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M. Pilmane et al.
Investigation of Cow Bone Tissue Structure
but also in wound healing (Borland et al., 2001;
Bottcher, Niehrs, 2005). Additionally, Frenz et al.
(1994) investigated FGF induction in chondrogenesis
and proved its stimulating role in the regulation of
chondrogenesis during otic capsule formation in
mouse inner ear in situ.
Besides above mentioned, fibroblast growth
factor and bone morphogenetic proteins are important
regulators of mesenchymal, preosteoblast, and
osteoblast apoptosis in suture areas (Fromigue et
al., 2005). Generally, in the bone, osteoblasts and
osteocytes might die in way of apoptosis-rising bone
hipermineralization. The amount of collagen fibers
decreases with age, but also during osteoporosis and
such, and remodeled bone become easier damaged
(Schnitzler et al., 2005).
Finally, proliferation of connective tissue and
blood vessels in Haversian channels seen in almost
all cow bones also demonstrate the role of some
growth factors like FGF that is described to stimulate
proliferation of endothelial cells, angiogenesis, and
even development of granulative tissue (Kawamata et
al., 1997).
In such a way, we observed an important for
seemingly healthy dairy cows row of structural
changes in bones that bring some new understanding
about real welfare of these animals. Despite the
importance of skeleton for cows, research on its
structure, changes and possible origin of various
diseases has been relatively neglected up to now and
should be investigated more in future.
1. Main changes in bone of healthy dairy cows
demonstrate variations in number of osteocytes
per mm2 (mainly increase), variation in diameter
of osteones and different bone density in
trabecules, intensive proliferation of connective
tissue, and abundance of small capillaries in
osteon channels, which proves the morphological
picture of regional osteoporosis in long bones
with changed calcium and phosphate relation.
2. Bone morphogenetic proteins are expressed in
both articular cartilage and bone where growth
of supportive tissue is stimulated and selectively
doesn’t correlate with changes of other growth
3. FGFR, apoptosis, MMP2, and MMP 9 affect
the articular cartilage more than the long bone
in healthy cows despite the unchanged cartilage
structure in routine morphology. Apoptosis and
degradation of supportive tissue matrix by MMP
seem to correlate, but increased expression of
FGFR indicates more compensatory defense
reaction on damage of articular cartilage and long
bones in seemingly healthy cows.
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