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Guided Notes Standard 1: Objective 1 I can identify the 5 types of pathogens that cause communicable disease. I have a full understanding of what communicable diseases are. Key Vocabulary 1. Communicable Disease: A disease that is spread from one living thing to another or through the environment. 2. Pathogen: An organism that causes disease. 3. Infection: A condition that occurs when pathogens enter the body, multiply, and damage body cells. 4. Viruses: A form of genetic material that invades living cells to reproduce. 5. Bacteria: Singlecelled microorganisms. 6. Toxin: A substance that kills cells or interferes with their functions. 7. Vector: An organism, such as a tick, that carries and transmits pathogens to humans or other animals. Notes Causes of Communicable Disease: organisms that cause disease are called pathogens there are five different types of pathogens: viruses bacteria fungus protozoans rickettsias infections happen when pathogens enter the body, multiply, and damage body cells diseases develop because the body is unable to fight off infection Viruses the most common viruses are the flu and the common cold viruses alone are inactive; they need living cells to reproduce after a virus gets into a cell, known as the host cell, the virus will take over that cell in order to make more viruses viruses usually run their course and eventually are killed by the immune system antibiotics do not work against viruses Bacteria can be both good and bad bacteria in digestive system help digest food and make vitamins some bacteria produce toxins which kill cells bacteria are usually destroyed by the immune system most bacterial diseases can be treated with antibiotics Other Types of Pathogens 1. Fungi: plantlike organisms, such as molds and yeasts. Usually cause disease of the skin, mucous membranes, or lungs. 2. Protozoans: singlecelled organisms that are larger and more complex than bacteria; most are harmless 3. Rickettsias: resemble bacteria; mostly enter humans through insect bites How Communicable Diseases are Transmitted 1. Direct Contact: direct contact with infected person, animal, or something in the environment touching, biting, kissing, sexual contact sneezing and coughing saliva and mucous into someone’s eyes, nose, or mouth pregnant women may infect unborn child through the placenta puncture wound from rusty object, such as a nail 2. Indirect Contact: without being close to an infected person 1. Contaminated objects : a person with a cold sneezes on a table or into their hand and then touches the table; you can contract the infection if you touch the table and then touch your mouth, nose, or eyes. 2. Vectors: Mosquitos take in pathogens when they feed on infected person; mosquito then injects those pathogens into the next person it bites 3. Water and food: undercooked meat, cross contamination, contaminated water supply 3. Airborne Transmission: Pathogens from a sneeze or cough float in the air for a long time and travel a long way; you don’t have to be close to the person to inhale their pathogens.