clear CB cond. indicators/Clear adaptive comp/
ACBMSCBR:3
The paths for clearing CB unstable detection
Main menu/Clear/Clear CB cond. indicators/Clear unstable mode/
ACBMSCBR:1
Main menu/Clear/Clear CB cond. indicators/Clear unstable mode/
ACBMSCBR:2
Main menu/Clear/Clear CB cond. indicators/Clear unstable mode/
ACBMSCBR:3
To apply these learned settings, select the AvgSetSel setting option
setOPisCalcAvgValues in the CBLEARN function (Main menu/Settings/IED
Settings/#1/Monitoring/CBLEARN/CBLEARN:1/AvgSetSel).
To go back to the set value in CBLEARN function, select the AvgSetSel setting option
setOpisDefaultValues in the CBLEARN function.
The required selection should preferably be made using PST of the
PCM600 tool. This avoids overwriting if a change was made only in
LHMI.
The selected circuit breaker times can be viewed in LHMI and WHMI in the following
menu: Tests/Function status/Monitoring/CBLEARN/CBLEARN:1/Outputs, as
shown in Figure 164. The signal names and descriptions are shown in Table 42.
GUID-FA1B171E-488A-4AA7-BD28-377FD61999FA V1 EN
Figure 164:
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Final operating times after Finish command
209
Section 10
Commissioning
1MRK 511 346 C
Table 42:
Signal name
Circuit breaker times
Description
OPTIMNOL1
Time from trip command to NO (52a) contact open in L1 phase
OPTIMNOL2
Time from trip command to NO (52a) contact open in L2 phase
OPTIMNOL3
Time from trip command to NO (52a) contact open in L3 phase
OPTIMNCL1
Time from trip command to NC (52b) contact close in L1 phase
OPTIMNCL2
Time from trip command to NC (52b) contact close in L2 phase
OPTIMNCL3
Time from trip command to NC (52b) contact close in L3 phase
OPTIMPRIL1
Time from trip command to primary contact separation in L1 phase
OPTIMPRIL2
Time from trip command to primary contact separation in L2 phase
OPTIMPRIL3
Time from trip command to primary contact separation in L3 phase
CLTIMNOL1
Time from close command to NO (52a) contact close in L1 phase
CLTIMNOL2
Time from close command to NO (52a) contact close in L2 phase
CLTIMNOL3
Time from close command to NO (52a) contact close in L3 phase
CLTIMNCL1
Time from close command to NC (52b) contact open in L1 phase
CLTIMNCL2
Time from close command to NC (52b) contact open in L2 phase
CLTIMNCL3
Time from close command to NC (52b) contact open in L3 phase
CLTIMPRIL1
Time from close command to primary contact touch in L1 phase
CLTIMPRIL2
Time from close command to primary contact touch in L2 phase
CLTIMPRIL3
Time from close command to primary contact touch in L3 phase
Make sure to remove the temporary connections from the circuit
breaker's main contacts after completion of the timing test.
10.8
Live switching
The suitable operating procedures to be adopted depend on the application and type of
operation.
During live commissioning, the success of every controlled switching operation shall
be assessed based on data from operation records and waveform records. Both types
of data are most easily accessed through the Web interface (WHMI). Operation
records can also be viewed on the LHMI. Waveform records can be downloaded from
WHMI or through PCM600 and viewed in WaveWin or a similar COMTRADE
viewing tool on the PC.
The following subsections give guidelines per the application type.
210
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Section 10
Commissioning
1MRK 511 346 C
10.8.1
Capacitor bank
1.
2.
3.
10.8.2
Shunt reactor
1.
2.
3.
4.
10.8.3
Perform a controlled closing operation, and confirm that low inrush peak is
observed in individual phase currents.
Target errors (that is, deviation of actual switching instants from target instants)
shown in the operation record should not exceed one millisecond.
If so configured, perform a controlled opening operation and confirm that no restrike has been detected.
Again, target errors should not exceed one millisecond.
Perform at least three further switching operations and validate consistency in
controlled switching performance.
Ensure that the reactor is de-energized by the CB controlled by Switchsync
PWC600.
For example, during controlled de-energization of a reactor by the tie breaker in
a 1½-breakers-scheme, the main circuit breaker shall be open. If required,
provide essential interlocking.
If so configured, perform a controlled closing operation, and confirm that a low
amount of asymmetry is observed in individual phase currents.
Target errors (that is, deviation of actual switching instants from target instants)
shown in the operation record should not exceed one millisecond.
Perform a controlled opening operation and confirm that no re-ignition has been
detected.
Target errors should not exceed one millisecond.
Perform at least three further switching operations and validate consistency in
controlled switching performance.
Power transformer
1.
Prior to live switching, confirm the consistency of adaptation feedback with five
no-load operations.
•
•
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
If the operating times of auxiliary contacts are consistent, showing
opening and closing time variations in the specified range, enable adaptive
correction of mechanical operating times (SST: Adaptive Correction
milestone).
Otherwise disable this feature until the inrush currents have been reduced
to acceptable levels. Adaptive correction of electrical operating times shall
always be enabled.
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Section 10
Commissioning
1MRK 511 346 C
Ensure that the breaker on the opposite end of the transformer is
kept open during controlled opening or closing operation.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Perform a controlled closing operation using the preset controlled switching
strategy (SST).
The result of this first energization is not relevant as the residual flux in the
transformer is unknown.
Perform a controlled opening operation, and check that target errors shown in the
operation record do not exceed one millisecond in each phase.
Perform another controlled closing operation.
Evaluate the inrush current peaks both in positive and negative cycles for
individual phases. Target errors (that is, deviation of actual switching instants
from target instants) shown in the operation record should not exceed one
millisecond. If the current peak levels are within acceptable limits skip the next
step.
To further reduce inrush currents, apply a user-defined controlled closing
strategy.
Adjust the energization targets for individual phases manually, based on relative
current peaks for individual phases with respect to full load current of the
transformer, taking into account core design and connection configuration.
Perform a controlled opening operation, followed by another controlled closing
operation, and check the inrush peaks.
If inrush is found to be within limits, perform further three operations to check
consistency in mitigation effect.
If adaptive correction of mechanical operating times has been disabled at the
commencement of live switching, it should be re-enabled as soon as satisfactory
controlled switching performance has been achieved.
10.8.4
Transmission line or power cable
In case of transmission lines, it is advised to bypass the overvoltage protection or set
it to a higher level during commissioning, until the desired overvoltage mitigation has
been ascertained.
Ensure that the remote end breaker is open during the live switching
tests of the line from the end with Switchsync PWC600.
For validating performance in discharged condition of the transmission line, ensure
that the line has been de-energized for more than 60 seconds, so that any trapped
charge has decayed to insignificant levels prior to energization.
1.
212
Perform a controlled closing operation, and confirm that each phase is energized
near its source voltage zero.
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Section 10
Commissioning
1MRK 511 346 C
2.
3.
Target errors (that is, deviation of actual switching instants from target instants)
shown in the operation record should not exceed one millisecond.
If so configured, perform a controlled opening operation and confirm that no restrike has been detected.
Target errors shown in the operation record should not exceed one millisecond.
Perform at least three further switching operations and validate consistency in
controlled switching performance.
For controlled energization of lines in presence of trapped charges, the line shall be reenergized through an autoreclosing relay with the remote-end breaker open
(possibility of highest level of TOV). For this, the controlled energization should be
preceded by de-energization of the line.
It is recommended to measure the voltage signals at both the local and the receiving
end of the line, as the overvoltage is highest at the open remote end of the line due to
travelling wave phenomena.
10.9
Concluding commissioning
When commissioning of Switchsync PWC600 has been successfully completed,
continue with the concluding actions.
1.
2.
3.
4.
In PCM600, export the current project or the relevant IED objects, which contain
all the latest adjusted data, to the local PC.
In PCM600 Event Viewer, download the latest events and export them to an
Excel file.
Using the WHMI in Switchsync PWC600, export the list of operation records to
a local CSV file.
Using the WHMI in Switchsync PWC600, save all waveform records to local
ZIP files.
Make sure to store all files in a backup-protected location for
later reference.
5.
6.
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
If some of the commissioning operations were unsuccessful due to non-optimal
settings, clear the Fingerprint records in LHMI at Clear/Clear fingerprint
records/SSCPOW:1.
Remove all external test equipment and cabling used during commissioning.
213
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Section 11
IED operation
1MRK 511 346 C
Section 11
IED operation
11.1
Start-up
11.1.1
Checking IED operation
Check all connections to external circuitry to ensure correct installation, before
energizing the IED and carrying out the commissioning procedures.
Energize the power supply of the IED to start it up. This could be done in a number of
ways, from energizing a whole cubicle to energizing a single IED.
Set the IED's system time in Main menu/Configuration/Time, if no time
synchronization source is configured.
Check the self-supervision function in Main menu/Diagnostics/Internal events or
Main menu/Diagnostics/IED status/General menu in local HMI to verify that the
IED is functioning properly.
11.1.2
IED start-up sequence
The following sequence is expected when the IED is energized.
•
•
•
Within a few seconds, the green Ready LED starts flashing and the ABB logo is
shown on the LCD.
After approximately 30 seconds, "Starting" is shown on the LCD.
Within 90 seconds, the main menu is shown on the LCD and the green Ready
LED shows a steady light, which indicates a successful startup.
If the green Ready LED continues to flash after startup, the IED has detected an
internal error. Navigate via Main menu/Diagnostics/IED status/General to
investigate the error description.
11.2
Normal operation
In a normal IED use situation, the basic operation includes monitoring and checking
procedures.
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
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Section 11
IED operation
1MRK 511 346 C
•
•
•
•
Monitoring measured values
Checking object states
Checking function setting parameters
Checking events and alarms
All basic operations can be performed via the LHMI, WHMI, or with PCM600.
For more information, see PCM600 documentation.
11.3
Controlled switching operations
A controlled switching operation can be initiated by a signal on the respective binary
input or via IEC 61850 GOOSE from another IED.
The internal waveform recorder is used to record all controlled switching operations.
In addition to the waveform record, key data of each switching operation are stored in
the operation log.
11.3.1
Mode information in operation log
Every switching operation is classified by the operation mode, see Table 43.
•
•
If multiple conditions are applicable, the mode with the lowest number in the
order column is declared as operation log mode.
Contingency
•
•
•
•
•
Constant load is defined as a fixed load, such as capacitor or reactor bank, that is,
at constant voltage and frequency, the load current drawn is constant.
A circuit breaker is considered to be electrically closed under certain conditions.
•
•
•
216
Circuit breaker status is faulty, intermediate or unstable.
Reference signal is lost.
Synchronous switching is externally blocked.
For constant loads: If the current above the dead value setting is flowing
through the CT
For all loads: If the voltage is detected above dead voltage setting on the
load VT
Otherwise the circuit breaker is considered to be electrically open.
A circuit breaker is considered to be mechanically closed if the normally open
contact (52a) is closed and the normally closed contact (52b) is open. It is
considered to be mechanically open if the normally open contact (52a) is open
and the normally closed contact (52b) is closed. Mechanical status can be derived
using one or two status inputs (Table 44).
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Section 11
IED operation
1MRK 511 346 C
Table 43:
Order
1
Operation log modes
Numeric
mode
1451
Mode text
Blocked
Description of conditions
•
•
Block inputs for a particular command are high when the
command is received or a contingency exists and the
contingency mode has been selected to block the particular
type of operation.
When the synchronous switching commands are blocked
by the BlkSynSw (block synchronous switching) input of
SSCPOW and the contingency mode has been selected to
bypass a particular command.
2
1448
RefMiss
•
When the command was received, there was no proper
reference signal available. (Reference for close operation is
always voltage and for open operations, it can be voltage or
current. However for current as reference, if the current
option fails, the IED automatically falls back to voltage as
reference, if it is available).
3.
1446
Cancel
•
If there are time synchronizing issues, the PIO card may
reject to operate the output commands issued by the
function. When rejecting commands, the PIO card
generates cancel commands.
4.
1450
CBInter
•
For constant loads, when there is a disagreement in
electrical and mechanical status of the circuit breaker. If
mechanical status is unknown or faulty, the electrical status
is considered and the CBInter mode is not declared.
For other loads, CBInter mode is not applicable.
•
5.
1449
CBUnstab
•
•
•
6.
1473
Redundnt
•
•
•
When the mechanical operating times are inconsistent
(varying by 10% over previous operating time) for two
consecutive operations.
Close operations are compared only to close operations
and open operations only to open operations.
This mode is declared only when it is detected for the first
time. All further operations are declared as either bypassed
or blocked (according to contingency mode) till the
CBUnstab condition is reset.
When a close command is received while the circuit breaker
is already monitored to be in closed condition
When an open command is received while the circuit
breaker is already monitored to be in open condition
A circuit breaker is considered to be closed under certain
conditions.
•
•
For constant loads, electrical status takes
preference
For other loads, mechanical status takes preference
Table continues on next page
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
217
Section 11
IED operation
1MRK 511 346 C
Order
7.
Numeric
mode
Mode text
1474
Failed
Description of conditions
•
When a command is issued and no feedback of mechanical
or electrical status change is detected within 250 ms for predefined loads or within 500 ms for user-defined load from
the time the command is issued by the IED.
•
For open operations ~140 ms from the time primary
contacts are supposed to have separated for all the
loads.
The above time values are applicable for 50 Hz system. For
60 Hz system, they are ~83.3% of the given values.
8
1443
Bypassed
•
•
9
1464
BlkSynSw
•
When the synchronous switching commands are bypassed
by the BlkSynSw (block synchronous switching) input of
SSCPOW and contingency mode is selected to bypass a
particular command.
10
1444
External
•
When an operation has been detected to be done externally
(command not issued from PWC600 but mechanical and/or
electrical circuit breaker status change is detected)
11
1441
Actual
•
When a switching is monitored to have taken place as it was
supposed to be.
12
1452
1455
1456
Actual*
CBUnstab*
CBInter*
•
When the modes above have electrical target error alarms
detected above the specified limits. (Electrical target error is
defined as the error between predicted and actual electrical
operating times and the threshold is taken from breaker
data.)
Modes with target alarm “*” supersede the original modes.
•
Table 44:
Mechanical status detection
Configured circuit
NO (52a)
breaker auxiliary contact
Both NO and NC are
available
Only NO is available
Only NC is available
218
When the Bypass setting has been selected to bypass a
particular command
When contingency has been detected and contingency
mode setting has been selected to bypass a particular
command.
NC (52b)
Mechanical status
Closed
Open
Closed
Open
Closed
Open
Closed
Closed
Faulty
Open
Open
Unknown
Closed
NA
Closed
Open
NA
Open
NA
Open
Closed
NA
Closed
Open
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Section 12
Local HMI operating procedures
1MRK 511 346 C
Section 12
Local HMI operating procedures
12.1
Monitoring
12.1.1
Indications
The operation of the IED can be monitored via three different indications on the
LHMI.
•
•
Three indicator LEDs with fixed functionality: Ready, Start and Trip
15 programmable three-color alarm LEDs which can present 45 virtual LED
states
•
For each On state LED color and for the LED off state, texts can be
programmed with PCM600 and via LHMI. These texts are displayed on the
LHMI.
For Switchsync PWC600, the functions of the LEDs on page 1 and associated texts are
defined in the default pre-configuration.
12.1.1.1
Viewing the operation log via the local HMI
The OPERLOG function is available on the local HMI under Main Menu/Operation
records. The fingerprint records are available on the local HMI under Main Menu/
Fingerprint records. After selecting the respective item, press
to view either the
operation records or the fingerprint records.
IEC12000053 V2 EN
Figure 165:
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Main Menu view
219
Section 12
Local HMI operating procedures
12.1.1.2
1MRK 511 346 C
Monitoring alarm data
Active alarms are indicated by the alarm LEDs and the LED in the Multipage button.
The alarms are configured with PCM600. The alarm type and information depend on
the application configuration.
1.
2.
3.
Press
to open the alarm view.
Press
or
to move between active alarms in the page, or press
to switch
between the three alarm pages.
to open a dialog box that shows more detailed information about the
Press
selected alarm.
D0E1247T201305141540 V1 EN
Figure 166:
4.
5.
Press
Press
Press
Alarm details
or
to close the dialog box.
to close the alarm view.
to activate the Clear view and to clear alarms.
D0E1203T201305141540 V1 EN
Figure 167:
220
Alarm data
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Section 12
Local HMI operating procedures
1MRK 511 346 C
12.1.1.3
Monitoring an internal IED fault
The flashing green LED indicates an internal IED fault. The fault messages are found
in the LHMI menu.
1.
2.
Select Main menu/Diagnostics/Internal events or IED status/General to
view the latest fault indication.
or
to scroll the view.
Press
D0E1032T201305141540 V2 EN
Figure 168:
Example of fault indications
Although DNP3 status is displayed as Ready, the functionality is not
enabled in this release of Switchsync PWC600.
The internal event list is not updated dynamically. To update the list,
leave the Internal events menu and then select it again.
12.1.2
Monitoring measured and calculated values
All values show the momentary measurement value and some include demand values
calculated from a set period.
1.
2.
3.
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Select Main menu/Measurements to monitor measured and calculated values.
The list of IED's basic measurements is shown.
Scroll the view with
and
.
to show the selected measurements.
Press
221
Section 12
Local HMI operating procedures
12.1.3
1MRK 511 346 C
Recorded data
The IED is provided with intelligent and flexible functionality that collects different
kinds of data. The recorded data give substantial information for analysis of the
controlled switching operations.
•
•
•
•
•
12.1.3.1
Waveform records (disturbance records)
Events
Alarms [1]
Operation records
Fingerprint records
Operation log
To prevent loss of operation data, do not power off the IED within one
hour of the last update to the operation log, that is, switching
operations. The same applies after clearing the operation log. This
time constraint was introduced to minimize the number of write cycles
to internal flash memory and cannot be changed.
Viewing the operation log list
1.
2.
Navigate to Main Menu/Operation Records.
Press
and
to navigate between operation log instances.
Figure 169 shows how the stored operation log instances are displayed.
IEC12000054 V2 EN
Figure 169:
Operation log list view
[1] Accessible only from WHMI
222
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Section 12
Local HMI operating procedures
1MRK 511 346 C
Viewing operation log records
1.
2.
With an operation log instance selected, press
to view the operation records
of that instance.
Press
or
to navigate between the records.
IEC12000055 V2 EN
Figure 170:
Operation log records view
The latest 100 records are displayed in this view. The last record is shown always first.
The full list of operation records can be accessed through the WHMI.
The operation log records view displays all the records for all circuit breaker open and
close operations along with the command timestamps, instance number and mode.
The operation log records view is not updated dynamically if new records are stored
while the view is open. In order to view the new records, return to the operation log
instances view and then re-open the operation log records view.
Viewing operation log phase segregated data
The operation log record view figure shows the list of last 100 records.
If the operation log instance has been configured to store phase segregated data:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Navigate to Main Menu/Operation Log to select the operation log instance.
The user defined names of the primary instances menu list is displayed.
Press
to view the record list.
Press
or
to select the record.
Press
to view the recorded values.
Press
to exit from the record details view.
223
Section 12
Local HMI operating procedures
1MRK 511 346 C
IEC12000057 V2 EN
Figure 171:
Operation log phase segregated data view
The signal names are the user-defined names of the inputs of the primary
instance of OPERLOG. The values listed under L1 column is from the primary
instance, L2 and L3 are from the second and third OPERLOG function block in
the daisy chain in ACT.
The user defined signal name displayed in the Signal column is
limited to 13 characters only. The maximum number of
characters to be displayed on the local HMI for phase segregated
data view are 26 characters.
12.1.3.2
Waveform records
Creating disturbance recordings
The disturbance recorder records waveforms and binary events associated to a
switching operation.
In Switchsync PWC600, controlled switching operations are not
initiated due to system disturbances. However, as the function is
identical to the implementation in protection relays, the same name is
used here.
Normally disturbance recordings are triggered by the IED applications but the
recording can also be triggered manually.
1.
2.
3.
224
Select Main menu/Disturbance records.
Select Manual Trig with
or
.
to execute manual triggering.
Press
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Section 12
Local HMI operating procedures
1MRK 511 346 C
D0E1003T201305141540 V2 EN
Figure 172:
Manual triggering
The disturbance recorder is now triggered and the view is updated to include the
new record.
Viewing disturbance recorder data
Read individual disturbance recordings from the IED with the PCM600 software to
monitor disturbance recorder data.
Graphical viewing and downloading of disturbance records (waveform records) is
also possible via WHMI.
1.
2.
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Select Main menu/Disturbance records.
All disturbance records are listed.
Scroll the view with
or
.
225
Section 12
Local HMI operating procedures
1MRK 511 346 C
D0E1015T201305141540 V2 EN
Figure 173:
3.
Monitoring disturbance recorder via the LHMI
To view a specific disturbance record, press
.
A list of detail categories is displayed. In Switchsync PWC600, only the
"General information" category is available.
D0E1154T201305141540 V3 EN
Figure 174:
4.
Disturbance record data categories
To view the items under this category, press
or
and then
.
Controlling and reading disturbance recorder data
Disturbance recorder data can be controlled and read with PCM600.
For more information, see PCM600 documentation.
226
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Section 12
Local HMI operating procedures
1MRK 511 346 C
12.1.3.3
Events
The event view contains a list of events produced by the application configuration.
The events are grouped by day, and each event takes one line. Select the order of
events with the setting Main menu/Configuration/HMI/Screen/SCREEN:1/
EvListSrtOrder.
1.
2.
3.
Select Main menu/Events.
to open the event list.
Press
Events are shown grouped by date.
Time, channel, signal name and value of the event are shown.
Press
or
to scroll the view.
D0E1156T201305141540 V1 EN
Figure 175:
Monitoring events
The event list is not updated dynamically. To update the list, leave the
Events menu and then select it again.
12.1.4
Remote monitoring
The IED supports comprehensive remote monitoring.
12.1.4.1
Monitoring the IED remotely
Use the PCM600 tool to operate the IED remotely.
•
•
•
•
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Read maintenance record and version log.
Analyze disturbance record data.
Create disturbance records.
Monitor IED values.
227
Section 12
Local HMI operating procedures
1MRK 511 346 C
For more information, see PCM600 documentation.
Remote monitoring is also possible through the WHMI, see the section Web HMI in
this manual.
12.2
Clearing status information
On the HMI, use the Clear menu to reset, acknowledge or clear all messages and
indications, including LEDs and latched outputs as well as registers and recordings.
Pressing the Clear button activates a view for selecting the reset function. Events and
alarms assigned to alarm LEDs can also be cleared with the Clear button.
1.
Press
to activate the Clear view.
All the items that can be cleared are shown.
D0E1103T201305141540 V2 EN
Figure 176:
2.
3.
4.
Clear view
Select the item to be cleared with
or
.
Press , select OK to confirm the selection or Cancel to cancel the selection.
To clear other items, repeat the steps.
In addition to the general procedure above, latched LED indications can be cleared in
the default pre-configuration by any of the actions listed below.
•
228
On the LHMI, press function key 1 twice, the second time holding it for minimum
one second.
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Section 12
Local HMI operating procedures
1MRK 511 346 C
GUID-CE2E5FDE-3EB5-4557-B1F5-FCAA2B6BEB33 V1 EN
Figure 177:
•
•
•
Function key 1
Activate (energize) binary input PBI01.
Issue a controlled Close or Open command by activating the corresponding
binary input.
In the IED menu of WHMI, navigate to Clear/Clear LEDs/All indication
LEDs, enter new value True, and click Write to IED.
GUID-8626A853-2486-4FAA-845E-5A102D0BECD7 V1 EN
Figure 178:
Clear indication LEDs from WHMI
After writing to the IED, the displayed value is automatically reset to
False.
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
229
230
Section 13
Troubleshooting
1MRK 511 346 C
Section 13
Troubleshooting
13.1
Application diagnostics
The pre-configuration of Switchsync PWC600 provides diagnostic information by
several means.
•
•
•
•
•
LEDs on the local HMI
Hardware binary outputs
Entries in the Event Log
Alarms
IEC 61850 data objects
All diagnostic conditions and possible indication channels are described in Table 45.
Generation and indication of diagnostic information can be controlled
by settings or by the application configuration in the Application
Configuration tool.
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
231
232
1 (red)
3 (red)
BIO:4
BIO:5
ElClsTrErAlm
ElClsTrErAlL1
ElClsTrErAlL2
ElClsTrErAlL3
MeOpnTrErWrL1
MeOpnTrErWrL2
MeOpnTrErWrL3
MeOpnTrErWrn
MeOpnTrErAlL1
MeOpnTrErAlL2
MeOpnTrErAlL3
MeOpnTrErAlm
MeClsTrErWrL1
MeClsTrErWrL2
MeClsTrErWrL3
MeClsTrErAlL1
MeClsTrErAlL2
MeClsTrErAlL3
MeClsTrErAlm
MeClsTrErWrn
UnstbOperL1
UnstbOperL2
UnstbOperL3
ReStr_ReIgL1
ReStr_ReIgL2
ReStr_ReIgL3
Events
UnstbOperL1
UnstbOperL2
UnstbOperL3
ReStr_ReIgL1
ReStr_ReIgL2
ReStr_RelgL3
Alarm (WHMI)
Table continues on next page
2 (red)
3 (yellow)
LED
-
-
-
-
-
LD0\ACBMSCBR1\Unst
OpChr
LD0\ACBMSCBR2\Unst
OpChr
LD0\ACBMSCBR3\Unst
OpChr
LD0\SP16GGIO1\Ind2
LD0\SP16GGIO1\Ind3
LD0\SP16GGIO1\Ind4
IEC 61850 data object1)
Electrical close target error
Alarm
Mechanical open target
error Warning
Mechanical close target
error Warning
Mechanical open target
error Alarm
Mechanical close target
error Alarm
Unstable circuit breaker
operation characteristics
Re-strike / Re-ignition
detected
Description
Diagnostic information generated by default pre-configuration of Switchsync PWC600
Binary
output
Table 45:
For every close operation, Electrical closing time is
predicted; electrical close target error is defined as
the difference between actual (measured) electrical
closing time and predicted electrical closing time. The
For every open operation, mechanical opening time is
predicted based on the primary contact operating
time input and mean arcing time setting (mean arcing
time is the average of latest and earliest opening
times); mechanical open target error is defined as the
difference between actual (measured) mechanical
opening time and predicted mechanical opening time.
The warning is generated whenever this error
exceeds the configured limit.
For every close operation, mechanical closing time is
predicted; mechanical close target error is defined as
the difference between actual (measured)
mechanical closing time and predicted mechanical
closing time. The warning is generated whenever this
error exceeds the configured limit.
For every open operation, mechanical opening time is
predicted based on the primary contact operating
time input and mean arcing time setting (mean arcing
time is the average of latest and earliest opening
times); mechanical open target error is defined as the
difference between actual (measured) mechanical
opening time and predicted mechanical opening time.
The alarm is generated whenever this error exceeds
the configured limit.
For every close operation, mechanical closing time is
predicted; mechanical close target error is defined as
the difference between actual (measured)
mechanical closing time and predicted mechanical
closing time. The alarm is generated whenever this
error exceeds the configured limit.
The operating times of two consecutive controlled
switching operations of the same type (close or open)
twice in a row or different type (C-O or O-C) deviate by
more than ±10% in any of these sequences as
mentioned in the example (underlined operations
have deviations): C-C, O-O, C-O, C-O-C, O-C, O-CO. The CB is declared unstable and all further
commands are either bypassed or blocked according
to the contingency mode setting. May occur after
setting or learning different CB operating times.
In the last controlled Open operation, re-strike or reignition has been detected in one or more phases.
Note: Re-ignition is defined as current flowing for
minimum 2.25 ms after the target zero crossing.
Explanation
Transient signal
Transient signal
Transient signal
Transient signal
Transient signal
Latched signal. Reset
from Clear menu
Transient signal
Transition behavior
Section 13
Troubleshooting
1MRK 511 346 C
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
8 (yellow)
9 (yellow)
-
-
MechClsTimWrn
MechOpnTimWrn
LD0\SP16GGIO2\Ind4
LD0\SP16GGIO2\Ind2
LD0\SP16GGIO3\Ind1
AblationWrnL1
AblationWrnL2
AblationWrnL3
SS_1\SSCPOW1\LosCS
ig
LD0\ACBMSCBR1\OpC
ntWrn
LD0\ACBMSCBR2\OpC
ntWrn
LD0\ACBMSCBR3\OpC
ntWrn
LossofCompSig
LD0\ACBMSCBR1\Cntr
Pos
LD0\ACBMSCBR2\Cntr
Pos
LD0\ACBMSCBR3\Cntr
Pos
-
-
-
IEC 61850 data object1)
OpCntWrnL1
OpCntWrnL2
OpCntWrnL3
LossofCompSig
6 (red)
ContradPosL1
ContradPosL2
ContradPosL3
ElOpnTrErWrL1
ElOpnTrErWrL2
ElOpnTrErWrL3
ElOpnTrErWrn
ContradPos
ElClsTrErWrL1
ElClsTrErWrL2
ElClsTrErWrL3
ElOpnTrErAlL1
ElOpnTrErAlL2
ElOpnTrErAlL3
ElOpnTrErAlm
ElClsTrErWrn
Events
Alarm (WHMI)
5 (red)
2 (yellow)
LED
Table continues on next page
BIO:7
BIO:6
Binary
output
Mechanical opening time
warning
Mechanical closing time
warning
Circuit breaker interrupter
wear warning
Number of circuit breaker
operations above warning
limit
Loss of compensation
signal or sensor fault
Contradicting mechanical
and electrcial positions
Electrical open target error
Warning
Electrical close target error
Warning
Electrical open target error
Alarm
Description
Circuit breaker's mechanical opening time is
monitored against the set thresholds; when the
mechanical opening time crosses the warning level
set in configured directions, this warning is
generated.
Circuit breaker's mechanical closing time is
monitored against the set thresholds; when the
mechanical closing time crosses the warning level set
in configured directions, this warning is generated.
Circuit breaker contacts are monitored for electrical
wear (erosion, ablation). Whenever the accumulated
contact wear exceeds the configured limit, this
warning is generated.
The number of circuit breaker close-open operations
exceeds the set warning limit.
Any sensor has failed which is used for compensation
of circuit breaker operating times.
Electrical and mechanical status of circuit breaker do
not agree, in particular current flowing while auxiliary
contacts indicate circuit breaker open. Note: has
relevance only if both auxiliary contacts are
connected and load current can be trusted for
determining the status electrically (hence valid only
for reactor and capacitor loads)
For every open operation, Electrical opening time is
predicted; electrical open target error is defined as the
difference between actual (measured) electrical
opening time and predicted electrical opening time.
The warning is generated whenever this error
exceeds the configured limit.
For every close operation, Electrical closing time is
predicted; electrical close target error is defined as
the difference between actual (measured) electrical
closing time and predicted electrical closing time. The
warning is generated whenever this error exceeds the
configured limit.
For every open operation, Electrical opening time is
predicted; electrical open target error is defined as the
difference between actual (measured) electrical
opening time and predicted electrical opening time.
The alarm is generated whenever this error exceeds
the configured limit.
alarm is generated whenever this error exceeds the
configured limit.
Explanation
Transient signal
Transient signal
Persisting signal.
Cannot be reset unless
Ablation is reset or
warning level is
increased.
Persisting signal.
Cannot be reset unless
operation count is
reset or warning level
is increased.
Fleeting signal
Fleeting signal
Transient signal
Transient signal
Transient signal
Transition behavior
1MRK 511 346 C
Section 13
Troubleshooting
233
234
7 (yellow)
LED
-
TempWrn
-
OpnVelWrn
-
-
ClsVelWrn
CntVoltWrn
-
MechMvOpnWrn
-
-
MechMovClsWrn
IdleTimWrn
-
IntOpnDelWrn
-
-
IntClsDelWrn
DrvPresWrn
Events
Alarm (WHMI)
Table continues on next page
Binary
output
LD0\SP16GGIO1\Ind10
LD0\SP16GGIO1\Ind8
LD0\SP16GGIO1\Ind6
LD0\SP16GGIO1\Ind12
LD0\SP16GGIO2\Ind16
LD0\SP16GGIO2\Ind14
LD0\SP16GGIO2\Ind12
LD0\SP16GGIO2\Ind10
LD0\SP16GGIO2\Ind8
LD0\SP16GGIO2\Ind6
IEC 61850 data object1)
Ambient temperature out of
warning limit
Control voltage out of
warning limit
Idle time out of warning
limit
Circuit breaker drive
pressure out of warning
limit
Mechanical opening
velocity warning
Mechanical closing
velocity warning
Mechanical open moving
time warning
Mechanical close moving
time warning
Initial mechanical opening
delay warning
Initial mechanical closing
delay warning
Description
Circuit breaker ambient temperature has gone
beyond the warning level set in configured directions
Control voltage to the drive (also to IED) has gone
beyond the warning level set in configured directions
Idle time has crossed the warning level since the last
changeover
Circuit breaker drive pressure has crossed a warning
limit.
Circuit breaker's opening velocity is monitored
against the set thresholds; when the velocity crosses
the warning level set in configured directions, this
warning is generated. Opening velocity is defined as
the linear calculated velocity (distance divided by
time) between NO/52a auxiliary contact opening and
NC/52b contact closing.
Circuit breaker's closing velocity is monitored against
the set thresholds; when the velocity crosses the
warning level set in configured directions, this
warning is generated. Closing velocity is defined as
the linear calculated velocity (distance divided by
time) between NC/52b auxiliary contact opening and
NO/52a contact closing.
Circuit breaker's open moving time is monitored
against the set thresholds; when the time crosses the
warning level set in configured directions, this
warning is generated. Note: open moving time is
defined as the time from first auxiliary contact going
low to the second auxiliary contact going high.
Circuit breaker's close moving time is monitored
against the set thresholds; when the time crosses the
warning level set in configured directions, this
warning is generated. Note: close moving time is
defined as the time from first auxiliary contact going
low to the second auxiliary contact going high.
Circuit breaker's initial mechanical delay time for
opening operation is monitored against the set
thresholds; when the initial mechanical delay time
crosses the warning level set in configured directions,
this warning is generated. Note: Initial delay time is
defined as the time from command till the first
auxiliary contact goes low.
Circuit breaker's initial mechanical delay time for
closing operation is monitored against the set
thresholds; when the initial mechanical delay time
crosses the warning level set in configured directions,
this warning is generated. Note: Initial delay time is
defined as the time from command till the first
auxiliary contact goes low.
Explanation
Fleeting signal
Fleeting signal
Fleeting signal
Fleeting signal
Transient signal
Transient signal
Transient signal
Transient signal
Transient signal
Transient signal
Transition behavior
Section 13
Troubleshooting
1MRK 511 346 C
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
7 (red)
BIO:8
-
-
-
-
-
IntClsDelAlm
IntOpnDelAlm
MechMovClsAlm
MechMvOpnAlm
-
AddnQty2Alm
MechOpnTimAlm
-
AddnQty1Alm
-
-
TempAlm
MechClsTimAlm
-
CntVoltAlm
-
AddnQty2Wrn
-
-
AddnQty1Wrn
DrvPresAlm
Events
Alarm (WHMI)
Table continues on next page
8 (red)
LED
Binary
output
LD0\SP16GGIO2\Ind11
LD0\SP16GGIO2\Ind9
LD0\SP16GGIO2\Ind7
LD0\SP16GGIO2\Ind5
LD0\SP16GGIO2\Ind3
LD0\SP16GGIO2\Ind1
LD0\SP16GGIO1\Ind15
LD0\SP16GGIO1\Ind13
LD0\SP16GGIO1\Ind9
LD0\SP16GGIO1\Ind7
LD0\SP16GGIO1\Ind11
LD0\SP16GGIO1\Ind16
LD0\SP16GGIO1\Ind14
IEC 61850 data object1)
Mechanical open moving
time alarm
Mechanical close moving
time alarm
Initial mechanical opening
delay alarm
Initial mechanical closing
delay alarm
Mechanical opening time
alarm
Mechanical closing time
alarm
Additional signal2 out of
alarm limit
Additional signal1 out of
alarm limit
Ambient temperature out of
alarm limit
Control voltage out of
alarm limit
Circuit breaker drive
pressure out of alarm limit
Additional signal2 out of
warning limit
Additional signal1 out of
warning limit
Description
Circuit breaker's open moving time is monitored
against the set thresholds; when the time crosses the
alarm level set in configured directions, this alarm is
generated. Note: open moving time is defined as the
time from first auxiliary contact going low to the
second auxiliary contact going high.
Circuit breaker's close moving time is monitored
against the set thresholds; when the time crosses the
alarm level set in configured directions, this alarm is
generated. Note: close moving time is defined as the
time from first auxiliary contact going low to the
second auxiliary contact going high.
Circuit breaker's initial mechanical delay time for
opening operation is monitored against the set
thresholds; when the initial mechanical delay time
crosses the alarm level set in configured directions,
this alarm is generated. Note: Initial delay time is
defined as the time from command till the first
auxiliary contact goes low.
Circuit breaker's initial mechanical delay time for
closing operation is monitored against the set
thresholds; when the initial mechanical delay time
crosses the alarm level set in configured directions,
this alarm is generated. Note: Initial delay time is
defined as the time from command till the first
auxiliary contact goes low.
Circuit breaker's mechanical opening time is
monitored against the set thresholds; when the
mechanical opening time crosses the alarm level set
in configured directions, this alarm is generated.
Circuit breaker's mechanical closing time is
monitored against the set thresholds; when the
mechanical closing time crosses the alarm level set in
configured directions, this alarm is generated.
Additional signal 2 has gone beyond the alarm level
set in configured directions
Additional signal 1 has gone beyond the alarm level
set in configured directions
Circuit breaker ambient temperature has gone
beyond the alarm level set in configured directions
Control voltage to the drive (also to IED) has gone
beyond the alarm level set in configured directions.
Circuit breaker drive pressure has crossed an alarm
limit.
Additional signal 2 has gone beyond the warning level
set in configured directions
Additional signal 1 has gone beyond the warning level
set in configured directions
Explanation
Transient signal
Transient signal
Transient signal
Transient signal
Transient signal
Transient signal
Fleeting signal
Fleeting signal
Fleeting signal
Fleeting signal
Fleeting signal
Fleeting signal
Fleeting signal
Transition behavior
1MRK 511 346 C
Section 13
Troubleshooting
235
236
14 (red)
12 (red)
PSM:7
PSM:8
MUSrcCurData
MUSrcVolData
MULodVolData
MUSrcCurSynMU
-
-
-
-
NoRefSignal
-
DiscrepTrip
-
-
-
-
-
LD0\SP16GGIO1\Ind1
LD0\ACBMSCBR1\OpC
ntAlm
LD0\ACBMSCBR2\OpC
ntAlm
LD0\ACBMSCBR3\OpC
ntAlm
LD0\SP16GGIO2\Ind15
OpCntAlmL1
OpCntAlmL2
OpCntAlmL3
-
OpnVelAlm
LD0\SP16GGIO2\Ind13
LD0\SP16GGIO1\Ind5
-
ClsVelAlm
IEC 61850 data object1)
AblationAlmL1
AblationAlmL2
AblationAlmL3
Events
Alarm (WHMI)
Table continues on next page
4 (yellow)
9 (red)
LED
BIO:9
Binary
output
Current merging unit is not
synchronised
Discrepancy in sample
sequence from load
voltage merging unit
Discrepancy in sample
sequence from source
voltage merging unit
Discrepancy in sample
sequence from current
merging unit
Pole discrepancy trip in CB
timing test mode
Reference signal lost
Number of circuit breaker
operations above alarm
limit
Circuit breaker contact
ablation alarm
Mechanical opening
velocity alarm
Mechanical closing
velocity alarm
Description
Merging unit for current signal is not synchronized to
its master. This information is taken from the Quality
flag in the datastream.
Indicates when the sample sequence needs to be
realigned, that is, the application needs to be
restarted soon. The signal is raised for 2 seconds
before the application is restarted.
In CB timing test mode, pole discrepancy trip is issued
if a command is not completely executed (if correct
status feedback is not received for all three breaker
poles). During normal operation, pole discrepancy trip
is issued only for internal errors.
Source voltage is lost (when the circuit breaker is
open) or current reference was set for open operation
and both current and voltage reference are lost. Note:
If the circuit breaker is closed and the reference is set
for current for open operations and the current signal
to the IED is not being received; this alarm may not be
raised if the source voltage is still available.
The IED counts the mechanical operations of the
circuit breaker; whenever this count exceeds the set
value for alarm, operation count alarm is generated.
Note: a close followed by an open operation is
counted as one operation.
Circuit breaker contacts are monitored for electrical
wear (ablation). Whenever the accumulated contact
wear exceeds the configured limit, this alarm is
generated.
Circuit breaker's opening velocity is monitored
against the set thresholds; when the velocity crosses
the alarm level set in configured directions, this alarm
is generated. Opening velocity is defined as the linear
calculated velocity (distance divided by time)
between NO/52a auxiliary contact opening and
NC/52b contact closing.
Circuit breaker's closing velocity is monitored against
the set thresholds; when the velocity crosses the
alarm level set in configured directions, this alarm is
generated. Closing velocity is defined as the linear
calculated velocity (distance divided by time)
between NC/52b auxiliary contact opening and
NO/52a contact closing.
Explanation
Fleeting signal
Resets after
application restart.
Transient signal
Fleeting signal
Persisting signal.
Cannot be reset unless
operation count is
reset or alarm level is
increased.
Persisting signal.
Cannot be reset unless
Ablation is reset or
alarm level is
increased.
Transient signal
Transient signal
Transition behavior
Section 13
Troubleshooting
1MRK 511 346 C
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
-
MUSrcCurSynch
MUSrcVolSynch
MULodVolSynch
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
13 (red)
Table continues on next page
-
UnContSwitch
4 (red)
-
-
MaxRestrReig
1 (yellow)
-
MULodVolSmpLt
-
-
-
-
-
LD0\SP16GGIO3\Ind3
-
-
MUSrcVolSmpLt
-
-
-
MUSrcCurSmpLt
No binary
output
contact
configured
MaxTimeExceed
-
-
MULodVolSynMU
-
-
MUSrcVolSynMU
-
IEC 61850 data object1)
Events
Alarm (WHMI)
11 (red)
12 (yellow)
LED
PSM:9
Binary
output
CB timing test mode
command error
CB timing test mode
unsuccessful last open
operation
CB timing test mode
unsuccessful last close
operation
CB timing test mode
contact feedback time
exceeded
Uncontrolled switching
operation
Limit for re-strike/reignition correction reached
Maximum allowed delay
time for operation
exceeded
Sample(s) from load
voltage merging unit lost /
invalid
Sample(s) from source
voltage merging unit lost /
invalid
Sample(s) from current
merging unit lost / invalid
Hardware synchronization
of bad quality or lost
Load voltage merging unit
is not synchronised
Source voltage merging
unit is not synchronised
Description
During CB timing test, if the command is issued for a
particular pole and either the pole doesn’t operate or
another pole operates; this alarm is generated. Note:
detail of command error can be seen in the
CMDERCD output.
During CB timing test, if the last open operation failed
to complete; this alarm is generated.
During CB timing test, if the last close operation failed
to complete; this alarm is generated.
During CB timing test, command is issued for any
pole to operate and the feedback is not received
within the configured time; this alarm is generated.
The circuit breaker has been operated without point
on wave control - either because of set operation on
ByPassMode or because of ContingencyMode set to
bypass with contingency conditions arrving for a
particular operation. Note: contingency conditions
include reference missing and circuit breaker
unstable.
Indicates that further extension of target arcing time is
not possible to avoid re-strikes or re-ignitions.
Controller delay is calculated as the time between
command received till the time the command for the
last pole to be operated is released by the controller.
When this time exceeds the set time limit, this alarm is
generated.
Indicates that more than one sample has been lost or
marked as invalid, over-flown or failed, and the
sample has thereafter been substituted.
Time quality of the hardware synchronization is
outside the set limit (synchAccLevel parameter), or
the 1PPS signal is lost.
Merging unit for load voltage signal is not
synchronized to its master. This information is taken
from the Quality flag in the datastream.
Merging unit for source voltage signal is not
synchronized to its master. This information is taken
from the Quality flag in the datastream.
Explanation
Transient signal
Transient signal
Transient signal
Transient signal
Transient signal
Transient signal
Transient signal
Fleeting signal, will be
high for minimum 1
second.
Fleeting signal. Note
that synchronization
after re-connection of
1PPS may take
several minutes.
Fleeting signal
Fleeting signal
Transition behavior
1MRK 511 346 C
Section 13
Troubleshooting
237
238
CloseByPass
BlockOpen
BlockClose
StartPOW
-
-
-
-
RstOpRec
OpenByPass
-
-
Prim-L1
Prim-L2
Prim-L3
-
BlockOperLog
NC-L1
NC-L2
NC-L3
-
-
NO-L1
NO-L2
NO-L3
-
No LEDs
configured
CBTestModAct
-
-
-
Events
Alarm (WHMI)
15 (green
flashing)
LED
Table continues on next page
Binary
output
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
IEC 61850 data object1)
Reset operation records
Operation record logging
blocked
Point on wave control in
progress
Close command is blocked
Open command is blocked
Controlled close
operations bypassed
Controlled open operations
bypassed
Circuit breaker primary
contact
Circuit breaker auxiliary
contact NC (52b)
Circuit breaker auxiliary
contact NO (52a)
CB timing test mode active
CB timing test mode wiring
error
Description
Command has been received to clear run time
operations records.
Operation log is prevented from recording any
information.
Controlled switching command has been received
and is being processed. This remains high from the
time the command has been received till the time all
output commands to the CB have been switched off.
Either because of input for blocking close operation or
because of ContingencyMode set to block close
operations with contingency conditions arrving for a
close operation, the command has been blocked and
the circuit breaker has not been issued any
command. Note: contingency conditions include
reference missing and circuit breaker unstable.
Either because of input for blocking open operation or
because of ContingencyMode set to block open
operations with contingency conditions arrving for a
open operation, the command has been blocked and
the circuit breaker has not been issued any
command. Note: contingency conditions include
reference missing and circuit breaker unstable.
Closing operation is bypassed. Refer: UnContSwitch
Open operation is bypassed. Refer: UnContSwitch
Status of primary contact in circuit breaker, used
during offline testing.
Status of NC (52b) auxiliary contact in circuit breaker
drive.
Status of NO (52a) auxiliary contact in circuit breaker
drive.
Circuit breaker timing CB test mode was activated:
controlled switching operations are no more
permitted; all commands being received will be
electrically staggered between the three poles by
about 500 ms, for acquisition of CB operating times.
During CB timing test, two types of wiring errors can
be identified: 1. static wiring error - NO and primary
should both be open/closed and NC should have
reverse status and this should be the same for all
three poles. 2. Dynamic wiring error - command was
issued to one pole but another pole operated. This
alarm is generated if any one one the above happens.
Explanation
Transient signal
Fleeting signal
Transient signal
Transient signal
Transient signal
Transient signal
Transient signal
Changeover contact
from CB
Changeover contact
(On when CB is open)
Changeover contact
(On when CB is
closed)
CB test mode can be
exited only by selecting
"Finish" or "Abort"
command on the CB
test mode LHMI
screen.
Transient signal
Transition behavior
Section 13
Troubleshooting
1MRK 511 346 C
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
No LEDs
configured
LED
CloseCmdIn
OpenCmdIn
MUSrcCurTstMd
MUSrcVolTstMd
MULodVolTstMd
SpChOCOBlk
SpChCOBlk
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
CmdCancel
TimeSynchErr
-
-
OpnCmdOutL1
OpnCmdOutL2
OpnCmdOutL3
-
OpenCmdGIn
ClsCmdOutL1
ClsCmdOutL2
ClsCmdOutL3
-
-
FaultCurDetL1
FaultCurDetL2
FaultCurDetL3
-
CloseCmdGIn
RstFpRec
-
-
Events
Alarm (WHMI)
LD0\SP16GGIO3\Ind2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
IEC 61850 data object1)
Command processing
internally cancelled
Open command input
through GOOSE
Close command input
through GOOSE
Circuit breaker operating
capability: O (CO block)
Circuit breaker operating
capability: CO (OCO block)
Load voltage merging unit
in Test Mode
Source voltage merging
unit in Test Mode
Current merging unit in
Test Mode
Open command input
(hardwired)
Close command input
(hardwired)
Time synchronization error
Synchronous open
command output
Synchronous close
command output
Fault current detected
Reset fingerprint records
Description
Controlled switching command cannot be executed
due to processing error.
Input command from GOOSE signal to initiate
controlled opening operation.
Input command from GOOSE signal to initiate
controlled closing operation.
Circuit breaker spring charge level has dropped
below the C-O operation capability and the C-O block
has been received in addition to O-C-O block. Only
Open operation is permitted.
Circuit breaker spring charge level has dropped
below the OCO operation capability and OCO block
has been received. Only CO operation is permitted.
The connected MU is operating in Test Mode.
Received from quality flag in datastream. No IED
setting affects this signal.
Input command from binary input to initiate controlled
opening operation.
Input command from binary input to initiate controlled
closing operation.
Time synchronization (hardware or software) source
is lost.
Signals for recording the time at which the controlled
open commands are being released to the circuit
breaker.
Signals for recording the time at which the controlled
close commands are being released to the circuit
breaker.
The interrupted current is above the set fault current
limit.
Command has been received to clear finger print
operations records, or the settings for Monitoring
Compensation function have been altered thus
forcing a clear.
Explanation
Transient signal
Fleeting signal
Fleeting signal
Fleeting signal
Fleeting signal
Fleeting signal
Fleeting signal
Fleeting signal
Fleeting signal
Transient signal
Transient signal
Transient signal
Transient signal
Transition behavior
1) The data shall be read as <Logical device><Instance number>\<Logical node type><Instance number>\<Data object name> for logical devices other than LD0. For logical device LD0,
the data shall be read as LD0\<Logical node type><Instance number>\<Data object name>.
Transient signals are defined as signals that are generated during an operation and remain high for less than 100 milliseconds. LED indications of transient signals are latched.
Fleeting signals are defined as signals that remain active as long as the actuating conditions persist. Once these conditions are no more present, the signals reset automatically.
Binary
output
1MRK 511 346 C
Section 13
Troubleshooting
239
Section 13
Troubleshooting
13.1.1
1MRK 511 346 C
Resetting persistent signals
As mentioned in Table 45, certain diagnostic signals from the application are
persistent, meaning they will not disappear automatically. These signals must be
cleared manually from LHMI or WHMI.
1.
2.
3.
In LHMI, navigate to Main menu/Clear/Clear CB cond. indicators.
Select the indication to be cleared, see Table 46.
Click OK to confirm.
Table 46:
Resetting persistent indications
Indication
Menu path for clearing
Remarks
Unstable circuit breaker
operation characteristics
(UnstbOperLx)
Clear unstable mode/
ACBMSCBR:x
To be repeated for each CB pole
(instance x) that has exhibited
unstable timing. This indication
shall be cleared only after the
CB problems leading to this
condition have been remedied,
or after setting / learning
different nominal operating
times.
Number of circuit breaker
operations above warning limit
(OpCntWrnLx) / alarm limit
(OpCntAlmLx)
Clear operation count/
ACBMSCBR:x
Clearing will set the CB
operation counter to 0.
Therefore, this should be done
only after overhaul or exchange
of the CB pole.
Circuit breaker interrupter wear
warning (AblationWrnLx) / alarm
(AblationAlmLx)
Clear CB wear/ACBMSCBR:x
Clearing will set the counter of
cumulated interrupter wear
(ablation) to InitialCumAblLx.
Therefore, this should be done
only after overhaul or exchange
of the CB interrupter.
In Table 46, x refers both to the CB pole (L1/L2/L3) and to the instance number of the
corresponding function block (ACBMSCBR:1/2/3). Indications have to be cleared in
each function block instance individually.
13.2
Fault tracing
13.2.1
Identifying hardware errors
1.
Check which module has an error.
•
•
2.
240
Check the general IED status in Main menu/Diagnostics/IED status/
General for a faulty hardware module.
Check the history of changes in internal event list in Main menu/
Diagnostics/Internal Events.
Inspect the IED visually.
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Section 13
Troubleshooting
1MRK 511 346 C
•
•
3.
Check whether the error is external or internal.
•
•
13.2.2
Remove the wiring from the IED and test the input and output operation
with an external test device.
If the problem remains, contact ABB for repair or replacement actions.
Identifying runtime errors
1.
2.
3.
4.
13.2.3
Inspect the IED visually to find any physical error causes.
If you can find some obvious physical damage, contact ABB for repair or
replacement actions.
Check the error origin from Main menu/Diagnostics/IED status/General.
Reboot the IED and recheck the supervision events to see if the fault has cleared.
In Main menu/Diagnostics/IED status/General, the status on all items should
show Off or Ready.
In case of persistent faults, contact ABB for corrective actions.
Identifying communication errors
Communication errors are normally communication interruptions or synchronization
message errors due to communication link breakdown.
•
•
13.2.3.1
Check the IEC61850 communication status in internal event list in Main menu/
Diagnostics/IED Status/General.
In case of persistent faults originating from IED's internal faults such as
component breakdown, contact ABB for repair or replacement actions.
Checking communication link operation
There are several different communication links on the product. First check that all
communication ports that are used for communication are turned on.
1.
Check the front communication port RJ-45.
1.1. Check that the uplink LED is lit with a steady green light.
The uplink LED is located on the LHMI above the RJ-45 communication
port on the left. The port is used for direct electrical communication to a PC
connected via a crossed-over Ethernet cable.
1.2. Check the communication status of the front port via the LHMI in Main
menu/Test/Function status/Communication/DOSFRNT:1/Outputs.
Check that the LINKUP value is 1, that is, the communication is working.
When the value is 0, there is no communication link.
2.
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Check the communication status of the rear port X1 via the LHMI in Main
menu/Tests/Function status/Communication/DOSLAN1:1/Outputs.
The X1 communication port on the rear side of the IED is for optical Ethernet via
LC connector.
241
Section 13
Troubleshooting
1MRK 511 346 C
•
13.2.3.2
Check that the LINKUP value is 1, that is, the communication is working.
When the value is 0, there is no communication link.
Checking merging unit status
GUID-D7DE8F0E-39F8-4347-BA6A-65586CBE4F5E V1 EN
Figure 179:
•
Merging unit status in normal operation
Check the status of merging unit via the LHMI in Main menu/Diagnostics/
Merging units/MUx_4I_4U.
x stands for the merging unit function block instance. See Table 45 for explanations
of the indication signals.
The configured LED or binary output indication goes high only if the
corresponding merging unit is used in the application.
13.2.3.3
Checking time synchronization
•
Select Main menu/Diagnostics/IED status/General and check the status of the
time synchronization on Time Synch.
The Time synch value is Ready when the synchronization is in order.
Note that the time synchronization source has to be activated.
Otherwise the value is always Ready.
242
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Section 13
Troubleshooting
1MRK 511 346 C
13.2.4
Running the display test
To run the display test, either use the push buttons or start the test via the menu.
•
•
Select Main menu/Tests/LED test and press
Press simultaneously
and
.
.
All the LEDs are tested by turning them on simultaneously. The display shows a set
of patterns so that all the pixels are activated. After the test, the display returns to
normal state.
13.3
Indication messages
13.3.1
Internal faults
When the Ready LED indicates an internal fault by flashing, the message associated
with the fault is found in the internal event list in the LHMI menu Main menu/
Diagnostics/Internal events. The message includes the date, time, description and
signal state for the fault. The internal event list is not updated dynamically. The list is
updated by leaving the Internal events menu and then selecting it again. The current
status of the internal fault signals can also be checked via the LHMI in Main menu/
Diagnostics/IED status/General.
Different actions are taken depending on the severity of the fault. If the fault is found
to be permanent, the IED stays in internal fault mode. The IED continues to perform
internal tests during the fault situation.
When a fault appears, contact ABB. Make sure to include the fault indication status
data and internal event listings in the request.
Table 47:
Internal fault indications
Fault indication
Additional information
Internal Fault
Real Time Clock Error
Hardware error with the real time clock.
Internal Fault
Runtime Exec. Error
One or more of the application threads are not working properly.
Internal Fault
SW Watchdog Error
This signal will be activated when the terminal has been under too heavy load
for at least 5 minutes.
Internal Fault
Runtime App Error
One or more of the application threads are not in an expected state.
Internal Fault
File System Error
A file system error has occurred.
Internal Fault
TRM-Error
A TRM card error has occurred. The slot number is displayed at the end of the
fault indication.
Internal Fault
COM-Error
A COM card error has occurred. The slot number is displayed at the end of the
fault indication.
Table continues on next page
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
243
Section 13
Troubleshooting
1MRK 511 346 C
Fault indication
13.3.2
Additional information
Internal Fault
PSM-Error
A PSM card error has occurred. The slot number is displayed at the end of the
fault indication.
Internal Fault
PIO-Error
A PIO card error has occurred. The slot number is displayed at the end of the
fault indication.
Internal Fault
BIO-Error
A BIO card error has occurred. The slot number is displayed at the end of the
fault indication.
Warnings
The warning message associated with the fault is found in the internal event list in the
LHMI menu Main menu/Diagnostics/Internal events. The message includes the
date, time, description and signal state for the fault. The current status of the internal
fault signals can also be checked via the LHMI in Main menu/Diagnostics/IED
status/General.
When a fault appears, record the fault indication message and state it when ordering
service.
Table 48:
Warning indication
Warning
IEC 61850 Error
13.3.3
Warning indications
Additional information
IEC 61850 has not succeeded in some actions such as reading the
configuration file, startup etc.
Additional indications
The additional indication messages do not activate internal fault or warning.
The messages are listed in the LHMI menu under the internal events list. The signal
status data is found under the IED status and in the internal event list.
Table 49:
Warning indication
244
Additional indications
Additional information
Time Synch Error
Source of the time synchronization is lost or time system has made a time
reset.
Internal Fail
Auxiliary power is disconnected.
Settings Changed
Settings have been changed.
Setting Groups
Changed
Setting group has been changed.
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Section 13
Troubleshooting
1MRK 511 346 C
13.4
Correction procedures
13.4.1
Changing and setting the password
The password can only be set with PCM600.
For more information, see PCM600 documentation.
13.4.2
Identifying IED application problems
Navigate to the appropriate menu in the LHMI to identify possible problems.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
13.4.2.1
Check that the function is on.
Check that SettingGroup1 is activated.
Check the blocking.
Check the mode.
Check the measurement values.
Verify any modifications to the default pre-configuration.
Check the channel settings.
Inspecting the wiring
The physical inspection of wiring connections often reveals the wrong connection for
phase currents or voltages. However, even though the phase current or voltage
connections to IED terminals might be correct, wrong polarity of one or more
measurement transformers can cause problems.
•
•
•
Check the current or voltage measurements and their phase information from
Main menu/Measurements/Analog primary values or Analog secondary
values.
Check that the phase information and phase shift between phases is correct.
Correct the wiring if needed.
•
Change the parameter Negation in Configuration/Analog modules/
3PhaseAnalogGroup/SMAI_20_n:1 (n= the number of the SMAI used).
Changing the Negation parameter is not recommended
without detailed knowledge of its effects, unless expressly
instructed by ABB.
•
•
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
In PCM600, change the parameter CTStarPointn (n= the number on the
current input) under the parameter settings for each current input.
Check the actual state of the connected binary inputs.
245
Section 13
Troubleshooting
1MRK 511 346 C
•
•
•
In LHMI, select Main menu/Tests/I/O modules. Then navigate to the
board with the actual binary input to be checked.
With PCM600, right-click the product and select Signal Monitoring. Then
navigate to the actual I/O board and to the binary input in question. The
activated input signal is indicated with a yellow-lit diode.
Measure output contacts using the voltage drop method (see Figure 180) applying
at least the minimum contact load given for the output relays in the technical data,
for example 100 mA at 24 V AC/DC.
Output relays, especially power output relays, are designed for
breaking high currents. Due to this, layers of high resistance may
appear on the surface of the contacts. Do not determine proper
functionality of connectivity or contact resistance by measuring
with a regular hand-held ohm meter.
•
Measure output circuits of precision binary outputs using the voltage drop
method (see Figure 180).
The load should be dimensioned to draw continuous current of 100 mA DC or
less.
Precision binary outputs are polarity-sensitive. Observe correct
polarity of the test circuit. AC supply cannot be used for testing
the precision binary inputs or outputs.
246
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Section 13
Troubleshooting
1MRK 511 346 C
V
A
2
3
1
4
D0E2299T201305141612 V1 EN
Figure 180:
Testing output contacts using the voltage drop method
1 Contact current
2 Contact voltage drop
3 Load
4 Supply voltage
•
To check the status of the output circuits via the LHMI, select Main menu/
Tests/I/O modules and then navigate to the board with the actual binary output
to be checked.
Forcing is possible on all the output contacts available on
PSM02/03, BIO01 and PIO01 hardware modules.
•
Test and change the output state manually.
1.
2.
3.
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
To set the IED to test mode, select Main menu/Tests/IED test mode/
TESTMODE:1 and set the parameter TestMode to On. The Start LED
flashes continuously to indicate active IED test mode.
To operate or force the output to operate, select Main menu/Test/Forcing/
Binary output values and navigate to a specific module in the list.
Select BOn_PO or PBOn to be operated/forced and use
and
or
to operate the actual output.
Each binary output is represented by two signals. The first signal in LHMI
is the actual value 1 or 0 of the output, and in PCM600 a lit or dimmed
diode. The second signal is the status Normal or Forced. Forced status is
only achieved when the BO is set to Forced or operated on the LHMI.
247
Section 13
Troubleshooting
1MRK 511 346 C
Set the parameter TestMode to Off after completing these
tests. The Start LED stops flashing when the IED is no
longer in test mode.
For relay contact outputs (on BIO and PSM cards), an initially high contact resistance
does not cause problems as it is reduced quickly by the electrical cleaning effect of
fritting and thermal destruction of layers, bringing the contact resistance back to the
milliohms range. As a result, practically the full voltage is available at the load.
248
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Section 14
System security
1MRK 511 346 C
Section 14
System security
14.1
Physical interfaces
To reduce exposure for cyber-attacks and thus comply with cyber security
requirements, it must be possible to prevent services in the IED from operating on
other physical interfaces than the ones specified by the vendor or by the owner.
14.2
IP ports
The IP port security guideline cannot suggest concrete products for a secure system
setup. This must be decided within the specific project, requirements and existing
infrastructure. The required external equipment can be separate devices or devices
that combine firewall, router and secure VPN functionality.
To aid in setting up an IP firewall the following table summarizes the IP ports used in
Switchsync PWC600. The ports are listed in ascending order. The column “Default
state” defines whether a port is open or closed by default. All ports that are closed can
be opened as described in the comment column in the table. Front and Rear refer to the
physical front and rear port. The protocol availability on these ports is configurable.
ABB recommends using common security measures, like firewalls, up-to-date antivirus software, etc. to protect the IED and the equipment around it.
Table 50:
Port
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Available IP ports
Protocol Default
state
Front
Rear
Service
Comment
21
TCP
Open
OFF
OFF
FTP (clear text
password)
File transfer protocol
67
UDP
Open
ON
N/A
DHCP
Front port only, RJ45
80
TCP
Open
ON
ON
HTTP (clear
text password)
Hypertext Transfer Protocol
(Web interface)
102
TCP
Open
OFF
ON
IEC 61850
MMS communication
123
UDP
Closed
OFF
OFF
SNTP
Enabled when IED is
configured as SNTP master.
990
UDP
Open
ON
OFF
FTPS
FTP with implicit SSL
2102
TCP
Open
ON
ON
ODBC/SSL
IED configuration protocol
7001
TCP
Closed
OFF
OFF
FST
SPA protocol on TCP/IP used
by FST (Field Service Tool)
249
Section 14
System security
1MRK 511 346 C
The IEC 61850 communication protocol is enabled by configuration. This means that
the IP port is closed and unavailable if the configuration of Switchsync PWC600 does
not contain IEC 61850 communication functions. If a protocol is configured, the
corresponding IP port is open all the time.
There are some restrictions and dependencies:
•
•
•
The IP port used for DHCP (default UDP port 67) between the IED and a
computer is fixed and cannot be changed.
The IP port used for IEC 61850 (default TCP port 102) is fixed and cannot be
changed.
The IP port used for FTP (default TCP port 21) can be changed in the IED if
needed by a 3rd party FTP client.
If the FTP port is changed PCM600 cannot be used since it is not
possible to configure it to use other IP-ports than port 21 for FTP.
•
•
•
Two ports are used by PCM600. For configuration and parameter settings, the IP
port for a proprietary ODBC protocol is used (TCP port 2102) and the port is fixed
and cannot be changed. For Field service tool, the IP port for a proprietary SPA
protocol is used (TCP port 7001) and the port is fixed and cannot be changed.
IP routing is not possible via any of the physical interfaces.
Some IP ports are not possible to use in all physical interfaces.
GUID-95B25FB4-AADC-47BB-9B50-39A28B2A4ADC V1 EN
Figure 181:
Ethernet port used for PCM600 only, front view
GUID-43B62386-2645-4F29-B056-7AC9F9FFDB1E V1 EN
Figure 182:
250
Ethernet ports LAN1A, LAN1B, rear view COM03
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Section 14
System security
1MRK 511 346 C
14.3
FTP access with SSL FTPACCS
The FTP Client defaults to the best possible security mode when trying to negotiate
with SSL.
The automatic negotiation mode acts on port number and server features. It tries to
immediately activate implicit SSL if the specified port is 990. If the specified port is
any other, it tries to negotiate with explicit SSL via AUTH SSL/TLS.
Using FTP without SSL encryption gives the FTP client reduced capabilities. This
mode is only for accessing disturbance recorder data from the IED.
If normal FTP is required to read out disturbance recordings, create a
specific account for this purpose with rights only to do File transfer.
The password of this user will be exposed in clear text on the wire.
14.4
Encryption algorithms
SSL/TLS connections are encrypted with AES 256 if possible or AES 128 as a
minimum. At startup a negotiation decides between these two options.
No passwords are stored in clear text within the IED. An encrypted representation of
the passwords with SHA 256 is stored in the IED. These are not accessible from
outside via any ports.
14.5
Denial of service
The denial of service function is designed to limit the CPU load that can be produced
by the Ethernet network traffic on the IED. The communication facilities must not be
allowed to compromise the primary functionality of the device. All inbound network
traffic is quota controlled, so that a too heavy network load can be controlled. Heavy
network load might for instance be the result of malfunctioning equipment connected
to the network.
The denial of service functions DOSFRNT, DOSLAN1 measure the IED load from
communication and, if necessary, limits it from jeopardizing the IED's point-on-wave
control functionality due to a high CPU load. The function has the following outputs:
•
•
•
LINKUP indicates the Ethernet link status
WARNING indicates that the data rate is higher than 3000 frames/s
ALARM indicates that the IED limits the IP-communication
For more information see related documents.
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
251
Section 14
System security
14.6
1MRK 511 346 C
Certificate handling
A self-signed certificate is issued by the IED it certifies. Certificates use encryption to
provide secure communication over the network. Certificate encryption strength
depends on the certificate authority (CA).
The certificate is always trusted during communication between the IED and
PCM600.
If Windows is configured to use UAC High the certificate has to be manually trusted
in a dialog box.
14.7
IEEE1686 compliance
Table 51:
Clause
IEEE1686 compliance
Title
Status
Comment
5
IED cyber security
features
Acknowledge
5.1
Electronic access
control
Comply
5.1.1
Password defeat
mechanisms
Comply
5.1.2
Number of individual
ID/passwords
supported
Comply
20 unique ID/password combinations
are supported
5.1.3
Password
construction
Comply
The minimum enforced password
length is configurable. If password
policy is enforced, minimum is 6. Use
of mix of lower and UPPERCASE
characters is enforced, configurable
in password policies Use of numerical
values is enforced, configurable in
password policies. Use of nonalphanumeric character (e.g. @, #, %,
&, *) is enforced, configurable in
password policies
5.1.4
Authorization levels
by password
Comply
5.1.4.1
View data
Comply
View data feature is accessible
through individual user accounts
5.1.4.2
View configuration
settings
Comply
View configuration settings feature is
accessible through individual user
accounts
5.1.4.3
Force values
Comply
Force value feature is accessible
through individual user accounts
Access is protected for local access
through control panel. Access is
protected for local access through a
communication /diagnostic port.
Access is protected for remote access
through a communication media
Table continues on next page
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Section 14
System security
1MRK 511 346 C
Clause
Title
Status
Comment
5.1.4.4
Configuration change
Comply
Configuration feature is accessible
through individual user accounts
5.1.4.5
Firmware change
Comply
Firmware change feature is
accessible through individual user
accounts
5.1.4.6
ID/password
management
Comply
User account (ID / password)
management feature is accessible
through individual user accounts.
5.1.4.7
Audit log
Comply
Audit log view / download feature is
accessible through individual user
accounts
5.1.5
Password display
Comply
5.1.6
Access time-out
Comply
A time-out feature exists. The time
period is configurable by the user.
5.2
Audit trail
Comply
The Audit log can be viewed through
PCM 600
5.2.1
Storage capability
Comply
5.2.2
Storage record
Comply
5.2.2.1
Event record number
Comply
5.2.2.2
Time and date
Comply
5.2.2.3
User ID
Comply
5.2.2.4
Event type
Comply
5.2.3
Audit trail event types
Comply
5.2.3.1
Login
Comply
5.2.3.2
Manual logout
Comply
5.2.3.3
Timed logout
Comply
5.2.3.4
Value forcing
Comply
5.2.3.5
Configuration access
Comply
5.2.3.6
Configuration change
Comply
5.2.3.7
Firmware change
Comply
5.2.3.8
ID/password creation
or modification
Comply
5.2.3.9
ID/password deletion
Comply
5.2.3.10
Audit-log access
Comply
5.2.3.11
Time/date change
Comply
5.2.3.12
Alarm incident
Comply
5.3
Supervisory
monitoring and control
Comply
5.3.1
Events
Exception
Automated time changes and read of
configuration are not reported;
otherwise compliance
5.3.2
Alarms
Exception
No Client certificates are in use
5.3.2.1
Unsuccessful login
attempt
Comply
5.3.2.2
Reboot
Comply
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Section 14
System security
1MRK 511 346 C
Clause
254
Title
Status
Comment
5.3.2.3
Attempted use of
unauthorized
configuration software
Exception
5.3.2.4
Alarm point change
detect
Comply
5.3.4
Event and alarm
grouping
Exception
Not supported
5.3.5
Supervisory
permissive control
Exception
Not supported
5.4
Configuration
software
Acknowledge
5.4.1
Authentication
Exception
5.4.2
ID/password control
Comply
5.4.3
ID/passwordcontrolled features
Comply
5.4.3.1
View configuration
data
Comply
5.4.3.2
Change configuration
data
Comply
5.4.3.3
Full access
Comply
5.5
Communications port
access
Comply
5.6
Firmware quality
assurance
Exception
Not supported
Configuration download is handled by
authentication
Quality control is handled according
to ISO9001 and CMMI.
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Section 15
User roles and user accounts
1MRK 511 346 C
Section 15
User roles and user accounts
15.1
Authorization
The user roles with different user rights are predefined in the IED.
The IED users can be created, deleted and edited only with PCM600. One user can
belong to one or several user roles.
At delivery, the IED user has full access as SuperUser until users are
created with PCM600.
For security reasons, the project administrator should change the
usernames and passwords from the default ones, before deploying the
product. The passwords should not be easy to guess.
Table 52:
User name
Default users
User rights
SuperUser
Full rights, only present in LHMI and WHMI. SuperUser is logged on by default until
other users are defined. Default password for WHMI: SuperUser.
Guest
Only read rights, only present in LHMI. Guest is logged on by default when other
users are defined (same as VIEWER).
Administrator
Full rights. Default password: Administrator. This user has to be used when reading
out waveform records (“disturbances”) with third-party FTP client.
Changes in user management settings do not cause an IED reboot.
After three consecutive failed login attempts the user will be locked
out for ten minutes before a new attempt to log in can be performed.
This time is settable 10 minutes to 60 minutes.
The PCM600 tool caches the login credentials after successful login
for 15 minutes. During that time no more login will be necessary.
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Section 15
User roles and user accounts
15.2
1MRK 511 346 C
Predefined user roles
There are different roles of users that can access or operate different areas of the IED
and tool functionalities.
Table 53:
Predefined user roles
User roles
Role explanation
User rights
VIEWER
Viewer
Can read parameters and browse the menus from LHMI
OPERATOR
Operator
Can read parameters and browse the menus as well as
perform control actions
ENGINEER
Engineer
Can create and load configurations and change settings for the
IED and also run commands and manage disturbances
INSTALLER
Installer
Can load configurations and change settings for the IED
SECADM
Security
administrator
Can change role assignments and security settings
SECAUD
Security auditor
Can view audit logs
RBACMNT
RBAC
management
Can change role assignment
Ensure that the user logged on to the IED has the required access when
writing particular data to the IED from PCM600. For more
information about setting user access rights, see the PCM600
documentation.
Symbols used in Table 54:
•
•
•
Table 54:
X= Full access rights
R= Only reading rights
- = No access rights
Access rights for predefined user roles
Access rights
VIEWER
OPERATOR ENGINEER
INSTALLER SECADM
SECAUD
RBACMNT
Config – Basic
-
-
X
X
-
-
-
Config – Advanced
-
-
X
X
-
-
-
FileTransfer – Tools
-
-
X
X
-
-
-
UserAdministration
-
-
-
-
X
-
X
Setting – Basic
R
R
X
X
-
-
-
Setting – Advanced
R
R
X
X
-
-
-
Control – Basic
-
X
X
-
-
-
-
Control – Advanced
-
X
X
-
-
-
-
IEDCmd – Basic
-
X
X
-
-
-
-
IEDCmd – Advanced
-
-
X
-
-
-
-
FileTransfer – Limited
-
X
X
X
X
X
X
Table continues on next page
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Section 15
User roles and user accounts
1MRK 511 346 C
Access rights
VIEWER
OPERATOR ENGINEER
INSTALLER SECADM
SECAUD
RBACMNT
DB Access normal
-
X
X
X
X
X
X
Audit log read
-
-
-
-
-
X
-
Setting – Change Setting Group
-
X
X
X
-
-
-
Security Advanced
-
-
-
-
-
X
-
Table 55:
Access rights explanation
Access rights
Explanation
Config – Basic
Configuration – Basic is intended for engineers that only adapt an existing configuration e.g. the I/
O-Configuration using SMT
Config – Advanced
Configuration – Advanced is intended for engineers that do the whole application engineering and
using e.g. ACT
FileTransfer – Tools
FileTransfer – Tools is used for some configuration files for the configuration and shall have the
same value as Config – Advanced
UserAdministration
UserAdministration is used to handle user management e.g. adding new user
Setting – Basic
Setting – Basic is used for basic settings e.g. control settings and limit supervision
Setting – Advanced
Setting – Advanced is used for the relay engineer to set settings e.g. for the protection functions
Control – Basic
Control – Basic is used for a normal operator without possibility to bypass safety functions e.g.
interlock or synchro-check bypass
Control – Advanced
Control – Advanced is used for an operator that is trusted to do process commands that can be
dangerous
IEDCmd – Basic
IEDCmd – Basic is used for commands to the IED that are not critical e.g. Clear LEDs, manual
triggering of disturbances
IEDCmd – Advanced
IEDCmd – Advanced is used for commands to the IED that can hide information e.g. Clear
disturbance record
FileTransfer – Limited
FileTransfer - Limited is used for access to disturbance files e.g. through FTP
DB Access normal
Database access for normal user. This is needed for all users that access data from PCM
Audit log read
Audit log read allows reading the audit log from the IED
Setting – Change Setting Group
Setting – Change Setting Group is separated to be able to include the possibility to change the
setting group without changing any other setting
Security Advanced
Security Advanced is the privilege required to do some of the more advanced security-related
settings
IED users can be created, deleted and edited only with the IED Users tool within
PCM600. Logging on or off can only be done on the local HMI on the IED, there are
no users, roles or rights that can be defined on local HMI.
At delivery, the IED has a default user defined with full access rights. PCM600 uses
this default user to access the IED. This user is automatically removed in IED when
users are defined via the IED Users tool in PCM600.
Default User ID: Administrator
Password: Administrator
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User roles and user accounts
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Only characters A - Z, a - z and 0 - 9 shall be used in user names. User
names are not case sensitive. For passwords see the Password policies
in PCM600.
First user created must be appointed the role SECADM to be able to
write users, created in PCM600, to the IED.
In order to allow the IED to communicate with PCM600 when users
are defined via the IED Users tool, the access rights
“UserAdministration” and “FileTransfer - Limited” must be applied
to at least one user.
15.3
Password policies
Only ASCII characters are allowed when typing username or password. Currently,
characters in the range 32-126 and 192-383 (ASCII ranges, decimal) are supported.
Password policies are set in the IED Users tool in PCM600. There are several options
for forcing the password safer.
•
•
•
•
•
Minimum length of password (1 - 12)
Require lowercase letters ( a - z )
Require uppercase letters ( A - Z )
Require numeric letters ( 0 - 9 )
Require special characters ( [email protected]#+”*%&/=? )
To achieve IEEE 1686 conformity, a password with a minimum
length of eight characters must be used, and the check box Enforce
Password Policies shall be ticked.
Settings for password lifetime are not supported in this release.
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User roles and user accounts
1MRK 511 346 C
IEC13000027-1-en.vsd
D0E1154T201305151606 V1 EN
Figure 183:
15.4
Change Password Policies dialog box in IED Users tool in PCM600
IED User management
The IED Users tool in PCM600 is used for editing user profiles and role assignments
in each IED.
In the IED Users tool, the data can be retrieved from an IED or data can be written to
an IED if permitted. The data from an IED can be saved to the project database.
Always use Read User Management Settings from IED before
making any changes when managing user profiles. If this is not done
password changes made by users may be lost!
Nothing is changed in the IED until a “Write to IED" operation is
performed.
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User manual
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Section 15
User roles and user accounts
15.4.1
Starting IED user management
•
•
•
•
15.4.2
1MRK 511 346 C
Connect the PC to the IED.
Start PCM600.
Select an IED in the object tree.
Select Tools/IED Users or right-click an IED in the object tree and select IED
Users. The IED Users dialog box appears.
General settings
In the General tab, by clicking Restore factory settings the default users can be
restored in the IED Users tool. For Switchsync PWC600 this means reverting back to
the factory delivered users. Performing this operation does not remove the users in the
IED. Nothing is changed in the IED until a “Write to IED” operation is performed.
This is not the same action as Revert to IED defaults in the recovery
menu.
The previous administrator user ID and password have to be given so that writing to
the IED can be done.
Editing can be continued by clicking Restore factory settings when not connected to
the IED.
D0E1070T201305151606 V1 EN
Figure 184:
260
General tab
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Section 15
User roles and user accounts
1MRK 511 346 C
15.4.3
User profile management
In the User Management tab, the user profiles of the selected IED can be edited. New
users can be created, existing users can be deleted and different user group members
can be edited.
A user profile must always be assigned at least one user role.
D0E1109T201305151606 V1 EN
Figure 185:
15.4.3.1
Adding new users
1.
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Create new user
Click
in the Users tab to open the wizard.
261
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User roles and user accounts
1MRK 511 346 C
IEC12000200-1-en.vsd
D0E1112T201305151606 V1 EN
Figure 186:
2.
262
Create new user
Follow the instructions in the wizard to define a user name, password and user
role. Assign at least one user role to the new user. The user profile can be seen
in the User details field.
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Section 15
User roles and user accounts
1MRK 511 346 C
IEC12000201-1-en.vsd
D0E1115T201305151606 V1 EN
Figure 187:
3.
Select user groups
To change the name or description of the user, select the user from the user list
and type a new name or description in the Description/full name field.
D0E1118T201305151606 V1 EN
Figure 188:
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Changing user details
263
Section 15
User roles and user accounts
15.4.3.2
1MRK 511 346 C
Adding users to new user roles
1.
2.
3.
Select the user from the Users list.
Select the new role from the Select a role list.
.
Click
Information about the roles to which the user belongs to can be seen in the User
details area.
D0E1121T201305151606 V1 EN
Figure 189:
15.4.3.3
Deleting existing users
1.
264
Adding user
Select the user from the Users list.
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Section 15
User roles and user accounts
1MRK 511 346 C
D0E1058T201305151606 V1 EN
Figure 190:
2.
Click
Select user to be deleted
.
D0E1061T201305151606 V1 EN
Figure 191:
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Delete existing user
265
Section 15
User roles and user accounts
15.4.3.4
1MRK 511 346 C
Changing password
1.
Select the user from the Users list.
D0E1124T201305151606 V1 EN
Figure 192:
2.
3.
Select user
.
Click
Type the old password once and the new password twice in the required
fields.
The passwords can be saved in the project database or sent directly to the IED.
No passwords are stored in clear text within the IED. A hash
representation of the passwords is stored in the IED and it is not
accessible from outside via any ports.
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Section 15
User roles and user accounts
1MRK 511 346 C
IEC12000207-1-en.vsd
D0E1127T201305151606 V1 EN
Figure 193:
15.4.4
Change password
User role management
In the Roles tab, the user roles can be modified. The user's memberships to specific
roles can be modified with a list of available user roles and users.
D0E1064T201305151606 V1 EN
Figure 194:
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Editing users
267
Section 15
User roles and user accounts
15.4.4.1
Adding new users to user roles
1.
2.
3.
15.4.4.2
1MRK 511 346 C
Select the required role from the Roles list.
The role profile can be seen under the Role details field.
Select the new user from the Select a user list.
.
Click
The new user is shown in the Users assigned list.
Deleting existing users from user roles
1.
2.
Right-click the user in the Users assigned list.
Select Remove this Role from Selected Member.
D0E1130T201305151606 V1 EN
Figure 195:
15.4.4.3
Remove Role from User
Reusing user accounts
IED user account data can be exported from one IED and imported to another. The
data are stored in an encrypted file.
To export IED user account data from an IED
1.
2.
Click the Import Export tab in the IED User tool in PCM600.
Click Export IED account data.
The user account data is exported to a file with user defined filename and location.
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Section 15
User roles and user accounts
1MRK 511 346 C
Import IED user rights to an IED
1.
2.
Click Import IED account data.
Open the previously exported file.
Only users who have the right to change the user account data in PCM600 are allowed
to export and import.
D0E1148T201305151606 V1 EN
Figure 196:
15.4.5
Importing and exporting user account data
Writing user management settings to the IED
•
Click
on the toolbar or select IED/Write User Management Settings to
IED on the main menu.
The data are saved when writing to the IED starts.
15.4.6
Reading user management settings from the IED
•
15.4.7
Saving user management settings
•
•
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Click
on the toolbar or select IED/Read User Management Settings from
IED on the main menu.
From the File menu, select Save.
Click the Save toolbar button.
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User roles and user accounts
1MRK 511 346 C
The save function is enabled only if the data has changed.
270
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Section 16
Requirements for external equipment
1MRK 511 346 C
Section 16
Requirements for external equipment
16.1
Circuit breaker
To achieve good controlled switching results, the controlled circuit breaker must
exhibit stable and predictable switching behavior. The recommended circuit breaker
properties are summarized in Table 56.
Table 56:
Requirements for circuit breaker in controlled switching
Property
Closing
Opening
Mechanical scatter (all
conditions nominal) not above
±1 ms
±1 ms
RDDS not below
1 pu1)
(n/a)
Compensation curves
Well defined
Well defined
1) RDDS = 1 pu means that the RDDS is equal to the steepness of the nominal system voltage sine wave
at zero crossing. For example, for a 100 kV (phase-phase RMS voltage) 50 Hz system, this value is
25.7 kV/ms.
The definitions of these properties, together with further requirements for circuit
breakers applied to controlled switching, are given in IEC-TR 62271-302.
If auxiliary contacts of the circuit breaker are used for adaptive correction or operation
monitoring in the IED, their accuracy in replicating main contact timing should be in
the range of ±0.3 ms. The time difference between switching of main and auxiliary
contacts should be adjusted so that the auxiliary contacts change over on the linear part
of the main contact’s travel curve.
16.2
Current transformers
The current transformer ratio is selected based on the power system data, for example,
maximum load. Optimal accuracy of controlled switching operations can be achieved
when the phase displacement does not exceed ±1 electrical degree at nominal current.
For controlled switching of capacitor banks or shunt reactors, measuring cores should
be used to properly render the nominal load current. CTs of accuracy class 5P (IEC)/
1.2 (ANSI) or better are recommended.
For controlled switching of transformers or transmission lines or cables, protection
cores should be used to prevent saturation. CTs of accuracy class 3P (IEC)/C (ANSI)
or better are recommended.
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Section 16
Requirements for external equipment
1MRK 511 346 C
For loads of type power transformer, transmission line, or power
cable, the application setting for nominal load current needs to be set
to the expected charging current under no-load conditions.
16.3
Voltage transformers
Magnetic or capacitive voltage transformers can be used. For optimal accuracy of
controlled switching operations, the phase displacement should not exceed ±1
electrical degree at nominal voltage. VTs with a measuring core of class 1 or better are
recommended.
Capacitive voltage transformers (CVTs) should fulfil the requirements according to
IEC 61869-5 standard regarding ferro-resonance and transients. Switchsync PWC600
has effective filters for these transients, which gives secure and correct operation with
CVTs.
16.4
Non-conventional instrument transformers and
merging units
Accuracy requirements for non-conventional instrument transformers (NCITs) are
essentially the same as for conventional CTs and VTs, considering the entire signal
chain.
Merging units with a digital interface must comply with IEC 61850-9-2 LE, which is
a globally agreed implementation proposal for the IEC 61850-9-2 standard.
16.5
SNTP server
The SNTP server to be used is connected to the local network, that is not more than 4-5
switches or routers away from the IED. The SNTP server is dedicated for its task, or
at least equipped with a real-time operating system, that is, not a PC with SNTP server
software. The SNTP server should be stable, that is, either synchronized from a stable
source like GPS, or local without synchronization. Using a local SNTP server without
synchronization as primary or secondary server in a redundant configuration is not
recommended.
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Section 17
Technical data
1MRK 511 346 C
Section 17
Technical data
17.1
Dimensions
Table 57:
Dimensions of the IED - 3U full 19" rack
Description
17.2
Value
Width
442 mm (17.40 inches)
Height
132 mm (5.20 inches), 3U
Depth
249.5 mm (9.82 inches)
Weight box
10 kg (<22.04 lbs)
Power supply
Table 58:
Power supply
Description
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
600PSM02
600PSM03
Uauxnominal
48, 60, 110, 125 V DC
110, 125, 220, 250 V DC
Uauxvariation
80...120% of Un (38.4...150 V
DC)
80...120% of Un (88...300 V DC)
Maximum load on auxiliary
voltage supply
35 W for DC
Ripple in the DC auxiliary
voltage
Max 15% of the DC value (at frequency of 100 and 120 Hz)
Maximum interruption time in
the auxiliary DC voltage without
resetting the IED
50 ms at Uaux
Resolution of the voltage
measurement in PSM module
1 bit represents 1 V (+/- 1 VDC)
1 bit represents 2 V (+/- 1 VDC)
273
Section 17
Technical data
17.3
1MRK 511 346 C
Measuring inputs
Table 59:
Measuring inputs
Description
Value
Rated frequency
50/60 Hz
Operating range
Rated frequency ±5 Hz
Current inputs
Rated current, In
1/5 A1)
Thermal withstand capability:
•
Continuously
20 A
•
For 1 s
500 A2)
•
For 10 s
100 A
Dynamic current withstand:
•
Voltage inputs
Half-wave value
1250 A
Input impedance
<20 mΩ
Rated voltage, Un
100 V AC/ 110 V AC/ 115 V AC/ 120
V AC
Voltage withstand:
•
Continuous
420 V rms
•
For 10 s
450 V rms
Burden at rated voltage
<0.05 VA
1) Phase currents or residual current
2) Max. 350 A for 1 s when COMBITEST test switch is included
17.4
Binary inputs
Table 60:
Binary inputs
Description
274
Value
Operating range
Maximum input voltage 300 V DC
Rated voltage
24...250 V DC
Current drain
1.6...1.8 mA
Power consumption/input
<0.38 W
Threshold voltage
15...221 V DC (parametrizable in the range in steps
of 1% of the rated voltage)
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Section 17
Technical data
1MRK 511 346 C
Table 61:
Precision binary inputs
Description
17.5
Value
Operating range
Maximum input voltage 300 V DC
Rated voltage
33...288 V DC
Current drain
0...0.5 mA
Power consumption/input
<0.15 W
Threshold voltage
15...221 V DC (parametrizable in the range in steps
of 1% of the rated voltage)
Signal outputs
Table 62:
Signal outputs and IRF output
Description
17.6
Value
Rated voltage
250 V AC/DC
Continuous contact carry
5A
Make and carry for 3.0 s
10 A
Make and carry 0.5 s
30 A
Breaking capacity when the control-circuit time
constant L/R<40 ms, at U <48/110/220 V DC
≤0.5 A/≤0.1 A/≤0.04 A
Power outputs
Table 63:
Power output relays without TCS function (not used in default pre-configuration)
Description
Value
Rated voltage
250 V AC/DC
Continuous contact carry
8A
Make and carry for 3.0 s
15 A
Make and carry for 0.5 s
30 A
Breaking capacity when the control-circuit time
constant L/R<40 ms, at U <48/110/220 V DC
≤1 A/≤0.3 A/≤0.1 A
Table 64:
Power output relays with TCS function (not used in default pre-configuration)
Description
Value
Rated voltage
250 V DC
Continuous contact carry
8A
Make and carry for 3.0 s
15 A
Make and carry for 0.5 s
30 A
Breaking capacity when the control-circuit time
constant L/R<40 ms, at U <48/110/220 V DC
≤1 A/≤0.3 A/≤0.1 A
Table continues on next page
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Section 17
Technical data
1MRK 511 346 C
Description
Value
Control voltage range
20...250 V DC
Current drain through the supervision circuit
~1.0 mA
Minimum voltage over the TCS contact
20 V DC
Table 65:
Precision binary outputs
Description
17.7
Value
Rated switching voltage
33...288 V DC
Continuous carry (resistive)
0.5 A DC
DC make and carry
ton <1 s (single shot, toff >600 s)
L/R <10 ms
Usw ≤50 V
10 A DC
DC make and carry
ton <1 s (single shot, toff >600 s)
L/R <10 ms
Usw >150 V
6 A DC
Impedance in On state
≤0.5 Ω
Impedance in Off state
≥100 kΩ
Data communication interfaces
Table 66:
Ethernet interfaces
Ethernet interface
Protocol
Cable
Data transfer rate
100BASE-TX (front
port)
TCP/IP
CAT 5 S/FTP or better
100 MBit/s
100BASE-FX (rear
Ethernet ports)
TCP/IP
Fibre-optic cable with
LC connector
100 MBit/s
Table 67:
Wave length
1300 nm
Fibre-optic communication links
Fibre type
MM 62.5/125
μm glass fibre
core
Connector
LC
Permitted path
attenuation1)
Distance
<8 dB
<2 km
1) Maximum allowed attenuation caused by connectors and cable together
Table 68:
Protocol
Supported station communication interfaces and protocols
Ethernet
100BASE-FX LC
IEC 61850-8-1
●
HTTP
●
● = Supported
276
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Section 17
Technical data
1MRK 511 346 C
Table 69:
X8/IRIG-B and EIA-485 interface
Type
Protocol
Cable
Tension clamp
connection
IRIG-B
Shielded twisted pair cable
Recommended: CAT 5, Belden RS-485 (98419844) or Alpha Wire (Alpha 6222-6230)
Tension clamp
connection
DNP3.0
(not used in Switchsync
PWC600)
Shielded twisted pair cable
Recommended: DESCAFLEX RDH(ST)H-2x2x0.22mm2, Belden 9729, Belden
9829
Table 70:
IRIG-B
Type
Value
Accuracy
Input impedance
430 Ohm
-
Minimum input voltage
HIGH
4.3 V
-
Maximum input voltage
LOW
0.8 V
-
Table 71:
EIA-485 interface
Type
Value
Conditions
Minimum differential
driver output voltage
1.5 V
–
Maximum output
current
60 mA
-
Minimum differential
receiver input voltage
0.2 V
-
Supported bit rates
300, 600, 1200, 2400,
4800, 9600, 19200,
38400, 57600, 115200
-
Maximum number of
IEDs supported on the
same bus
32
-
Max. cable length
925 m (3000 ft)
Cable: AWG24 or better, stub lines shall be
avoided
Table 72:
Wave length
Optical serial port (X9) and PPS synchronization input (X10)
Fibre type
Connector
Permitted path attenuation1)
820 nm
MM 62,5/125 µm
glass fibre core
ST
6.8 dB (approx. 1700 m length with 4 db/
km fibre attenuation)
820 nm
MM 50/125 µm
glass fibre core
ST
2.4 dB (approx. 600 m length with 4 db/
km fibre attenuation)
1) Maximum allowed attenuation caused by fibre
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User manual
277
Section 17
Technical data
17.8
1MRK 511 346 C
Enclosure class
Table 73:
Degree of protection of rack-mounted IED
Description
Value
Front side
IP 40
Rear side, connection terminals
IP 20
Table 74:
Degree of protection of the LHMI
Description
Value
Front and side
17.9
Ingress protection
Table 75:
17.10
IP40
Ingress protection
Description
Value
IED front
IP 54
IED rear
IP 21
IED sides
IP 42
IED top
IP 42
IED bottom
IP 21
Environmental conditions and tests
Table 76:
Environmental conditions
Description
278
Value
Operating temperature range
-25...+55ºC (continuous)
Short-time service temperature range
-40...+70ºC (<16h)
Note: Degradation in MTBF and HMI performance
outside the temperature range of -25...+55ºC
Relative humidity
<93%, non-condensing
Altitude
up to 2000 m
Transport and storage temperature range
-40...+85ºC
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Section 17
Technical data
1MRK 511 346 C
Table 77:
Environmental tests
Description
Type test value
Cold tests
Dry heat tests
Damp heat tests
17.11
Reference
operation
96 h at -25ºC
16 h at -40ºC
IEC 60068-2-1
ANSI C37.90-2005 (chapter
4)
storage
96 h at -40ºC
operation
16 h at +70ºC
storage
96 h at +85ºC
steady state
240 h at +40ºC
humidity 93%
IEC 60068-2-78
cyclic
6 cycles at +25 to +55ºC
humidity 93...95%
IEC 60068-2-30
IEC 60068-2-2
ANSI C37.90-2005 (chapter
4)
Electromagnetic compatibility tests
Table 78:
Electromagnetic compatibility tests
Description
Type test value
100 kHz and 1 MHz burst
disturbance test
Reference
IEC 61000-4-18, level 3
IEC 60255-22-1
ANSI C37.90.1-2012
•
Common mode
2.5 kV
•
Differential mode
2.5 kV
Electrostatic discharge test
IEC 61000-4-2, level 4
IEC 60255-22-2
ANSI C37.90.3-2001
•
Contact discharge
8 kV
•
Air discharge
15 kV
Radio frequency interference
tests
•
Conducted, common
mode
10 V (emf), f=150 kHz...80 MHz
IEC 61000-4-6 , level 3
IEC 60255-22-6
•
Radiated, amplitudemodulated
20 V/m (rms), f=80...1000 MHz
and f=1.4...2.7 GHz
IEC 61000-4-3, level 3
IEC 60255-22-3
ANSI C37.90.2-2004
Fast transient disturbance tests
IEC 61000-4-4
IEC 60255-22-4, class A
ANSI C37.90.1-2012
•
Communication ports
4 kV
•
Other ports
4 kV
Table continues on next page
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User manual
279
Section 17
Technical data
1MRK 511 346 C
Description
Type test value
Surge immunity test
Reference
IEC 61000-4-5
IEC 60255-22-5
•
Communication ports
1 kV line-to-earth
•
Other ports
2 kV line-to-earth, 1 kV line-toline
•
Power supply
4 kV line-to-earth, 2 kV line-toline
Power frequency (50 Hz)
magnetic field
IEC 61000-4-8, level 5
•
3s
1000 A/m
•
Continuous
100 A/m
Pulse magnetic field immunity
test
1000 A/m
IEC 61000-4-9, level 5
Damped oscillatory magnetic
field
100 A/m, 100 kHz and 1 MHz
IEC 61000-4-10, level 5
Power frequency immunity test
IEC 60255-22-7, class A
IEC 61000-4-16
•
Common mode
300 V rms
•
Differential mode
150 V rms
Voltage dips and short
interruptionsc on DC power
supply
Dips:
40%/200 ms
70%/500 ms
Interruptions:
0...50 ms: No restart
0...∞ s : Correct behaviour at
power down
IEC 60255-11
IEC 61000-4-11
Voltage dips and interruptions
on AC power supply
Dips:
40% 10/12 cycles at 50/60 Hz
70% 25/30 cycles at 50/60 Hz
Interruptions:
0...50 ms: No restart
0...∞ s: Correct behaviour at
power down
IEC 60255-11
IEC 61000-4-11
Electromagnetic emission tests
•
EN 55011, class A
IEC 60255-25
ANSI C63.4, FCC
Conducted, RF-emission
(mains terminal)
0.15...0.50 MHz
<79 dB(µV) quasi peak
<66 dB(µV) average
0.5...30 MHz
<73 dB(µV) quasi peak
<60 dB(µV) average
Table continues on next page
280
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Section 17
Technical data
1MRK 511 346 C
Description
•
17.12
Type test value
30...230 MHz
<40 dB(µV/m) quasi peak,
measured at 10 m distance
230...1000 MHz
<47 dB(µV/m) quasi peak,
measured at 10 m distance
Insulation tests
Table 79:
Insulation tests
Description
Type test value
Dielectric tests:
•
•
Test voltage
2 kV, 50 Hz, 1 min
1 kV, 50 Hz, 1 min,
communication
Test voltage
IEC 60255-5
ANSI C37.90-2005
5 kV, unipolar impulses,
waveform 1.2/50 μs, source
energy 0.5 J
1 kV, unipolar impulses,
waveform 1.2/50 μs, source
energy 0.5 J, communication
Insulation resistance
measurements
•
Isolation resistance
IEC 60255-5
ANSI C37.90-2005
>100 MΏ, 500 V DC
Protective bonding resistance
•
Resistance
IEC 60255-27
<0.1 Ώ (60 s)
Mechanical tests
Table 80:
Mechanical tests
Description
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Reference
IEC 60255-5
ANSI C37.90-2005
Impulse voltage test:
17.13
Reference
Radiated RF-emission,
IEC
Reference
Requirement
Vibration response tests
(sinusoidal)
IEC 60255-21-1
Class 1
Vibration endurance test
IEC 60255-21-1
Class 1
Shock response test
IEC 60255-21-2
Class 1
Shock withstand test
IEC 60255-21-2
Class 1
Bump test
IEC 60255-21-2
Class 1
Seismic test
IEC 60255-21-3
Class 2
281
Section 17
Technical data
17.14
1MRK 511 346 C
Product safety
Table 81:
Product safety
Description
17.15
2006/95/EC
Standard
EN 60255-27 (2005)
EMC compliance
Table 82:
Description
282
Reference
LV directive
EMC compliance
Reference
EMC directive
2004/108/EC
Standards
EN 50263 (2000)
EN 60255-26 (2007)
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Section 18
Glossary
1MRK 511 346 C
Section 18
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Glossary
AC
Alternating current
ACT
Application configuration tool within PCM600
A/D converter
Analog-to-digital converter
AI
Analog input
ANSI
American National Standards Institute
AR
Autoreclosing
AWG
American Wire Gauge standard
BI
Binary input
BIO
Binary input/output module
BO
Binary output
BS
British Standards
CAN
Controller Area Network. ISO standard (ISO 11898) for serial
communication
CB
Circuit breaker
CCITT
Consultative Committee for International Telegraph and
Telephony. A United Nations-sponsored standards body
within the International Telecommunications Union.
CCVT
Capacitive Coupled Voltage Transformer
Class C
Protection Current Transformer class as per IEEE/ ANSI
CMT
Communication Management tool in PCM600
CO cycle
Close-open cycle
COMTRADE
Standard format according to IEC 60255-24
CPU
Central processing unit
CRC
Cyclic redundancy check
CSV
Comma-separated values
CT
Current transformer
CVT
Capacitive voltage transformer
DARPA
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (The US
developer of the TCP/IP protocol etc.)
DC
Direct current
DHCP
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
283
Section 18
Glossary
1MRK 511 346 C
DI
Digital input
DNP
Distributed Network Protocol as per IEEE Std 1815-2012
DR
Disturbance recorder
DRAM
Dynamic random access memory
DSP
Digital signal processor
DVD
Digital versatile disc
EHV
Extra high voltage
EIA
Electronic Industries Association
EMC
Electromagnetic compatibility
EMI
Electromagnetic interference
EN
European standard
ESD
Electrostatic discharge
GDE
Graphical display editor within PCM600
GIS
Gas-insulated switchgear
GOOSE
Generic object-oriented substation event
GPS
Global positioning system
GSAL
Generic security application
HMI
Human-machine interface
HSAR
High speed autoreclosing
HTTP
Hypertext transfer protocol
HV
High-voltage
HVDC
High-voltage direct current
HW
Hardware
IEC
International Electrical Committee
IEC 60044-6
IEC Standard, Instrument transformers – Part 6: Requirements
for protective current transformers for transient performance
IEC 61850
Substation automation communication standard
IEC 61850-8-1
Communication protocol standard
IEC 61850-9-2(LE) Communication protocol standard for sampled values
284
IEEE
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
IEEE 802.12
A network technology standard that provides 100 Mbits/s on
twisted-pair or optical fiber cable
IEEE 1686
Standard for Substation Intelligent Electronic Devices (IEDs)
Cyber Security Capabilities
IED
Intelligent electronic device
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Section 18
Glossary
1MRK 511 346 C
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Instance
When several occurrences of the same function are available in
the IED, they are referred to as instances of that function. One
instance of a function is identical to another of the same kind
but has a different number in the IED user interfaces. The word
"instance" is sometimes defined as an item of information that
is representative of a type. In the same way an instance of a
function in the IED is representative of a type of function.
IP
1. Internet protocol. The network layer for the TCP/IP protocol
suite widely used on Ethernet networks. IP is a connectionless,
best-effort packet-switching protocol. It provides packet
routing, fragmentation and reassembly through the data link
layer.
2. Ingression protection, according to IEC standard
IP 20
Ingression protection, according to IEC standard, level 20
IP 40
Ingression protection, according to IEC standard, level 40
IP 54
Ingression protection, according to IEC standard, level 54
IRF
Internal failure signal
IRIG-B
InterRange Instrumentation Group Time code format B,
standard 200
ITU
International Telecommunications Union
LAN
Local area network
LCD
Liquid crystal display
LED
Light-emitting diode
LHMI
Local human-machine interface
MCB
Miniature circuit breaker
MICS
Model implementation conformance statement, for IEC 61850
MU
Merging unit
MVB
Multifunction vehicle bus. Standardized serial bus originally
developed for use in trains.
NC
Normally closed auxiliary contact
NCC
National Control Centre
NCIT
Non-conventional instrument transformer
NO
Normally open auxiliary contact
OCO cycle
Open-close-open cycle
PC
Personal computer
PCM
Pulse code modulation
PCM600
Protection and control IED manager
285
Section 18
Glossary
286
1MRK 511 346 C
PICS
Protocol implementation conformance statement, for IEC
61850
PIO
Precision input/output module
PIXIT
Protocol implementation extra information for testing, for IEC
61850
PoW
Point on wave
PPS, 1PPS
One pulse per second, time synchronization interface
Process bus
Bus or LAN used at the process level, that is, in near proximity
to the measured and/or controlled components
PSM
Power supply module
PST
Parameter setting tool within PCM600
PT ratio
Potential transformer or voltage transformer ratio
PWC
Point-on-wave controller
RBAC
Role-based access control (role-based security)
RISC
Reduced instruction set computer
RJ-45
Registered jack 45, commonly used as plug connector for
electrical Ethernet
RMS value
Root mean square value
RS422
A balanced serial interface for the transmission of digital data
in point-to-point connections
RS485
Serial link according to EIA standard RS485
RTC
Real-time clock
RTU
Remote terminal unit
Rx
Receive line
SA
Substation Automation
SBO
Select-before-operate
SCADA
Supervision, control and data acquisition
SCL
System configuration language in IEC 61850
SCS
Station control system
SCT
System configuration tool according to standard IEC 61850
SMT
Signal matrix tool within PCM600
SMS
Station monitoring system
SNTP
Simple network time protocol – is used to synchronize
computer clocks on local area networks. This reduces the
requirement to have accurate hardware clocks in every
embedded system in a network. Each embedded node can
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
Section 18
Glossary
1MRK 511 346 C
instead synchronize with a remote clock, providing the
required accuracy.
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
SPO
Single-pole operated (circuit breaker), i.e. one drive for each
pole.
SST
Switchsync Setting Tool within PCM600
Starpoint
Neutral point of transformer or generator
SVC
Static VAr compensation
SW
Software
TC
Trip coil
TCS
Trip circuit supervision
TCP
Transmission control protocol. The most common transport
layer protocol used on Ethernet and the Internet.
TCP/IP
Transmission control protocol over Internet Protocol. The de
facto standard Ethernet protocols incorporated into 4.2BSD
Unix. TCP/IP was developed by DARPA for Internet working
and encompasses both network layer and transport layer
protocols. While TCP and IP specify two protocols at specific
protocol layers, TCP/IP is often used to refer to the entire US
Department of Defense protocol suite based upon these,
including Telnet, FTP, UDP and RDP.
TICS
Tissue implementation conformance statement, for IEC 61850
TPO
Three-pole operated (circuit breaker), i.e. one drive for three
poles
TPZ, TPY, TPX,
TPS
Current transformer class according to IEC
TRV
Transient recovery voltage
Tx
Transmit line
UAC
User Account Control in Microsoft Windows operating
systems
UHV
Ultra high voltage
UMT
User management tool
Unicode
Universal standard for text encoding
UTC
Coordinated Universal Time. A coordinated time scale,
maintained by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures
(BIPM), which forms the basis of a coordinated dissemination
of standard frequencies and time signals. UTC is derived from
International Atomic Time (TAI) by the addition of a whole
number of "leap seconds" to synchronize it with Universal
Time 1 (UT1), thus allowing for the eccentricity of the Earth's
orbit, the rotational axis tilt (23.5 degrees), but still showing the
Earth's irregular rotation, on which UT1 is based. The
287
Section 18
Glossary
1MRK 511 346 C
Coordinated Universal Time is expressed using a 24-hour
clock, and uses the Gregorian calendar. It is used for aeroplane
and ship navigation, where it is also sometimes known by the
military name, "Zulu time." "Zulu" in the phonetic alphabet
stands for "Z", which stands for longitude zero.
288
VT
Voltage transformer
WAN
Wide area network
WHMI
Web human-machine interface
Switchsync™ PWC600
User manual
289
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Substation Automation Products
SE-721 59 Västerås, Sweden
Phone
+46 (0) 21 32 50 00
Fax
+46 (0) 21 14 69 18
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