LEARNING THROUGH PLAY
... A World without Play "Playing is central to children’s physical, psychological and social wellbeing. Whilst playing, children can experience real emotions, create
their own uncertainty, experience the unexpected, respond to new
situations and adapt to a wide variety of situations. Play enables
... repeatable behaviour into which experiences
are assimilated) Athey’s theory has been
influential in our observations of children and
in planning curricula.
Bruner believed that children need to be
physically active and to have firsthand
experiences to develop ideas and the ability to
think. Play pro ...
... information processing the process by which a stimulus is received, interpreted,
stored in memory and later retrieved
information search the identification of alternative ways of problem solving
lifestyle the pattern of living as expressed in a person’s activities, interests and
Matching: Early Childhood Approaches
... 12. Emphasizes learning practical skills such as cleaning and caring for self.
13. Children are encouraged to work through the steps of assignments
independently, charting their course of learning.
14. There is no set curriculum, but it emerges based on the children’s interests.
15. Developed after ...
LEARNER CENTERED APPROACH
... Acquisition of complex knowledge and skills requires
extended learner effort and guided practice. Without
learners' motivation to learn, the willingness to exert
this effort is unlikely without force.
Cognitive Learning Theories
... • Behavioral Learning Theories – focuses on
observable changes in outward behavior & on
the impact of external stimuli to effect change.
• Cognitive Learning Theories – focuses on the
internal mental processes, how they change,
and how they affect external behavior changes.
Adult Learning Theory
... Orientation to learning aspects: this provided me with the understating that adults can be utilized in the
production of learning experiences by integration them into resources for learning. Often times, people
do not utilize this reservoir of experiences and talents. At the same time, relating lear ...
... Promoting the use and uptake of a range of educational resources to enhance the
development of learning disability nurses knowledge and skills
Event held on 22nd October. This event provided an opportunity to showcase and enable
‘taster’ sessions of a number of NES resources, including; Foetal Alcoh ...
Slides - University of Leeds
... day Erasmus funded lifelong learning intensive arts therapies with different client groups.
1 tutor and 6 MA Psychotherapy and Counselling
students travelled (the tutor also facilitating some
of the learning).
Each student asked to keep a reflective log.
Students also told at the outset that t ...
Motivation - Studies
... • Gives more emphasis to the internal processes that
occur when training content is learned and
• Information can come from another person or the
learner’s own observation of the results of his
• If the evaluation of the response is positive, this
provides reinforcement that the be ...
... • Development reflects children’s efforts to
understand the world
• Jean Piaget developed a four-stage
sequence that characterizes children’s
changing understanding of the world
• According to information-processing theory,
development consists of increased efficiency
in processing information
... “Discussion Finished” button (see Figure 2b) to inform the computer
The computer system then generates the message “Correct” or “Incorrect”
for the question-setter and question-replier (see Figure 3a & 3b).
These authority judgments create the second type of cognitive conflict when
they diff ...
Imagining and critical reflection in autobiography: An odd couple in
... work and play of interpretation.
The differing approaches to interpretation, which Gadamer (1975), Habermas (1972, 1977), and
Ricoeur (1976, 1980) propose, all contribute to this understanding of autobiography and
transformative learning. These three philosophers place emphasis on diverse and altern ...
... a brief article on SmallWorld Simulations
... traditional lectures, or the widely used ‘case method’
. This analysis led to the formulation of an
emphasizing the direct link between theory and
practice (or the “Knowing-Doing Gap” as formulated
by Pfeffer and Sutton ), the need for more
Other Recommendations for Using Multiple Intelligences
... Similarly, Knowles’ (2005) orientation to learning ideology contends that adults are “lifecentered” as opposed to children who are “subject centered”. That being said, adult motivation
to learn is drawn from the belief that they will be able to utilize what they learn in their lives
(Knowles, 2005). ...
Teaching with Pre-Programmed Scenarios
... – Welcome the learners and communicate your expectations
about their clinical performance, affective behavior and
professionalism. For example:
• “Welcome – You are about to participate in a simulated patient
case. The patient has a chief complaint – I expect you to assess
the patient and manage her ...
Lubow RE. Latent inhibition. Psychol. Bull 79:398
... to keep myself from following the assigned
course of our animals into a “neurosis” (the
1 exmajor conceptual variable for producing
perimental neurosis was monotony), I
thought it would be useful to try to demonstrate latent learning, not in a maze as all of
the previous studies had done, but in a p ...
the Unit 3 study guide in PDF format.
... Learning Objective 3 (pp. 156-157): Stimulus Generalization — Stimulus Discrimination
1. What is stimulus generalization? What influences the strength of a generalized response?
2. What is stimulus discrimination? When might discrimination training be necessary?
Learning Objective 4 (pp. 157-160): A ...
... Constructivist’s Perspective
• Knowledge is constructed as a result of
the learning process
• Learning occurs when knowledge is
assimilated or accommodated (Piaget)
• Knowledge may be constructed best in a
Application of Cognitive and Socio
... between internalized input and output. Lamy and Hampel (2007) emphasize the fact that socio
cultural theory associates psychological process with individuals’ social being. Thus
interaction is the base of learning process in socio cultural theory as Vygotsky (1978) states,
interaction with others is ...
... • Be aware of own and other’s nonverbals
• Don’t always need verbals to
• When verbal and nonverbal agree,
message more likely understood
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
... • Improved psychological functions of attention,
compassion and empathy
• Calms the stress response
• Improves medical conditions
• Improves psychological conditions e.g. anxiety
Transformative learning theory says that the process of ""perspective transformation"" has three dimensions: psychological (changes in understanding of the self), convictional (revision of belief systems), and behavioral (changes in lifestyle).Transformative learning is the expansion of consciousness through the transformation of basic worldview and specific capacities of the self; transformative learning is facilitated through consciously directed processes such as appreciatively accessing and receiving the symbolic contents of the unconscious and critically analyzing underlying premises.A defining condition of being human is that we have to understand the meaning of our experience. For some, any uncritically assimilated explanation by an authority figure will suffice. But in contemporary societies we must learn to make our own interpretations rather than act on the purposes, beliefs, judgements, and feelings of others. Facilitating such understandings is the cardinal goal of adult education. Transformative learning develops autonomous thinking.Perspective transformation, leading to transformative learning, occurs infrequently. Jack Mezirow believes that it usually results from a ""disorienting dilemma"" which is triggered by a life crisis or major life transition - although it may also result from an accumulation of transformations in meaning schemes over a period of time. Less dramatic predicaments, such as those created by a teacher, also promote transformation.An important part of transformative learning is for individuals to change their frames of reference by critically reflecting on their assumptions and beliefs and consciously making and implementing plans that bring about new ways of defining their worlds. This process is fundamentally rational and analytical.