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Name: Period: Anatomy and Physiology Blood Blood has several functions, according to its components: red blood cells (rbc’s) carry _________________________________, white blood cells (wbc’s) protect against/fight _________________________________, and platelets promote _________________________________. • Blood within an adult human is ~______________________ liters. • Whole blood is heavier and more viscous than ____________________________________. • A _______________________________________ (HCT) is the percentage of blood cell volume (generally 45%). • The majority of cells are rbc’s, then wbc’s, and platelets (considered fragments in the blood). • 55% of blood is ______________________________________________, a watery substance mixed with amino acids, macromolecules, electrolytes, vitamins, hormones & wastes. This results in a straw colored fluid. • The percentage of blood volume varies: body size, [fluid] and [electrolyte], and amount of adipose (fat). • Blood components can be separated by centrifuging them: • __________________________________________ is the lightest (and rests atop the rest), the ________________________________________coat is the middle layer of cells containing wbc’s and platelets while the bottom-most layer contains the rbc’s. Blood Plasma: • ______________________________, straw colored fluid • liquid portion of blood • contains ~90% _______________________________________ & a mix of dissolved chemicals (macromolecules, vitamins, electrolytes & wastes) • proteins are the most abundant of the dissolved substances in plasma There are 3 groups of proteins: albumins, globulins, and fibrinogen. • ______________________________________________: smallest but majority of the plasma proteins (by weight); regulate the movement of water controlling blood ______________________________________________ & controlling _______________________________________________________________________ • globulins: ________________________________________________ lipids &fat soluble vitamins; 3 types: alpha, beta • fibrinogen: __________________________________________- but least of plasma proteins; functions in blood coagulation (clumping) Name: Period: Red Blood Cells: • a.k.a. ____________________________________________________________________ • concave disks (look like donuts with no hole). • Contains a protein, ____________________________________________(~1/3 of the rbc) which is the reason rbc’s are red • When O binds with hemoglobin, blood is bright red; when rbc’s are O deficient, blood is dark (but 2 2 STILL _______________________________). • The average life span of a rbc is ~____________________________ days; however, the blood cell count is stable. • One test performed on blood is a red blood cell count (a.k.a ______________________________________ or RCC). • Used in discovering illness: change in # of rbc’s affects the amount of O being carried; therefore, affecting 2 the health of an individual. • Rbc’s are broken down by macrophages in the ________________________________________ & ___________________________________________________. • When rbc’s are broken down, ________________________________________(an iron-containing compound from hemoglobin) is released. • Rbc production is controlled by a ___________________________________________ feedback mechanism: erythropoietin (a hormone) regulates rbc formation. • When O is deficient, the kidneys & liver release erythropoietin to make rbc’s. 2 • Rbc production requires: vitamin ______________________________, folic acid, and ______________________________________________. • __________________________________________is a condition in which there are too few rbc’s or too little hemoglobin. This condition results in __________________________________________ or lack of energy. Many women have this condition due to menstruation or pregnancy. White Blood Cells: • a.k.a. ____________________________________________________________ • __________________________________________________ against disease, fight infection • include 5 types which differ in size, cytoplasm, nuclei shape & staining characteristics. Name: • Period: These are broken into 2 groups: ______________________________________________ (leukocytes with granular cytoplasm) and ____________________________________________________ (leukocytes without a granular cytoplasm). Granulocytes • are ___________________________________ the size of a rbc • contain granular cytoplasm • are produced in the red bone marrow • life span is ~________________________________ hours • include: Neutrophils, Basophils, and Eosinophils Neutrophils • Contain fine cytoplasmic granules • ~_____________________________% of wbc’s in an adult blood sample. • contain lysosomes which perform __________________________________________ (ingest small particles); generally die b/c of the amount of toxins ingested Eosinophils • uniformly sized cytoplasmic granules • ~____________________________% of wbc’s circulating. • kill specific ____________________________________, control _________________________________________reactions & inflammation & are weakly phagocytic Basophils • irregularly shaped cytoplasmic granules • _______________________________% of circulating wbc’s. • _______________________________________blood clots by releasing heparin (a blood thinner) and play a major role in allergic reactions by releasing _____________________________________________ (increases blood flow to injured tissues) Agranulocytes • no cytoplasmic granules • include 2 types of wbc’s: Monocytes & Lymphocytes Monocytes • life span ~________________________________________________________ • nuclei vary in shape Name: Period: • _________________________________________________ of wbc’s (2-3X larger than rbc’s) • account for ~_______________________________% circulating wbc’s • produced in the red bone marrow • contain lysosomes which perform ____________________________________________________________, engulfing large particles. Generally die b/c of the amount of toxic material ingested Lymphocytes • life span ~______________________________________________ • nuclei is large & round • slightly larger than rbc’s • ~___________________________________% of circulating wbc’s • produced in the red bone marrow & lymphatic system organs • produce ________________________________________________ providing immunity. Brief Summary • There are 5 types of White Blood cells in circulation. • From the majority of cells to the least amount of cells in circulation: ________________________________________ (N) Lymphocytes (L) ________________________________________ (M) Eosinophils (E) Basophils (B) • An acronym: Never Let My Eggs Break! White Blood Cells: • A white blood cell count (_________________________) is a diagnostic test that measures the amount of wbc’s in a sample of blood. • Generally, a differential WBCC (________________________) is performed. This is a test that provides the %ages of wbc’s (types of leukocytes in a sample of blood). • Wbc’s are able to leave the blood & move by _______________________________________ motion (self-propulsion) Blood Platelets: • a.k.a. ____________________________________________________ • considered cell fragments (incomplete cells) • formed in the red bone marrow from _________________________________________________(shatters like a plate, forming platelets) • lack nuclei (cannot produce proteins or divide) Name: Period: • life span ~___________________________ days • aid in _____________________________________ formation Hematopoiesis: • This is a.k.a. ____________________________________________________________ • Occurs in ______________________________________ bone marrow • ___________________________________________________ (hormone) controls rbc production. • ___________________________________________________ (hormone) controls thrombocyte production. • ___________________________________________________& ______________________________________________________________________ (CSFs) control wbc production. Hemostasis • This is the _______________________________________________ of bleeding. • When a blood vessel (bv) is cut, blood flows. Almost immediately, a bv spasm, a.k.a. a _________________________________________________, occurs. This is the constriction of a bv by the smooth muscles contracting, slowing blood flow. • This occurs in 3 steps: vascular ______________________________________, platelet plug formation, and _____________________________________________________. • A platelet ______________________________________________ is a clump of platelets that stick to the collagen in connective tissue (that has been cut) and to each other. • This generally controls blood loss (in small breaks). Otherwise, a clot must form to stop bleeding. Blood Coagulation • This causes a blood clot and is the result of _______________________________________ factors (biochemicals that help or inhibit the formation of a clot). • In normal bodies, ____________________________________________________ do not allow blood to clot. • However, when a clot forms (called formation), fibrinogen forms ________________________________________________________(insoluble threads of protein). • A blood clot forms from a series of events: prothrombin (a normal component of plasma produced in the liver) is converted to _____________________________________________ in the presence of Ca++. • Thrombin then triggers a series of reactions that convert fibrinogen into fibrin, causing a blood clot. Name: • Period: Fibrin causes a meshwork of threads that trap platelets & blood cells, forming a mass that stops blood flow. • Fibrin threads are eventually dissolved and the injury is ____________________________________________________________. • This is how bruises (hematomas) are healed. _______________________________________ are caused by blood leaks within a damaged tissue. • If a clot has filled a large area (large blood vessels), it is usually surgically removed. • Blood clots can form abnormally: this is called a ____________________________________________________________. • If the clot dislodges from the bv, it is called an ____________________________________________________. Emboli may block blood flow in another bv and may be fatal. • Coronary thrombosis is a blood clot forming in the heart while a cerebral thrombosis is a blood clot forming in the brain. • These kill the tissues in the area, called an _________________________________________________, and can be fatal. • • Infarctions can result in heart attacks and strokes. A pulmonary embolism is a traveling embolus that blocks a bv of the __________________________________________________. • Treatment of these are usually plasminogen activators that break up clots. Blood Groups • Agglutination: after a transfusion of blood, a clump of rbc’s form. This is a result of __________________________________________________ (surface molecules on rbc’s) and __________________________________________________ (proteins within the plasma). • There are 2 groups of antigens: ABO group and Rh group. ABO group • This is the presence or absence of antigens on the surface of ____________________________________________________________________. • These antigens are _______________________, _____________________________, or A and B. • These are a direct result of the person’s blood type, which is ________________________________________________________. Name: • Period: If a person has antigen A, then he has type A blood; if a person has antigen B, then he has type B blood; if a person has both antigens A and B, then that person has type AB blood; if a person lacks antigens, then the person has type O blood. • If the person has type A blood, they have anti-B; this means that the have antibodies against antigen B. What is the significance of this? A person with type A blood cannot receive type AB or type B blood receive type A or type O blood. Blood Type Antigen Antibody Transfuse A A anti-B A; O B B anti-A B; O AB A&B none A; B; AB; O O none anti-A &B O Rh Blood Group • This was named after the Rhesus monkey. These are __________________________________________ (factors) in human blood (as well as monkey blood). • These antigens are inherited as well. • When blood types are said to be Rh ___________________________________________ (Rh-), there are ___________________________ Rh antigens while if the blood type is said to be Rh positive (Rh+), there is at least 1 type of Rh antigen. • Look up in text or online! Know the following: ALL types of anemia, leukemia, thrombus, embolus, thrombocytopenia, petechiae, and hemophilia.