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Teaching with PreProgrammed Scenarios
Laerdal Scenario Package Components
CD box
with Installer guide
Additional materials
Begin with the End in Mind
Review learning Objectives
• Verify that objectives match the
program’s learning goals and
the learner’s current skill level.
• When learning objectives are
revised, update the content
areas that are inter-dependent
such the scenario file, props
and other cues, and debriefing
Review Scenario Flow Sheet
• Develop an understanding of
your starting point
– Preset Baseline Parameters
• Understand the flow of the
– Good pathways
– Bad Pathways
Review Correct Treatment
• Review the correct treatment
guidelines – determine what
behavior the learner should
demonstrate during the
• Remember, any changes made
to this area must also be
addressed in the learning
objectives and other
interdependent content areas.
Review Debriefing Points
• Debriefing topics are
usually anchored to the
scenario’s learning
objectives and educational
• Instructors are encouraged
to remain flexible when
formulating debriefing
topics. Unexpected events
may occur during a case
that warrants exploration
during the debriefing.
Review Scenario Files
Review Scenario File
• The scenario file contains
frames, actions, and event
• View using scenario editor.
• Frames are like storyboards.
• Key Terms:
– Actions
– Events
Anatomy of a Scenario File
 Customize patient information and
patient monitor.
 Actions: control simulator.
 Handler: link learner’s performance and
actions (optional).
 Event Output: trigger movement
between frames.
 Trend: physiological change over time.
Review Event Menu
• Electronic checklist
of customizable
• Events appear in
Event Log when
clicked by
Event Menus
Events that are added or edited in the Event Menu appear in the Graphic
User Interface (G.U.I.)
Review Physiological Trend
• Trends enable changes
to vital signs over
• Trends may be altered
to meet specific
learning objectives.
• Saved trends may be
inserted into any
Review Event Handler
• Handlers link events to
• Handlers may be
customized and
inserted into any
Prepare the Event and the Simulator
• According to evidence within the
simulation literature, the
psychological fidelity (realism) of
a simulation is important to
• Learner prefer cases that feel real
Prepare the Environment and Simulator
• Assemble Equipment and Medications.
ECG monitor.
Stethoscope and BP cuff.
Crash cart.
• Prepare the Environment.
– Examination room.
– Sounds (phones ringing, etc.).
– People (assistants, physician, and technicians).
• Prepare the Simulator.
– Dressed appropriately.
– Moulaged as needed (blood, vomit, etc.).
– Props (pill bottles, inhaler, etc.).
Prepare the Learners
• Learners are more likely to
succeed when they know
what is expected of them.
This section provides tips on
how to prepare learners for a
– Examine the simulator prior
to the simulation. Review
features and capabilities
(voice, pulse points, drug
administration, etc.)
– Permit the learners to
acclimate to the new learning
– Review learning objectives.
– Report to Student
– Discuss roles.
Prepare The Learners
Use Realistic Materials
Provider Orders 
 Patient Identification Bracelet
Instructor’s Role During Simulation
• Behavioral guidelines for facilitating a healthcare simulation
– Welcome the learners and communicate your expectations
about their clinical performance, affective behavior and
professionalism. For example:
• “Welcome – You are about to participate in a simulated patient
case. The patient has a chief complaint – I expect you to assess
the patient and manage her to the best of your ability. Treat the
simulated patient as an actual human patient. This case lasts
approximately 10 minutes. We’ll debrief as a team following the
– Emphasize the simulator’s features. For example:
• “I expect that you will ask the patient questions and actually
assess their vital signs – please do not ask me for this
– Permit the learners to ask questions prior to the simulation.
Instructor’s Role during the Simulation
• The instructor may begin the case when the learners are
ready. Positioned at the computer, the instructor observes
the learners performance and registers events using the
Graphic User Interface.
• The instructor must decide under what conditions they
would interrupt the simulation.
For example, safety-related violations that may injure a
learner warrant intervention while a learner’s deviation from
the learning objectives is an opportunity for all parties to learn
and may not warrant interruption. Typically, when in a testing
situation, the instruction would not offer cues and advice to
the learner. When teaching, it is not uncommon to pause a
simulation to offer assistance to the learner.
Simulation User Network Website
Laerdal Scenario Packages
Our scenario
Are easy to use and
Are cost effective
Work on a variety of
Are created in alliance
with highly credible
clinical and educational
Are rigorously validated