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The Legacy of Ancient Greece By: Mr. Tsolomitis Modern Language and Literature • “Alphabet” is a combination of the first two letters of the Greek alphabet. • Greek roots: “tel” (meaning far off) and phone (meaning voice) • Punctuation, grammar, paragraphs. • Drama (comedy and tragedy) • History (Herodotus and Thucydides) Government • Birthplace of democracy • Practice of having citizens serve on juries began in Athens • Several key differences: o We elect representatives to speak and make laws, but in Athens everyone debated and voted on issues. o Women and immigrants can be citizens today, but in Athens, only nativeborn men could be citizens. Medicine and the Human Body • Hippocrates, “the father of modern medicine” • Changed belief about illnesses away from “punishments sent by the gods” to “natural causes” • Taught students to be observant about their patients. • Hippocratic oath • Name/describe organs, the heart pumps blood, and the brain is the center of the nervous system. Mathematics • Pythagoras: numbers are the key to understanding nature • Geometry: “to measure land.” • Euclid really created the textbook on geometry. • Hypatia was the first famous female mathematician Astronomy • Astro means “star” • Aristarchus suggested that the Earth moves around the sun instead of everything moving around the Earth • Hipparchus is the greatest astronomer of the ancient world • Discovered and named more than 850 stars in the sky. • Estimated distances between the Earth and the sun and moon, allowing us to predict eclipses. Geography • Geography means “writing about the earth.” • Ptolemy was greatest geographer of ancient Greece. • Wrote a book that listed over 8,000 places and maps that show how to represent a curved earth on a flat surface. • Latitude and longitude to describe locations on the surface of the Earth Understanding of Plants and Animals • Greeks learned about the human body by studying those of animals • Identified many types of plants and their parts • Used herbs and other natural things to heal people. • Discovered how plants reproduce. • Aristotle was a naturalist, studied many types of plants and animals. o Classified animals as those having or not having backbones. Architecture • Architecture means “master builder” • Pediments and friezes • Many public buildings (libraries, schools, churches, museums, etc.) and/or government structures use Greek styles. • Covered porches come from the Greek stoa, a covered line of columns. Theater • Theater means “a viewing place” • Invented special effects (hoists to lift actors, revolving scenery, etc.) • Many Greek dramas survive and are performed and adapted all over the world. Sports • Olympic Games were first held in 776 B.C.E. to honor Zeus • Opening ceremony and Olympic flame are customs from ancient times. • Pentathlon is Greek for “five contests,” which included a foot-race, discus throw, long jump, javelin, and wrestling. o Meant to be a test of all-around athletic skill o Still an event in today’s Olympics, but the contests are different.