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Anatomy and Physiology II – Spring 2015
Test 3
What is the function of surfactant? Why is its lack so problematic for premature infants? (2 pts)
Decreases surface tension in alveoli; premature infants often lack it and risk alveoli collapsing after
What are THREE functions of the respiratory system? (3 pts)
Intake of air and transit to lungs; gas exchange; voice production; warm and humidify incoming air
Give the formula for aerobic respiration and state specifically how the digestive and respiratory
systems work in quick-release energy storage in the form of ATP (3 pts)
Glucose (C6H12O6) + O2 → H2O + CO2 + energy to make ATP
Digestive system brings in the glucose; respiratory system brings in the O2 and eliminates the CO2
If Sam has LOW levels of CO2 in his blood how will that affect his blood pH? Explain briefly
WHY this is so. (2 pts)
His blood will be more basic since CO2 in water forms carbonic acid, lowering the blood pH. Low levels
of CO2 will therefore raise the pH
Name THREE sphincters in the digestive system AND their locations and functions. (3 pts)
Esophageal (cardiac) sphincter – stops acid reflux from stomach back into esophagus
Pyloric sphincter retains material in stomach until time to move into the duodenum
Anal sphincters (2 of them) prevent release of feces until the proper time
Match the respiratory volume with its characteristic (4 pts)
__A__ Amount that may be breathed out after
a normal breath
__C__ Amount that can’t be exhaled from lungs
Expiratory reserve volume
Tidal volume
Residual volume
Vital capacity
__B__ Amount of air exchanged in a normal breath
__D__ All the air that can be taken into the lungs during
a forced inspiration followed by a forced expiration
Describe briefly THREE ways in which the endocrine and exocrine functions of the pancreas
differ. (3 pts)
Endocrine – ductless glands; release insulin and other hormones that travel great distance through blood
Exocrine – several secretions (including trypsin and chymotrypsin) are released via ducts into the
Name TWO exocrine and ONE endocrine secretion from the pancreas AND give their function.
Be SPECIFIC!!! (3 pts)
Chymotrypin – protein digestion
Trypsin – activates other digestive enzymes
Bicarbonate – acts as buffer
Insulin and glucagon are endocrine secretions; former decreases blood sugar levels while latter
increases it
Where is the glottis located? Be SPECIFIC! (1 pt)
Under the epiglottis, top of larynx
Name the five types of taste buds. (3 pts)
Sweet, salty, bitter, sour, umami
Do they function if the food material is dry?
No – taste buds register materials in fluid
What TWO muscles are involved in expiration? (2 pts)
Relaxation of diaphragm and contraction of internal intercostals
What are the MAJOR function(s) of each of the following: (15 pts)
Trachea? (1 function)
To transport air to and from lungs
Stomach? (2 functions)
Chemical digestion of foods via HCl and pepsin and mechanical digestion via churning action of muscles
Epiglottis? (1 function)
Prevents food and fluids from entering trachea
Colon? (2 functions)
Absorption of water, ions, vitamins; house beneficial bacteria
Appendix? (1 function)
Houses wbc that help to protect the gut from infection
Vocal folds? (1 function)
Voice production
Tracheal cartilage? (1 function)
Ensure that trachea doesn’t collapse between breathes
Alveoli? (1 function)
Gas (CO2 and O2) exchange
Trypsin? (1 function)
Activates other digestive enzymes in the duodenum
Rugae of the stomach? (1 function)
Increase surface area, help in mechanical digestion
Rectum? (1function)
Store and release feces
Villi in the duodenum? (1 function)
Increase surface area for absorption of nutrients
Chief cells in the stomach (1 function)
Secrete pepsin
DESCRIBE FOUR functions of the liver (4 pts)
Detoxifies material coming into body
Degrades bilirubin
Produces bile
Stores and releases glucose in the form of glycogen
Important for blood sugar homeostasis
What could happen if the epiglottis malfunctioned? (1 pt)
Aspirate food/fluid into lungs
Give a reason why the elderly generally have a lower vital capacity than younger people. (1 pt)
Compression of vertebrae makes them stoop over, decreasing chest volume
Lower level of physical activity
Name the four types of permanent teeth in humans. (4 pts)
Incisors, canines, premolars, molars
Name the THREE salivary glands AND their locations. (3 pts)
Parotid – near ear
Submandibular – under mandible
Sublingual – under tongue
What are TWO functions of saliva? (2 pts)
Moisten and lubricate food; allow taste buds to identify food wetted food; contains amylase and IgA
What is the esophageal hiatus? (1 pt)
Break in the diaphragm that allows passage of esophagus from thoracic into abdominal cavity
Describe a hiatal hernia (1 pt)
Part of stomach protrudes back up through the esophageal hiatus into the thoracic cavity
What SPECIFIC tissue type lines the alveoli? (1 pt)
Simple squamous epithelium
What SPECIFIC tissue type lines the primary bronchi? (1 pt)
Psuedostratified columnar epithelium
What SPECIFIC tissue type lines the esophagus? (1 pt)
Stratified squamous epithelium
What is the function of mucus in the digestive system? (1 pt)
Protect tissue from damage due to acid exposure
Name one digestive system organ that produces it (1 pt)
What is the function of mucus in the respiratory system? (1 pt)
Trap particles and microbes; prevent them from passing on to inner portions of lungs
Name one SPECIFIC structure in the respiratory system that produces it (1 pt)
Name the specific cell type in the respiratory structure above that produces mucus. (1 pt)
Goblet cells
What is the function of the uvula? Where is it located? BE SPECIFIC!! (2 pts)
Prevent exit of material form pharynx out into the nasal cavity; at top of pharynx, in rear
Name the FOUR major regions of the stomach. (2 pts)
Cardiac, fundic, body, pyloric
Name the SIX regions of the large intestine IN ORDER (3 pts)
Cecum; ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid colon; rectum
What digestive system organ functions as both an endocrine and exocrine gland? List one of its
endocrine and one of its exocrine secretions AND give the SPECIFIC function of each. (3 pts)
See question #7
What disease results from inadequate amounts of intrinsic factor? What SPECIFIC cells in that
organ normally make it? Name 1other secretion that that cell type secretes in that organ. (3 pts)
Pernicious anemia; parietal cells; HCl
Name FOUR factors that affect the taste of food. (4 pts)
Perception of taste buds; smell; texture; person’s nutritional and hormonal state; hunger; temperature;
appearance; pain (hot peppers)
Describe why those living with cystic fibrosis might become malnourished. Be specific! (1 pt)
Thick pancreatic secretions may impede flow of digestive enzymes needed to digest food from reaching
the duodenum
How might this lead to pancreatitis? (1 pt)
If enzymes are trapped in pancreas, they may become activated there by trypsin, digesting and damaging
the pancreas
List 3 digestive enzymes that degrade carbohydrates and the organ producing each (3 pts)
Pancreatic amylase – pancreas; maltase, sucrose, lactase - duodenum
List 3 digestive enzymes that degrade proteins and the organ that produces each of them (3 pts)
Chymotrysin and elastase – pancreas; pepsin – stomach
Name a digestive enzyme that degrades lipids and the organ that produces it (1 pt)
Pancreatic lipase - pancreas
Which vitamin is made by gut bacteria, such as E. coli? (1 pt)
Vitamin K
In which organ are these bacteria found? (1 pt)
Large intestine
If these gut bacteria are killed, name a way in which they may be replaced. (1 pt)
Ingesting probiotics, such as by eating yogurt with live cultures
What is the cecum? (1 pt)
Blind sac in large intestine
SPECIFICALLY where is it located? (1 pt)
Right below junction of small and large intestines
Bonuses (1 pt each)
What is the common name for the laryngeal prominence?
Adam’s apple
Why is the appendix also called the vermiform appendix? Where is the appendix located?
Its worm-like appearance; located down from cecum
What are the first and last letters of the Greek alphabet?
Alpha and omega