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Study Guide For Quest 3 Evolution and Natural Selection: Key Terms: Variation Sickle Cell Anemia Malaria Evolution Theory Charles Darwin On the Origin Of Species Artificial Selection Competition Fitness Adaptation Natural Selection Descent with Modification Transitional Fossil Tiktaalik Hox genes Switches Tetrapods Fossil Record Sonic Hedgehog Gene Geographic Distribution of Living Species Homologous Body Structures Analogous Structures Vestigial Organs Embryo Key Concepts: 1. Advantageous traits tend to increase in a population due to natural selection. 2. Sickle Cell Anemia’s relationship to Malaria illustrates adaptation, natural selection and evolution at work in a population. 3.Difference between artificial selection and natural selection. 4. Difference between adaptation and fitness. 5. Transitional fossils provide evidence for the origin and divergence of major biological lineages a lineage being a sequence of species that evolved from a common ancestor. Transitional fossils represent the ancestors of new groups of organisms and show us how new lineages evolved. 6. Very similar genes control the development of related structures in different organisms. However, switches control genes by turning genes on or off and impacting the timing and intensity of the outcome of structures. 7. The human body contains genes and structures that we inherited from distant animal ancestors. 8. Understand the evidence that supports Darwin’s theory of evolution and natural selection.