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Test #10
VUS. 15
Around the same time that African Americans were
trying to gain civil rights in America, so were
American women
At first, the women’s liberation movement and civil
rights movement for African Americans were
Women had gained some rights over the years, but
were still treated very differently than men
Women were getting jobs, but being paid less than
men for completing the same work
“Pink collar” jobs
 a job that is stereotypically considered to be women's work
 Nurse, babysitter, waitress, etc.
1963: Betty Friedan wrote the Feminine
 The book ridiculed the notions that women were only
suited for low paying jobs
 Also challenged the idea the idea that women could
only be judged as wives and mothers
 The book changed many women’s outlooks about
marriage, childbearing, and work
Not all women agreed with Friedan’s book
Betty Friedan
“Glass Ceiling”
 The term "glass ceiling" has been thought to have first
been used to refer to invisible barriers that impede the
career advancement of women in the American
1963: the Equal Pay Act was passed
 The Act said that women should receive equal pay of
men for doing the same work
The civil rights legislation of 1964 also addresses
some women’s issues
 Outlawed the discrimination in employment based on
gender and race
Women became an increasingly large percentage
of America’s labor force
Many working women were also mothers
 This created a need for affordable day care
Many women’s liberation movement members
helped to found NOW (National Organization for
NOW fought for equal pay and equal rights for
NOW also began to campaign for an Equal Rights
Amendment to the Constitution (ERA)
ERA would ban discrimination based on gender
ERA failed to gain enough support to be added to
the Constitution
 ERA passed both houses of Congress, but it was not
ratified by the states
 Many felt ERA would lead to a direct breakdown of the
Notable women:
Sandra Day O’Connor was the first woman to
serve on the United States Supreme Court
Sally Ride was the first female astronaut in the
United States
Sandra Day O’Connor
Roe v. Wade
Decided in 1973
Gave women more freedom
Made it legal for women to get abortions
Roe v. Wade video
The US felt it was behind the Soviet Union in missile
After the Soviets launch Sputnik in 1957, the US will
create NASA (National Aeronautics and Space
 NASA was an attempt by the US to catch up to the Soviets
in missile and space technology
In the early 1960s, President Kennedy pledged
increased support for the American space program
 Kennedy challenged the US to try and get to the moon by
the end of the 1960s (Kennedy's Race to the Moon
reference Video)
The race to the moon continued through the 1960s
U.S. astronaut John Glenn was the first American
to orbit the Earth
In 1969, American astronaut Neil Armstrong was
the first person to step onto the moon’s surface
 He proclaimed, “That’s one small step for a man; one
giant leap for mankind.”
 One Small step video
John Glenn
Neil Armstrong
America’s space program under NASA flew
several missions to the moon
NASA has also benefited from better technology
to help with space exploration
 The Space Shuttle (now retired) allowed for a single
craft to leave earth, return, and be used for future
 Voyager missions—2 satellites used to study Jupiter
and Saturn, and then the rest of the solar system
 Hubble Space Telescope allows scientists to peer
deeper into the universe
 Mars rover traveled on the surface of Mars collecting
Voyager spacecraft
Hubble Telescope
Mars Rover
Changes have also occurred in Communications,
some thanks to NASA
Over the past three decades, improved technology
and media have brought about better access to
communication and information for businesses and
individuals in both urban and rural areas
Many more Americans have access to global
information, global viewpoints, and global products
 Satellites—provide better communication, access to more
television programming, etc.
 Cable and Sat TV: More access to information
 GPS (Global Position System)
 Personal communication devices—PDA, Cell Phone, Smart
Phone, etc.
 Personal computers—widespread access
 Internet (world wide web)
Changes in work, school, and health care in
recent decades
Telecommuting—work at home using a
computer to link with your office via the internet
Online coursework—earn a degree by taking
college courses online
Growth of Service Industries—those who work
with the growing technologies
Breakthroughs in medical research to help
Americans live healthier and longer
 1955: Dr. Jonas Salk created the polio vaccine
 Before the vaccine, polio was considered the most
frightening public health problem of the post-war
United States (after 1945)
 Salk was the American born child of Russian
Dr. Jonas Salk
There are some negatives to advances in
technology and changes in work
 American companies hiring overseas to fill jobs and
 Possible through new communications
 Many help lines for American companies are located in
 An American company builds a factory overseas
 Cheaper labor
Advancements in technology have caused our
planet to shrink
Immediate information at anytime
World competition has kept prices low
1963: Pres. Kennedy, Great Britain, and the
Soviet Union signed the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
 Banned nuclear testing above ground, under water,
and in outer space
Détente: an attempt to make better relations
with the Soviet Union
 Created by Pres. Richard Nixon
 Nixon believed creating better relations with the
Soviets and China would benefit the U. S.
 Opened up new markets for US goods
 Nixon’s visit to China in 1972 was part of Détente
Kennedy signing the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
SALT: 1972, Pres. Nixon and the Soviet Premier
(Brezhnev) signed the SALT agreement
 SALT: Strategic Arms Limitations Treaty
 SALT limited the number of certain types of nuclear
 Allowed each nation to monitor the other’s stockpile
of nuclear weapons
 SALT helped to ease the tensions between the US and
Soviet Union
Problems in the Middle East in the 1970s will affect
the United States
The US was (and still is) heavily dependent on oil
from the Middle East
1960—5 oil producing nations formed OPEC
(Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries)
OPEC was designed to coordinate oil production
OPEC set prices and regulated the production of oil
Had a monopoly over the price and availability of oil
in the world
1973: the US supported Israel in the October War
(Yom Kippur War)
Since the US was helping Israel, OPEC placed an
embargo on oil to the US
Caused a shortage of gasoline and oil products in
the US
Pres. Jimmy Carter and Congress began passing
laws to help with the conservation of oil and gas
 Regulations on fuel consumption for automobiles, etc.
The embargo was lifted in 1974
Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO)
After WWII, the Allies created the Jewish state of
Many Palestinian Muslims lived in Israel and were
opposed to the creation of the Jewish nation
The PLO wanted to create an independent state
(nation) of Palestine, separate from Jewish Israel
Camp David Accords (Pres. Jimmy Carter):
Egypt and Israel were bitter enemies
They had fought 4 major wars with each other up
until 1973
1978: the president of Egypt—Anwar al-Sadat–
announced he wanted to make peace
Pres. Carter of the US saw an opportunity to
make peace between Egypt and Israel
1979: at Camp David the Egyptian President and
Israeli Prime Minister signed the Camp David
 Established a peace between Israel and Egypt
Persian Gulf War :
1990: Iraq invaded Kuwait
Iraq took over vital oil fields in Kuwait
The US will send the US military to free Kuwait
and the oil fields from Iraqi control
28 nations joined in to help the US
Kuwait was quickly freed, but the Iraqi leader will
escape capture
Conservatives (Republicans):
Believe in cuts in government spending
Reduced government regulation of business
Tax cuts for the wealthy
Reduction in the number and scope of government
programs and regulations
Liberals (Democrats):
 believe in increased government spending
 Increased government regulation of business
 Favor a greater role for the government in addressing
social problems
 Using government money to help address social
 Tax increases on the wealthy
Government and Money:
Government promotes a healthy economy
characterized by full employment and low
inflation through the actions of:
 Monetary policy decisions control the supply of
money and credit to expand or contract economic
growth—controlled by the Federal Reserve
 Fiscal policy is the use of government expenditure
and revenue collection (taxation) to influence the
economy—controlled by the President and Congress
Reaganomics (“Regan Revolution”):
Refers to the economic policies promoted by Pres
Ronald Reagan during the 1980s
Shrink down the size of the Federal Government
Reduce Growth of Government spending
Tax Cuts
Reduce Government regulation
Control the money supply to reduce inflation
Strengthening the military to put pressure on the Soviets
to end the Cold War
 Appointment of judges who exercised “judicial restraint”—
let the constitution speak for itself
 Transfer the responsibility of government back to the state
Reagan advocated supply-side economics
Also called trickle-down economics
Tax cuts at the top will allow money to trickle
down to the people
The Regan Revolution will extend past his office
Three Supreme Court decisions from the 1960s dealt
with a person’s right to legal Counsel
Gideon v. Wainwright (1963):
 Established that people accused of a crime have the right
to a lawyer, even if they cannot afford one
Escobedo v. Illinois (1964):
 A person has the right to a lawyer from the time of arrest
or when one becomes the subject of a criminal
Miranda v. Arizona (1966):
 Required that accused people be informed of their right to
a lawyer and their right not to testify against themselves
Miranda Rights Video
Engle v. Vitale (1962):
This court case dealt with religion in schools
Said that school initiated prayer was
Student initiated prayer are still allowed,
1969: Pres. Nixon took office
The White House had lots of power
Presidents will use their power to get things done
Nixon will just go too far
Nixon had an inner circle of men that held lots of
power, but made Nixon isolated
1971: a list of enemies was put together for
 Over 200 names were on the list
Nixon asked the FBI to spy on the people on his
Nixon was afraid that the anti-Vietnam
movement might undo his presidency
Nixon ordered his “secret police” to open
people’s mail and tap their phones
They would also break into homes and offices to
search for information
In 1972, Nixon was up for re-election
To ensure a victory, Nixon put John Mitchell in
charge of his campaign
Mitchell created the Committee to Re-elect the
President (CREEP)
Mitchell launched a massive illegal fund raising
 Raised $60 million
Much of the money was used to pay for “dirty
tricks” against the Democratic party
Nixon was afraid that the media would expose
his illegal campaign activities
CREEP created a special investigations group
called the Plumbers
Plumbers were to keep security leaks from
Jan `971: G. Gordon Liddy (a CREEP Plumber)
devised a plan to break into the Democratic
National Committee headquarters
 They were to copy documents and wiretap phones
 Would allow Nixon to keep tabs on the Democrats
election strategies
G. Gordon Liddy
June 17, 1972: CREEP members broke into the
Democratic headquarters at the Watergate
The plan did not go well
2 reporters were told of the break in at the
Watergate complex
 Bob Woodward
 Carl Bernstein
The 2 reporters began to investigate the break in
Woodward and Bernstein
Nixon denied that the Whitehouse had any
involvement in the break in
Nixon will win the 1972 election, but things will
quickly go bad
1973: the Watergate burglars went on trial
One suspect said the Whitehouse had lied about not
knowing about the plan
U. S. Senate investigated the break in
Senate hearings were televised
The hearings revealed that Nixon had bugged the
The Senate ordered Nixon to turn over the
Whitehouse recordings
 Nixon refused on the principle of Executive Privelege
Nixon will eventually release transcripts of the
The House Judiciary Committee started working
on articles of Impeachment—bringingcharges
against the President
The House recommended to impeach Nixon
August 5, 1974 Nixon handed over the
Whitehouse tapes
1974: Nixon will resign as president
Watergate Scandal Video
New immigrant groups have increased American
diversity and redefined American identity
Immigration to the United States has increased
from many diverse countries, especially Asian
and Latin American countries
Reasons for Immigration
Political freedom from oppressive governments
 (Cambodians from the 1970’s and Modern Haitians)
Refugees from devastating wars
 (Southern Europe as well as Africa)
Economic opportunity through jobs
Effects of Immigration
Strain on government services
Filling low-paying jobs in the United States
 Many immigrants take very low paying jobs that other
Americans will not
Border issues
 Many immigrants enter the US illegally
 Terrorism threat
Pathway to citizenship
 Immigrants wanting to become American Citizens
Bilingual education
 Offering courses in school in 2 or more native languages
 ESL—English as a second language courses
 Many in the US believe all immigrants should learn and only
speak English
Increasing cultural diversity
Contributions of Immigrants
Diversity in music, the visual arts, and literature
Roles in the labor force
 Immigrants do jobs that others cannot or will not do
Achievements in science, engineering, and other
fields made by immigrants
Immigrant worker in tobacco field
Nuclear Proliferation
 the spread of nuclear weapons and weaponsapplicable nuclear technology and information to
nations which are not recognized as "Nuclear Weapon
 More nations—some questionable—now have nuclear
Nuclear Proliferation Treaty
a treaty to limit the spread (proliferation) of
nuclear weapons
Designed in an attempt to limit nuclear weapons
to help create more world peace
The treaty came into force on 5 March 1970
In recent years, terrorism has become a major
After the 9/11 attacks on the United States, the US
government began taking steps to confront and
combat terrorism
We have more heightened security at home with the
Patriot Act
 Dramatically reduced restrictions on law enforcement
agencies' ability to search telephone, e-mail
communications, medical, financial, and other records
 Eased restrictions on foreign intelligence gathering within
the United States
 Allows the government to use nearly any means necessary
to track and search for terrorists
 Patriot Act Video
The Office of Homeland Security was also
 A cabinet department of the US federal government
 Primary responsibilities of protecting the territory of
the United States and protectorates from and
responding to terrorist attacks, man-made accidents,
and natural disasters
 Works in the civilian sphere to protect the United
States within, at, and outside its borders
 Its stated goal is to prepare for, prevent, and respond
to domestic emergencies, particularly terrorism
The US has also responded to terrorism through
diplomatic and military initiatives
 Wars in Iraq and Afghanistan
 Trying to instill Democratic (American) ideals in many
Arab nations
 Trying to create better relationships with potentially
dangerous nations