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Module 5 Guided Notes
5.01-The Respiratory System
Page 2-Focus Question: What are the general functions of the respiratory system? How do the
organs of the respiratory system contribute to the respiration process?
Cellular respiration-
The video in this lesson traces the path of oxygen through the organs of the respiratory
system. Use the respiratory system worksheet below for the video.
Respiratory System Worksheet:
Use the video slide show to fill in the concept map below.
Word Bank: Alveolar sacs, Bronchi, Capillaries, Trachea
Page 3-Focus Question: What mechanisms control breathing?
InspirationExpirationUse the ventilation worksheet below and to take important video notes on the mechanisms
that control breathing.
Ventilation worksheet
1. What controls the movement of the rib and diaphragm muscles?
Use the video to complete the questions inside these graphic organizers.
Page 4-Focus Question: How is oxygen and carbon dioxide transported in blood?
Use this hemoglobin worksheet and fill it in as you view the video on oxygen and carbon
dioxide exchange and transport in the blood.
Hemoglobin worksheet
large
surface
area
space for
hemoglobin
in red blood
cells
absence of
_______
What happens next?
High oxygen in lungs
oxygen losely binds to
hemoglobin in a red blood
cell
_________________
_________________
_________________
What happens next?
Carbon dioxide binds to
hemoglobin
__________________
___________________
Red blood cells move from
heart to lungs to release
carbon dioxide
___________________
Page 5-Focus Question: What mechanisms control ventilation?
The muscles of the ribs and diaphragm will contract and relax in response to signals from the
______________ system or hormones from the __________ system. These muscle movements
affect your ability to breathe, as well as your ventilation rate.
For example, the hormone epinephrine increases your rate of ventilation and dilates the
bronchi and alveoli, which opens the air passages of the lungs.
Page 5-Focus Question: What factors can disrupt normal ventilation?
List factors:
Use this respiratory system factors worksheet to take important notes as you view the video
on the effects of smoking and the control mechanisms of the respiratory system.
Nicotine
•How does it affect the
respiratory system?
•________________
•________________
•________________
Carbon
Monoxide
Tar
•________________
•________________
•________________
•_________________
•_________________
•_________________
Unconcious Control
Conscious Control
What part of the
brain controls
breathing?
We can make
ourselves breath
faster or slower
_____________
Breathing
ASSESSMENT
Complete all tasks and readings that are outlined in the lesson.
Complete the 05.01 Respiratory System Quiz
5.01 Honors-The tissues of the Respiratory System
Page 2- Focus Questions: What is the structure and function of the tissues lining the respiratory
organs?
Use the Lung Tissues worksheet below and fill it in as you learn how the lung tissues facilitate
gas exchange in the video.
Lung Tissue Worksheet
1. The tissues of the alveoli are described as __________, thin walled structures that increase
the surface area for gas exchange.
2. Why do alveoli exist in a mesh of capillaries?
Use the video to fill in the blanks and complete the questions inside the graphic organizers.
Carbon dioxide
diffuses from the
_________ to the
___________
Oxygen diffuses from
the ________ to the
__________
Water
Surfactant
•What is the function of water
on the inner surfaces?
•__________________
•__________________
•__________________
•__________________
•What is the function of
surfactant on the inner
surfaces?
•___________________
•___________________
•___________________
•___________________
Page 3- Focus Question: What are the microscopic structures within the lungs?
There will be diagrams of the same structures on the module exam. Pay careful attention to
the structures bolded in the paragraph and find them in the picture.
This is an electron micrograph that shows a capillary running through the alveolar space in an
adult human lung. The capillary contains red blood cells interlaced with connective tissue
fibres. Notice the thin-air-blood barrier labeled in the image. This is the location where oxygen
and carbon dioxide diffuse between the lungs and the blood. There is a water and surfactant
layer overlying the air-blood barrier but it does not show in this picture.
Watch the animation on the lesson page to view the structures bolded.
This animation shows the cilia on the cells of the respiratory tract. Cilia are short eyelash-like
filament and they are responsible for catching particles and pathogens and moving them out of
the respiratory tract before they reach the alveolar sacs. If any particles or pathogens make it
into the alveoli, they get stuck in the mucous membranes of the alveoli cells. Immune system
cells called macrophages engulf the particles and remove them from the lung tissues.
Assessment
Watch the video on page 4 and complete the assignment according to the directions and rubric.
Submit your work as 05.01 Honors—The Tissues of the Respiratory System.
5.02- The Digestive System
Page 2-Focus Question: How does each organ of the digestive system aid in digestion?
Alimentary canal-
Gastrointestinal tract-
Accessory organs-
Use the digestion worksheet and fill it in as you view the video on digestion through the
alimentary canal.
Digestion Worksheet
Use the video and word bank to answer the questions and fill in the chart below.
Word Bank: chyme, enzymes, muscle contraction, peristalsis, pyloric, saliva, villi, water
What is mechanical digestion?
What is chemical digestion?
What specific job does saliva accomplish for the digestion system?
Why is it better to have villi in the small intestine instead of smooth tissues?
Step One: Mouth
Mechanical digestion using teeth and tongue
Chemical digestion using _____________
Step Two: Esophagus
muscular contractions called ____________
moves food down esophagus to cardiac sphincter
moves past pharnyx into esophagus
Step Three: Stomach
Mechanical digestion using _______________
chemical digestion using hydrocholic acid, pepsin,
and mucous secreted by glands
Step Four: Small Intestines
Chyme enters small intestine through
the _________________
Lined with _______ consist of
capillaries and lacteals
Bile, and pancreatic and intestinal juices all
contain ___________ which aid in digestion
Step Five: Villi within the small intestine
What do lacteals absorb?___________________
What do capillaries absorb?__________________
Step Six: Large Intestines
Undigested ________ moves into large intestine
Removes _________ and absorbs water soluable
vitamins
Step 7: Anus
Most of the water is removed from chyme
Page 3-Focus Question: What mechanisms control digestion?
1. List all nervous system regulators and how they work:
Acetylcholine-
Solid waste leaves the body
Adrenaline2. List all endocrine system regulators and how they work:
Unlike other systems, the digestive system releases its own _____________. These hormones
regulate cell growth within the gastrointestinal tract and signal the release of bile, enzymes, and
digestive juices. They are produced by ______________ of the stomach and small intestine
Gastrin-
Secretin-
Cholecystokinin-
Page 4-Focus Question: How do the accessory organs direct digestion?
The accessory organs are thus named because food does _________ pass through them during
digestion. They produce additional ____________ required for the breakdown of food. These
secretions enter the mouth, stomach, or intestines through specialized _________ ducts.
Use the lesson Chart to fill in the chart below.
Accessory Organ
Salivary Glands
Stomach (Gastric) Glands
Liver
Gallbladder
Pancreas
Appendix
Function in Digestion
Assessment
Complete all tasks required by the directions. Please review the student example and rubric.
Submit your work as 05.02 The Digestive System.
5.02 Honors- The Tissues of the Digestive System
Page 2- Focus Question: What tissues make up the walls of the gastrointestinal tract?
Serosa-
Muscle Layer-
Submucosa-
Mucosa-
Page 3-Focus Question: What are the special structures of the mucous membrane?
The mucous membrane (mucosa) of the stomach and small intestines contain _________ that
secrete gastric or intestinal juices for digestion. Once digested, nutrients move into the cells of
the body using the blood capillaries and __________ within the villi of the small intestine. The
_________ of the small intestine provide a ________ surface area for nutrient absorption.
View this video on page 3 to learn how the inner structures of the villi work to absorb
nutrients in the gastrointestinal tract.
Page 4- Focus Question: What is the basic tissue structure of digestive accessory organs?
Use the slide show:
Structures of the pancreas-
Structures of the Salivary Glands-
Microscopic structure of the liver-
Structures of the gallbladder-
Assessment
Select the Pancreas worksheet and follow the instructions.
Submit the follow-up questions as 05.02 Honors—The Tissues of the Digestive System.
5.03- Molecules of Life
Page 2- Focus Question: What are the functions of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins?
The four major macromolecules are:
Of these macromolecules, _______________, ______________, and ___________ are
considered nutrients, which are substances that provide nourishment for the body.
Use the nutrient worksheet below and fill it in as you view the video on key nutrients.
Nutrient Worksheet
Word bank: amino acids, beans, breads, body repair, body construction, carbon, carbohydrates,
cell growth, chicken, energy supply, energy storage, fatty meats, fiber, fighting infection, fish,
hydrogen, milk, oils, oxygen, provides energy, unsaturated, sweets
1. How many amino acid options are available for protein production?
2. How many amino acids can the body make on its own?
3. Why do we also need to consume vitamins and minerals?
Carbohydrates
What are
they
used for?
types
Sugar
examples
______?
_____?
Fruits, vegetables
_________
Starch
Lipids
What are
they
used for?
types
saturated
______?
______?
examples
butter, fried
foods
_________?
Proteins
What
are they
used
for?
Made from?
examples
_____?
______?
eggs, meats
_________?
Page 3-Focus Question: What is the basic structure of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic
acids?
Use the Structure Worksheet below and fill it in as you view the video on the structure and
functions of nutrients.
Structure Worksheet
Word Bank: disaccharide, fats, glucose, hexagon, phospholipids, polysaccharide, steroids
What are the four major macromolecules?
What three elements are found in all four of the major macromolecules?
When the three main elements form a monosaccharide, it can make a six-carbon molecule
called _______________________.
Monosaccharides form into a ______________ shape.
When you put two monosaccharides together it forms a __________________, like lactose.
When you put three or more monosaccharides together it forms _______________, like
glycogen.
There are three types of lipids:_________________ , _______________ , and
________________ .
Describe the function of each type of lipid.
Lipids are hydrophobic. This means….
Fatty acids are made from chains of carbon and hydrogen. How does the structure of
phospholipids and steroids differ from fatty acids?
In addition to carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, what two elements are also found in proteins and
nucleic acids?
What is the function of proteins?
Draw the general structure of a protein.
Nucleic acids are made of nucleotides. Draw the general structure of a nucleotide.
What are the functions of DNA and RNA?
Review the Biological Molecule on page 4!
Assessment
Follow the directions on page 5. Be sure to view the rubric and student example.
Submit your work as 05.03 Molecules of Life.
5.04- Enzymes
Page 2-Focus Question: What are enzymes?
Enzymes-
CatalyzeSubstrateActivation energyUse the enzyme worksheet and fill in the chart as you view the video on enzymes in living
organisms.
Enzyme worksheet
Fill in the blank circles with enzyme examples from the lesson.
Enzymes
Extracellular
Intracellular
Digestive
Enzymes
Metabolic
Enzymes
Page 3-Focus Question: How do enzymes catalyze reactions?
View this video to learn about the induced fit model and the catalytic cycle. Use this enzyme
actions worksheet to assist you with your note-taking during the video.
Enzyme Actions Worksheet
Fill in the blanks in the sentences
Word bank: catalyze, reduces, substrates, without,
1. Enzymes speed up chemical reactions _________________ being used up or chemically
altered.
2. Enzymes can _____________ the same reactions over and over again.
3. When enzymes combine with __________________, it ___________ the activation energy
required for molecules to react to form products.
Insert the two main results of enzyme/substrate bonding in the chart below.
Catalytic Cycle
Active enzyme site
bonds to substrate
______
________
Page 4-Focus Question: What factors affect enzyme activity?
Increasing the amount of enzyme available for a reaction makes the reaction go __________,
but changing the enzyme concentration is not the only way to affect the reaction rate.
Co-factorsInhibitors-
Temperature, pH, and substrate concentration also affect enzyme activity. Use the enzyme
factors worksheet and fill it in as you learn how these factors affect the rate of reaction.
Enzyme Factors Worksheet
Answer the following questions from the video.
1. How does the catalase discs at freezing, boiling, and room temperature react when placed in
the beaker of substrate?
2. What effect do extreme temperatures have on enzymes?
3. How does the catalase disc react when placed in a substrate of different pH levels?
4. What effect does pH have on enzymes?
5. What effect does substrate concentration have on enzymes?
6. What happens when the substrate concentration reaches Vmax?
ASSESSMENT
Complete the 05.04 Enzymes Quiz