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Transcript
Islamic University of Gaza
Faculty of Nursing
Growth and Development
Nurs. 321
Second lecture
Ali Hassan Abu Ryala
2010-2011
Biophysical Development
Theory
Arnold Gesell
(1880-1961)
Arnold Gesell Theory
• Arnold Gesell was psychologist
• Arnold Gesell’s theory based on his observations
of children as related to their physical growth.
• Although each child’s pattern of growth and
development is unique, this pattern is described
by the activity of the genes.
• Arnold Gesell belief that a child has to interact
with nature in order to fully develop and reach its
potential.
• He fathered the theory of Maturation, which is the
inner plan that is developed by the action of the
genes.
Arnold Gesell Theory...cont
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Gesell studied children’s development with intense
observation and believed that children are a bi-product of
their environment and their internal make-up.
What he believed is that there are sequences to a child’s
inner development that start from conception and
continue well after birth.
He stressed that a child definitely needed the social
environment to realize his or her potential but it should
compliment the inner maturational principles.
He absolutely opposed teaching things to children that
they were not ready to handle, and felt it was important
that children were not rushed into stages that posed a
threat to their internal growth.
Arnold Gesell Theory ...cont
• The challenge that Gesell faced was unraveling the mystery behind
the precise mechanics of how the inner maturation worked.
• He was only able to guess the approximate timing based on his
observations.
• The genes control maturation, and the genes determined the
sequence, timing, and form of emerging patterns that promote
growth in children.
• Gesell was a strong supporter of studying patterns; he felt that it
helps determine the process by which actions became organized.
• He believes that all normal children go through the same
sequences, but at their own pace.
Arnold Gesell Theory ...cont
• He believed that this pace is also driven by the child’s
temperament and personality that is associated with their genes and
social environment.
• When it came to child rearing he felt that parents needed to fully
understand the laws of maturation so that they would not force
children into any of their own preconceived patterns that is not
naturally apart of the child’s inner make-up.
• Lastly he felt that teachers should adjust their instruction to the
student’s age, grade, growth rate, and their special talents and
abilities.
• This will allow for the child’s inner maturation pattern and the
social environment to work together
Psychoanalytic/ Development
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
Sigmund Freud Theory
• Sigmund Freud was the first person to provide a formal theory of
personality development.
• Two internal biological forces essentially drive psychosocial
change in the child: sexual (libido) and aggressive energies.
• Motivation for behavior is to achieve pleasure and avoid pain
created by these forces.
• The basis of fraud’s theory of development is derived from that the
sexual energy of the "id" finds different sources of satisfaction
stages of psychosexual development.
• Freud’s psychoanalytic model of personality development has 5
psychosexual developmental stages associated with different
pleasurable zones serving as the focus for gratification and bodily
pleasure.
Sigmund Freud Theory...cont
Stage one: Oral (birth – 12mounths)
• Infant gets pleasure from sucking and oral
satisfaction (swallowing)
• Oral receptive personality: when the child
continue to seek the pleasure through the mouth;
overeating and smoking.
• Oral aggressive personality: when oral pleasure is
frustrated the child become verbally hostile others
Sigmund Freud Theory...cont
Stage two: Anal (1-3 yrs)
• The focus of pleasure changes to the anal zone
• Through the toilet-training process the child is asked to
delay gratification in order to meet parental and social
expectation.
• Anal retentive: if the child has excessive punishment for
failure during toilet training, the child is satisfied from
holding back feces to show neatness.
• Anal expulsive: child gains pleasure from expelling the
body’s waste products .
• If the child is over satisfied in this stage he will defecate
at inappropriate time and show messiness.
Sigmund Freud Theory...cont
Stage three: Phallic or Oedipal (3-6yrs)
• The genital organs become the focus of pleasure
• The time of imagination and as the child
fantasizes about the parent of opposite sex as
his\her first love interest (Oedipal or Electra
complex)
• By the end of this stage the child attempts to
reduce this conflict by identifying with parent of
the same sex in away to win recognition and
acceptance.
Sigmund Freud Theory...cont
Stage four: Latency (6-11yrs)
• Sexual urges, from the oedipal stage, are
repressed and channeled into productive activities
that are socially acceptable; school work, riding
bicycle, &playing.
• Within the educational and social worlds of the
child, there is much to learn and accomplish.
Sigmund Freud Theory...cont
Stage five: Gentile (Puberty thru Adolescence):
• Sexual desires and interests are directed toward one’s
pears.
• Adolescent Boy girlfriend
• Adolescent Female boyfriend
• A time of turbulence when sexual urges reawaken and are
directed to an individual outside the family circle.
• The beginning of a mature adult where sexual and
aggressive "id" motives are transformed into energy for
marriage and occupation.
Sigmund Freud Theory...cont
N.B:
These stages must be satisfied enough, if
satisfied the person will become
emotionally mature if no the person will
find difficulty and unresolved conflicts
at any stage appears through dreams or
thoughts and inappropriate emotions.
Sigmund Freud Theory...cont
Weakness of Freud theory
• Based on limited sample
• Little empirical support
• Freud’s critics contend that the people are more
influenced by their life experiences than by their
sexual energies
• Freud based assumptions such as the oedipal
complex are not applicable across different
cultures
Psychosocial Development
Erik Erikson 1902-1994
Erik Erikson Theory
• Eriksson's theory consist of eight stages of development.
• Erik Erikson explains eight stages through which a
healthy developing human should pass from infancy to
late adulthood.
• In each stage the person confronts, and hopefully
masters, new challenges.
• Each stage builds on the successful completion of earlier
stages.
• The challenges of stages not successfully completed
may be expected to reappear as problems in the future
"The individual change from
stage to other stage by
achieving development tasks
of each stage"
Erik Erikson Theory...cont
Psychosocial Stage 1 - Trust vs. Mistrust
• The first stage of Erickson’s theory of psychosocial development
occurs between birth and one year of age and is the most
fundamental stage in life.
• Because an infant is totally dependent, the development of trust is
based on the dependability and quality of the child’s caregivers.
• If a child successfully develops trust, he or she will feel safe and
secure in the world.
• Caregivers who are inconsistent, emotionally unavailable, or
rejecting contribute to feelings of mistrust in the children they care
for.
• Failure to develop trust will result in fear and a belief that the
world is inconsistent and unpredictable.
Erik Erikson Theory...cont
Psychosocial Stage 2 - Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
• The second stage of Erickson's theory of psychosocial
development takes place during early childhood and is focused on
children developing a greater sense of personal control.
• Like Freud, Erikson believed that toilet training was a vital part of
this process.
• However, Eriksson's reasoning was quite different then that of
Freud's, Erikson believe that learning to control one’s body
functions leads to a feeling of control and a sense of independence.
• Other important events include gaining more control over food
choices, toy preferences, and clothing selection.
• Children who successfully complete this stage feel secure and
confident, while those who do not are left with a sense of
inadequacy and self-doubt
Erik Erikson Theory...cont
Psychosocial Stage 3 - Initiative vs. Guilt
• During the preschool years, children begin to
assert their power and control over the world
through directing play and other social interaction.
• Children who are successful at this stage feel
capable and able to lead others.
• Those who fail to acquire these skills are left with
a sense of guilt, self-doubt and lack of initiative.
Erik Erikson Theory...cont
Psychosocial Stage 4 - Industry vs. Inferiority
• This stage covers the early school years from
approximately age 5 to 11.
• Through social interactions, children begin to develop a
sense of pride in their accomplishments and abilities.
• Children who are encouraged and commended by parents
and teachers develop a feeling of competence and belief
in their skills.
• Those who receive little or no encouragement from
parents, teachers, or peers will doubt their ability to be
successful.
Erik Erikson Theory...cont
Psychosocial Stage 5 - Identity vs. Confusion
• During adolescence, children are exploring their
independence and developing a sense of self.
• Those who receive proper encouragement and
reinforcement through personal exploration will
emerge from this stage with a strong sense of self
and a feeling of independence and control.
• Those who remain unsure of their beliefs and
desires will insecure and confused about
themselves and the future.
Erik Erikson Theory...cont
Psychosocial Stage 6 - Intimacy vs. Isolation
• This stage covers the period of early adulthood when people are
exploring personal relationships.
• Erikson believed it was vital that people develop close, committed
relationships with other people.
• Those who are successful at this step will develop relationships
that are committed and secure.
• Remember that each step builds on skills learned in previous steps.
• Erikson believed that a strong sense of personal identity was
important to developing intimate relationships.
• Studies have demonstrated that those with a poor sense of self tend
to have less committed relationships and are more likely to suffer
emotional isolation, loneliness, and depression.
Erik Erikson Theory...cont
Psychosocial Stage 7 - Generatively vs.
Stagnation
• During adulthood, we continue to build our
lives, focusing on our career and family.
• Those who are successful during this phase
will feel that they are contributing to the
world by being active in their home and
community.
• Those who fail to attain this skill will feel
unproductive and uninvolved in the world.
Erik Erikson Theory...cont
Psychosocial Stage 8 - Integrity vs. Despair
• This phase occurs during old age and is focused on reflecting back
on life.
• Those who are unsuccessful during this phase will feel that their
life has been wasted and will experience many regrets.
• The individual will be left with feelings of bitterness and despair.
• Those who feel proud of their accomplishments will feel a sense of
integrity.
• Successfully completing this phase means looking back with few
regrets and a general feeling of satisfaction.
• These individuals will attain wisdom, even when confronting
death.
Questions????
Thank You All