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Vitamins, Minerals &
Antioxidants - 101 Guide
Any of a group of organic compounds that are essential for normal growth
and nutrition and are required in small quantities in the diet because they
cannot be synthesized by the body.
Vitamins can be either water soluble or fat soluble meaning they
either need water or fat to be digested and absorbed.
Water soluble include (all are B-vitamins expect for vitamin C):
Vitamin C
 Thiamin
 Riboflavin
 Niacin
 B6
 B12
 Folic Acid
 Biotin
Pantothenic acid
Fat soluble include: Vitamin’s A, D, E and K
Vitamin A
 Active form is retinal
 Also found in inactive form, which is activated by the body. This form is
carotene (i.e. beta carotene found in carrots.)
 Vital for vision especially night vision
 Needed for repair for tissue and bone
 Involved in reproduction and fetal development
 Helps immune system function
 Food sources include – whole eggs, dairy, beef liver, dark green
vegetables, yellow/orange colored vegetables
Group of vitamins involved in turning the food we eat into useable energy by
the body
 Include thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, B6, B12, folic acid, biotin, pantothenic
 Some B Vitamins work solely to turn the food we eat into useable energy.
Others have additional roles:
o Thiamin (B1) assists the nervous system, heart muscle and regulates
o Riboflavin (B2) plays a role in mucous membrane formation and
skin formation.
o B6 helps maintain normal homocysteine levels in the blood, which is
an amino acid that helps reduce the risk of heart disease
o Folic acid (B9) helps form brain and spinal cord during fetal
development and is involved in cell division and red blood cell
B vitamins are widespread in the food supply. Found mostly in green
vegetables, meats, dairy and fortified foods.
B12 is the only B Vitamin not found in plant foods and therefore needs to be
supplemented for those who are vegan.
Vitamin C
Aka Ascorbic Acid
Funtions as antioxidant
Assists formation of collegen
Needed for sound healing
Decreases risk of cancer and heart disease
 Found in fruits, vegetable especially citrus, bell peppers, kiwi, broccoli,
strawberries, tomatoes, watermelon, potatoes, bananas and carrots.
Vitamin D
 Technically a steroid hormone
 Controls the expression of over 1,000 genes!
 Knowns as the sunshine vitamin because we can synthesize it from sun
 Helps maintain a healthy weight
 Critical to brain function and preventing depression
 Needed for calcium absorption
 Helps maintain bones and teeth
 Prevents rickets and osteoporosis
 Assists in immune function, cell growth and fetal development
 Lately has been shows to reduce risks for some cancers
 Found in fatty fish, cod liver oil, dairy that has been fortified, egg yolks
and beef
*Vitamin D is easily tested by your doctor.
Vitamin E
 Acts as an antioxidant
 Contributes to immune function and DNA repair
 Sources include vegetable oil, nuts, beans, whole grains and fortified
Vitamin K
 Plays an essential role in blood clotting
 Main source is green leafy vegetables, cabbage, beef liver
a solid inorganic substance of natural occurrence.
Minerals and trace elements represent less than one half of one percent of
the total nutrients we consume every day. Yet, without them, our bodies
would be unable to function. Minerals balance and regulate our body
chemisty, build teeth and bones, help efficiently metabolize nutrients, and
provide antioxidant support. Many vitamins and enzymes also need a mineral
co-factor to function properly. Each mineral plays many roles in the body.
Major Minerals Include:
 Calcium
 Phosphorus
 Potassium
 Sodium
 Chloride
 Magnesium
 Sulfur
Trace Minerals Include:
 Iron
 Iodine
 Zinc
 Chromium
 Selenium
 Copper
 Manganese
 Fluoride*
 Involved in bone and teeth structure
 Aids in muscle contraction, blood clotting, blood vessel contraction and
 Found in dairy foods, dark green vegetables, seaweeds, canned fish with
edible bones, soy, sesame, almonds, fortified foods
Still debate in the medical field about safety
Plays role in bone health
Prevents tooth decay and cavities
Found in fortified tap water, tea and seafood
 Fortified toothpaste
 Needed for thyroid function
 Found in iodized salt, seafood, sea vegetables (kelp) and supplements
 Needed for the formation of hemoglobin in the blood and myoglobin in
muscle, both of which are oxygen-carrying cells
 Sources include red meat, organ meats, fish, poultry, eggs, beans, lentils,
leafy vegetables, dried fruits, and enriched grains
 We absorb animal form better than plant form. Vitamin C source
improves absorption of plant form
Assists in nerve and muscle function
Regulates muscle contractions and blood clotting
Maintains bones and teeth
Helps prevent constipation
Sources include green leafy vegetables, legumes, nuts, seeds, whole
 Required for bone and tooth structure
 Part of DNA
 Found in most foods including animal and plant
 Maintains water and electrolyte balance
 Helps control activities of heart, muscle and nervous system
 Present in almost all animal and plant foods
 Functions as antioxidant
 Helps prevent some cancers
 Found in meat, chicken, fish, seafood, brazil nuts, grains, garlic,
Regulates water and electrolyte balance
Required for nerve and muscle activity
Maintains regular acid/base balance
Found in table sale, soy sauce, milk products and sea vegetables
Assists in the activity of numerous enzymes
Essential to immune function and would healing
Aids in DNA synthesis and reproduction
Maintains sense of smell and taste
Food sources include meat, poultry, seafood, eggs, dairy, whole grains,
fortified cereals and legumes
a substance that inhibits oxidation, especially one used to counteract the
deterioration of stored food products
Cell-damaging oxidative stress is caused by free radicals that come from
normal cellular metabolism, exposure to pollution and toxins, stress, and poor
diet and lifestyle habits. Free radicals attach our cells, gradually chipping
away at their integrity resulting in an eventual decline in health. Antioxidants
neutralize the activity of free radicals to protect the integrity of our cells, which
impacts every party of our body.
Free radical sources:
Sun (UV Light)
Excessive Exercise
 Unhealthy Foods
Antioxidants include Vitamins A,C & E, along with
Selenium and many other plant compounds, such as
Carotenoids, Flavonoids, and Anthocyanins.
So what do you need?
Molly’s Basic Supplement
USANA Essentials Multivitamin Meg
Provides a comprehensive spectrum of vitamins and antioxidants to
support long- term health and well-being.* This exclusive formula
also contains USANA's patented Olivol®, making it among the most
powerful and complete vitamin and antioxidant formulas available
on the market.
Chelated Mineral
Is a comprehensive science-based mineral supplement designed to
be taken with Mega Antioxidant for benefit. Together, these two
products compose the USANA Essentials™ for all adults.
Ultra-pure fish oil supplement provides advanced levels of EPA and
EHA (two omega-3 fatty acids) to support cardiovascular and joint
Proflavanol C100:
Is a unique bioflavonoid supplement that combines the powerful
antioxidant defense of grape-seed extract with high- potency
vitamin C. Working together, these two ingredients provide excellent
support for the immune and circulatory systems, and help maintain
skin’s firmness and elasticity. Proflavanol C200 is just that, twice the
goodness of PC100.
USANA Probiotic:
Your gut is home to trillions of bacteria called your gut flora. In fact,
you have more bacteria in your belly than you have cells in your
body. These little guys are responsible for making vitamin K and
some B vitamins, breaking down fiber and producing enzymes,
hormones and antibodies out bodies need. The good bacteria in
your gut feed on fiber, while the bad guys feed on sugar, yeast and
stress. Eating a healthy diet & probiotic-rich foods, and taking your
probiotic supplement will help you maintain a healthy balance of
your gut flora.
USANA Digestive Enzyme:
Digestive enzymes help us break down our food into absorbable
molecules. As we age our ability to create our own digestive
enzymes depletes. Supplementing with a high-quality digestive
enzyme will drastically reduce bloating and gas, and help you
absorb all of the nutrients in the delicious food you are consuming.
USANA Vitamin D
Is formulated with 2000 IU of maximum strength vitamin D.
Additional Resources
Click on each link for more info:
 Mega Antioxidant Functions and Info
 Chelated Mineral Functions and Info
 USANA Essential vs. Competitors
 Science Behind USANA Probiotic
Biomega Quality Comparison
Biomega Cost Comparison
Science Behind Proflavonal-C100