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```1. Reliable - Achieving the same results in
different clinical experiments or trials.
2. Validity – the extent to which a test measures
what it claims to measure.
3. Independent Variable – (manipulated variable)
factor in an experiment that is determined and
changed by the experimenter.
4. Dependent Variable – (responding variable)
factor measured to obtain results.
5. Control – the variable that is left alone in an
experiment.
6. Mass- a measure of the amount of matter in
an object.
7. Matter- anything that has mass and takes up
space.
8. Variable- a factor that can change in an
experiment.
9. Volume- amount of space occupied by an
object.
10. Weight- the force of gravity exerted on an
object’s mass.
11.Qualitative- relating to how good something is, the
quality of it.
12.Quantitative- how much there is of something, the
measurement or amount of.
13.Bias – An outcome in favor of or against one thing,
person, or group compared with another, usually in a
way that is unfair.
14.Conclusion- a summary of what is learned from an
experiment.
15.Inference- to make a conclusion from observations.
16. Atmospheric Pressure- the weight of the atmosphere
pressing on the surface of the earth.
17. Global Warming- the gradual increase of the
temperature as a result of the increase in greenhouse
gases.
18. Greenhouse Gas- gas such as carbon dioxide or
methane which contributes to potential climate change.
19. Density- the amount of mass of a substance to a
given volume (how compact molecules are).
20. Ozone -layer of the atmosphere composed mainly of
ozone (03) that shields Earth from most of the sun’s
ultraviolet rays.
21. Conduction- the transfer of energy by direct
contact, from one substance to another (metal spoon).
22. Convection- heat transfer by moving particles in
fluids, and thermal energy that they carry (air
movement).
23. Radiation- energy transfer without direct contact, as
in the transport of heat from the sun to the Earth (sun
rays).
24. Temperature inversion- layer of cooler air is trapped
by a layer of warmer air above it.
25. Thermal energy- energy of motion in the molecules
of a substance (heat)
26. Precipitation- any form of water that falls
from the clouds; ex. rain, snow, hail, sleet.
27. Evaporation- the process of a liquid
changing into a vapor or gas.
28. Condensation-process of a gas changing to
a liquid, such as water vapor into water droplets.
29. Surface Runoff- water on land that drains
into a body of water (Collection).
30. Climate- the long term weather conditions
for a region, generally determined by several
years of records.
31. Motion- when an object changes in position.
32. Distance- how far an object has moved.
33. Displacement- distance and direction of an
object’s change in position.
34. Instantaneous Speed- speed at any given
point in time.
35. Constant Speed- speed that does not vary
(change).
41.Air Resistance- friction experienced by objects
moving through air.
42. Momentum- the product of an object’s mass and
velocity.
43. Net force- the combination of all forces acting on
an object.
44. Projectile- an object that is thrown.
45. Velocity- speed in a given direction.
41. Force- push or pull that changes the motion or shape
of an object.
42. Balanced Forces- equal forces acting on an object in
opposite directions.
43. Friction- the force resisting the relative motion of two
surfaces in contact or a surface in contact with a fluid.
44. Gravity- the force of attraction between all masses in
the universe.
45. Inertia- the resistance of an object to a change in the
speed or direction of its motion.
46. Newton’s 1st law- the net force acting on an
object is zero, the motion of the object does
not change.
47. Newton’s 2nd law- the acceleration of an
object is dependent on the force exerted on
the object and the mass of the object. F=MA
48.Newton’s 3rd law- for every action there is an
equal and opposite reaction.
49.Force pair- the forces two object’s apply to
each other.
50.Newton – a unit of force (1 kg x m/s2)
51. Lever- straight bar that moves on a
fixed point.
52. Fulcrum- The fixed point that a lever
moves on.
53. Inclined Plane- Any slanted surface.
54. Wedge- Two inclined planes that
together form a “V”
55. Pulley- A grooved wheel with a rope
around it.
56. Energy- the ability to cause change.
57. Wave- transfers energy from one place to
another without transferring matter.
58. Kinetic Energy- energy due to motion.
59. Potential Energy- stored energy, has the
potential to be used.
60. Energy Conservation- (law of) energy cannot
be created or destroyed but may change forms;
potential to kinetic.
61. Wavelength- distance from one point on a
wave to the nearest point.
62. Frequency- in electromagnetic waves is the
number of vibrations per second (Hz)
63. Amplitude- magnitude of the wave - how
high it goes.
64. Medium-matter through which waves travel
through; can be a solid, liquid, or gas.
65. Electromagnetic Spectrum- the entire range
of wave frequencies.
66. ReflectionThe change in direction of a wave, such as
light or sound, away from a boundary (ex. mirror).
67. Refraction- bending of light through one medium
to another (ex. pencil in water).
68. Angle of Reflection- The angle formed by a
reflected ray and a perpendicular to the surface at
the point of reflection.
69. Absorb- to take in or fill, prevents reflection of
light.
70. Pigmenta dry insoluble substance, usually crushed, and
suspended in a liquid then becomes a paint, ink, etc.
71. Atom- the smallest particle of an element that
can exist either alone or in combination.
72.Compound- a substance containing atoms of two or
more different elements chemically bonded together.
73.Dissolve- a substance mixed evenly in a solution.
74.Element- one of the known chemical substances
that cannot be broken down further without
changing its chemical properties.
75.Mixture- two or more substances that are mixed
together, but not chemically combined.
76. Solubility- the maximum amount of substance that can
dissolve in a given amount of fluid at a given temperature and
pressure.
77. Concentration- the amount of substance or solute in a
solution.
78. Molecule- two or more atoms join together -H20, CO2
79.Reactant- In a chemical reaction, substances (elements
and/or compounds) are changed into other substances.
80.Product- The end result of a chemical reaction.
81. Homeostasis- an organism’s ability to
82. Unicellular- a living thing that is made up of
only one cell.
83. Multicellular- a living thing that is made up of
two or more cells.
84. Organism- something that is considered to be
alive; shows all the characteristics of life.
85. Stimuli/Stimulus- a change in an organism’s
environment that causes a response.
86. Cell- the basic unit of structure and
function in living things.
87. Organelle- tiny cell structure that
carries out specific functions (cell parts).
88. Cell wall- rigid layer that surrounds
cells of plants.
89. Nucleus – the brain of the cell, or
chemical instructions that direct all the
cell’s activities.
90. Cell membrane- cell structure that
controls which substances can enter or
leave the cell.
91. Cytoplasm- Jelly-like substance found between
cell membrane and the nucleus.
92. Mitochondria- Rod-shaped cell structures that
produce most of the energy the cell needs
(powerhouse).
93. Endoplasmic Reticulum- forms the
passageways of the cell (highway).
94. Ribosome- Small grain-like structure in the cell
95. Golgi Body- A structure in the cell that receives
proteins, packages them, and distributes them to
other parts of the cell (the UPS).
96.Chromatin- Material in cells that contains DNA
and carries genetic information.
97.Chloroplast- A structure in plant cells that
captures energy from sunlight and uses it to
produce food.
98.Vacuole- A water-filled sac inside a cell that acts
as a storage area.
99.Lysosome- A small round cell structure that
contains chemicals that break down materials
(garbage disposal).
100.DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid)- genetic material
that carries information about an organism and is
passed from parent to offspring.
101.Population- group of organisms of the same
species living and reproducing in a particular area.
102.Community- an ecological unit composed of
groups of organisms or a population of different species
occupying a particular area.
103. Abiotic- anything that is nonliving (ex. light,
temperature, rocks).
104. Biotic- parts of an ecosystem living or once living.
105.Ecosystem- the interacting system of a biological
community and its non-living environmental
surroundings.
106.Diversity- a measure of the variation of organisms
species present in different ecosystems.
107.Variation- a difference in structure or characteristics
from others of the same species or group.
108.Mutation- a permanent change in the sequence of DNA
within a gene or chromosome.
109.Adaptation- an inherited trait that increases an
organism’s chance of surviving and
reproducing in a particular environment.
110.Natural Selection- the process by which organisms
with variations that help them
survive in their environment live
longer, compete better, and
reproduce more.
111. Gene- section of DNA on a chromosome that
has genetic information for one trait.
112. Chromosome- thread-like structure of DNA
that carries genes.
113. Chromatid- Either of the two strands of
a chromosome that separate during mitosis (a
single strand).
114. Diploid- a cell that has pairs of chromosomes.
115. Haploid- a cell that has only one chromosome
from each pair.
116.Heredity- the passing of traits from
parents to offspring by genes.
117.Genotype- the genes that an organism
possesses for a particular trait (what you cannot
see).
118.Phenotype- physical or visible
characteristics of an organism that are
determined by its alleles (what you can see).
119.Heterozygous- having two different
genes for an inherited trait. Ex. (Bb, Gg)
120.Homozygous- having two of the same
genes for an inherited trait. Ex. (BB, bb)
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