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Chapter 9, Lesson 1: The Development of Feudalism Name ___________________ Date___________ Period___ MAIN IDEAS Geography Climate, topography, and other geographic features helped bring about the feudal way of life in Europe. Belief Systems Despite the upheaval in Europe, Christianity survived and spread. Government Feudalism provided a social and political structure during the Middle Ages. I. Setting of Medieval Europe A. The Middle Ages Begin 1. Western Roman Empire fell to _____________ invaders in A.D. ______ 2. Middle Ages—_________-year period (500-1450) in ___________ after _______ ___ ____________ a. also called _______________ period, from ___________ medium (middle) ____________(ages) 3. Europe was a series of small _____________ during the _____________ __________ a. kingdoms often ______________ one another during this time REVIEW QUESTION 1. What changes occurred in Europe after the fall of Rome? II. The European Continent A. Continent of _____________ occupies one-__________ of ____________ B. Eurasia is continuous land mass covering ____________ and _____________ III. Topography and Waterways A. Europe is bordered by _______________ Ocean (west), __________ ________________(east) B. Northern boundary is ____________ _____________; southern is __________________ ________ C. Topography of Europe is diverse 1. mountain ranges in _____________; plains and farmland in north, west 2. many _______________ run throughout Europe; play key role in _____________ and _______________ IV. Climate and Vegetation A. North _______________ has _____________ winters; south has _____________ winters, ____________ summers B. Reliable _______________, mild weather help European _______________ _____________ 1. _______________ region produces _______________; wheat, barley grow in the _______________ C. Abundance of _______________, _______________, _______________ shaped life in Medieval Europe 1. allowed small kingdoms, small ______________ to _______________ on their own V. Cultural Changes A. Great _______________, _______________ changes in Europe after fall of _______________ B. Numerous _______________ groups dominated former _______________ lands 1. lived in small _______________; kept order through _______________ rules VI. Learning and Trade Decline A. Germanic groups placed little emphasis on _______________ _______________ B. _______________ people lived with what they had; saw little need for _______________ 1. led to disappearance of _____________, growth of ____________ _______________ _______________ REVIEW QUESTION 1. What role did geography play in shaping medieval society? VII. Christianity Grows and Spreads A. Clovis and the Franks 1. ______________ Church thrived after fall of Rome; many Germans _____________ 2. Key figure in spread of Christianity was _____________, leader of the ___________ a. in ________ defeated last Roman army in Gaul (______________) b. Franks conquered other weak _______________ groups; built large _______________ c. Clovis converted to _______________, as did most of his _______________ VIII. The Rule of Charlemagne A. Charles _____________ and son _____________ the _____________became Frankish kings _______ centuries later B. _______________—Pepin's _______—became ruler of _____________ during late ______s 1. expanded _______________; built European _______________ as great as ancient _______________ 2. created highly _______________ empire, established new __________ to keep order 3. employed _______________ _______________ to govern regions; expanded _______________ 4. History Makers - Charlemagne a. ________ and strong – enjoyed _______________ b. thrived on little _______________ c. interested in _______________ matters, including _______________ d. never learned to _____________ IX. The Growth of Monasteries A. Powerful ______________ and devoted _______________ helped spread _______________ B. _______________—places where religious followers led life devoted to _________ 1. residents known as ____________; prayed and _____________ Christian ____________ 2. made _____________ of the _____________; preserved and promoted Christian __________ REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. What factors helped Christianity to grow and spread? 2. Who was Charlemagne, and how did he strengthen Christianity? X. Feudalism: A New Social Order A. Charlemagne’s Kingdom Crumbles 1. Charlemagne died in __________; _______________ fought for control of _______________ 2. Warring sides signed _______________ of Verdun in 843, dividing empire in _______________ parts 3. Divided kingdom grew weak, _______________; prompted outside attacks a. _______________, _______________, and _______________ attacked various regions of Europe 4. In mid-__________s Europe became a place of constant _______________ and _______________ MAP QUESTIONS 1. What were the names of Charlemagne’s grandsons? 2. Which grandson got the territory that is mostly France today? XI. The Emergence of Feudalism A. Kings and ______________ created new system to keep their _______________ amid chaos B. New system known as _______________; based on agreement between _______________ 1. ____________—powerful____________-owning noble; gave land to _______________ (_______________ nobles) 2. in return, vassals defended lord's _______________; many were knights 3. vassals also paid lords' ___________ for their ____________, or parcel of ____________ XII. The Feudal Structure A. Feudal _______________ was highly structured; _______________ ruled at the _________ B. Wealthy _______________; high-ranking _______________ members came next C. _______________ followed next; _______________ resided at the bottom of _______________ D. Most peasants were _______________—lived, worked on _______________ of lord or vassal 1. in return for _______________, serfs took _______________ and _______________ from landowner REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. What was feudalism and how did it work? 2. What role did serfs play in feudalism? King (Monarch ) Lords and Nobles (Duke – Earls) Lesser Lords and Nobles (Viscount and Baron) Clergy - Bishop Clergy – Friars, parish priests Knights Peasants – basically tied to the land, but not slaves, few rights Serfs – tied to the land, almost slave status, no rights Lesson Summary • The Germanic invasions transformed Europe. • Kings and monasteries helped to spread Christianity. • Warfare and the constant threat of invasion led to the development of feudalism in Europe. Why It Matters Now . . . The strength and popularity of Christianity today is due in part to all of the efforts to promote the religion during the Middle Ages.