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Transcript
2
33
Anatomy of IOM
a
Facet for dens
and axis
Anterior arch
Lateral mass with
facet for articulation
with occipital condyle
Transverse
foramen
Transverse
process
Vertebral
foramen
Groove for
vertebral artery
Posterior arch
b
Odontoid
process
Facet
for atlas
Transverse
foramen
Spine
Fig. 2.33 (a) The C1 vertebra, atlas. (b) The C2 vertebra, axis
The C2 vertebra is named axis for the fact that
it provides an axis of rotation for C1. Its most
prominent feature is the bony projection known
as the dens. The dens is also called the odontoid
process, since it resembles a tooth (Fig. 2.33b).
The union between C1 and the occiput is the
atlanto-occipital joint which is responsible for
the nodding movement of the head. The C1–C2
joint is also known as the atlanto-axial joint and
provides for rotation of the head on the neck.
The C7 vertebra has a prominent spinous process and therefore is named vertebra prominens. Occasionally C7 has an abnormal pair of
ribs associated with it that can cause compression
of blood vessels as well as the nerves of the brachial plexus. This condition, known as thoracic
outlet syndrome, can cause pain, numbness, and
tingling in the upper extremity.
Thoracic Vertebrae
The thoracic segment of the vertebral column is the
least flexible due to the attachment of the ribs. The
ribs attach to facets located both on the vertebral
body and the transverse processes. These facets are
called costal facets. The bodies of the thoracic vertebrae are larger than the cervical but smaller than
the lumbar (Fig. 2.34). The size increases with progression from T1 to T12. The vertebral canal contains the spinal cord, and the intervertebral foramina
remain the exit points for the spinal nerves.