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Chapter Four Ancient Greece 1750 B.C. - 133 B.C. Section Three Conflict in the Greek World By the Fifth century B.C., the Persians conquered a huge empire stretching from Asia Minor to the border of India. This is a map of the Persian Empire around the time of Darius the Great and Xerxes. The Persians had conquered the Greek citystates of Ionia in Asia Minor. The Ionians resented their situation. In 499 B.C., Ionian Greeks rebelled against Persian rule. Athens sent ships to help them. The Persians soon crushed the rebel Ionian city-states. This little blue line that’s all there is. This maps shows the key sites of the Persian Wars. The blue line indicated at left shows the first invasion - and how little time and effort it took for the Persians to defeat the Ionians. Darius I was furious at Athens for its role in the uprising. This is a view of the ancient Persian city of Persepolis, a palace complex in Iran founded by Darius I around 515 B.C. Iran is the modern name for Persia. Darias I ruled Persia when the empire was at its peak. He is often called Darius the Great. At left is a sketch of an image of Darius I on a vase found in 1851 in Canossa, Italy. The sketch is an illustration from Monuments of Classical Alterums, Volume I, 1885. This is Darius I from a relief in Persepolis, the ancient Persian capital. These are the remains of Persepolis, the ceremonial capital of the Persian Empire, from about 515 B.C. Darius’ tomb can be seen in the background at center. The conflict that began in Ionia in 499 B.C. is known as the first of the Greek’s three Persian Wars. The Ionian Revolt (499 to 493 B.C.) The Second Persian War (492 to 490 B.C.) The Third Persian War (480 to 479 B.C.) The Second Persian War began in 492 B.C. The second Persian War was meant to be Athens’ punishment. The Persians greatly outnumbered Athenians. The Athenians asked for help from neighboring Greek city-states, but received little support. In 490 B.C. the Persians attacked at Marathon. The location is marked in red on the map at right. Athenian foot soldiers ran toward the Persians. Darius’ archers responded with a rain of arrows, but the Greeks rushed onward. The armies engaged in fierce hand-to-hand combat, then the Persians retreated to their ships. These are Persian archers shown in a glazed brick frieze in Darius’ palace in Susa, Iran from about 510 BC. This is the mound where the Athenians buried their dead after the battle of Marathon. This is Pheidippides Giving Word of Victory after the Battle of Marathon by Luc-Olivier Merson, 1869. Pheidippides is supposed to have run, without stopping, from Marathon to Athens. Upon arriving, he announced his news with one word, “victory,” then, his mission complete, he collapsed and died. A modern marathon is 26 miles and 385 yards. Marathon is about twenty-five miles southeast of Athens. The legend of Pheidippides was honored at the first modern Olympic Games that were held in Greece in 1896. That first modern marathon was 40,000 meters (or 24.85 miles) long. At the 1908 Olympic Games in London the marathon distance was changed to 26.2 miles. The extra two miles were added so that the race could finish in front of royal family’s viewing box. This is a photograph of the arrival of Dorando Pietri of Italy at the finish of the 1908 Olympics marathon. Pietri was initially declared the winner, but later, after other competitors protested that he was assisted during the race, he was disqualified. The Athenian leader Themistocles knew that success at Marathon would not end the Persian Wars. Themistocles convinced Athenians to build a fleet of warships and prepare themselves for another attack. This is Crossing the Hellespont by Xerxes, an illustration for an 1896 text entitled The Story of the Greeks. Darius died while preparing an army for the Third Persian War. He left the task of punishing Athens to his son. In 480 B.C., Darius’ son, Xerxes, sent another, much larger force to conquer Greece. This time Athens persuaded Sparta and other city-states to join the fight against the Persians. This is a rock relief of Xerxes from Persepolis. The Third Persian war began in 480 B.C. when the Persians landed in northern Greece. They were met by a small Spartan force guarding the narrow mountain pass at Thermopylae. This is a view of the Thermopylae pass. The Spartans held out heroically against the enormous Persian force, but were defeated in the end. This is Jacques-Louis David’s Leonidas at Thermopylae from 1814. The Persians marched south and burned Athens. The Battle of Thermopylae gave the Athenians time to empty their city and withdraw to safety. This image from a Fifth century B.C. Greek drinking cup shows a Greek hoplite (citizen-soldier) and a Persian warrior fighting. The Greeks now put their faith in the fleet of ships that Themistocles had urged them to build. This is a copy of a stone relief from a graffito found at the House of Dionysos on Delos Island in the early 1930s. It shows an ancient Greek warship and its crew. The original stone relief has since badly deteriorated. Ancient Greek warships, called triremes, were powered by rowers and equipped with underwater battering rams. This is the Olympias, a reconstruction of an ancient Greek trireme. Notice that its wooden ram is reinforced with bronze. When tested with an inexperienced crew it made a 180° turn in less than one minute. The Persian ships could not match the trireme’s maneuverability. His fleet in place, Themistocles tempted the enormous Persian navy to fight at Salamis. The Persians sailed into the Straits of Salamis. These are Athenian soldiers preparing to fight the Persians as portrayed in 2014’s 300: Rise of an Empire. In the cramped conditions of the Straits of Salamis the great Persian ships struggled to maneuver and became disorganized. The Greeks destroyed the Persian fleet Xerxes retreated with his army. On the shore, Xerxes watched as his mighty fleet sank. The next year, the Greeks defeated the Persians on land in Asia Minor. This victory marked the end of the Persian Wars. The Greek city-states saved themselves from the Persian threat. The Battle of Salamis, by Wilhelm von Kaulbach (1868), shows the aftermath of the Persian’s defeat. Themistocles’ foresight saved Athens Themistocles’ foresight had saved Athens. Too proud, years later his boasting got him exiled. He went to Persia and became an advisor to the king. This is Burial of Themistocles’ Ashes, by Giuseppe Bossi from about 1809. He died in Ionia in 459 B.C. Athens emerged from the war as the most powerful city-state in Greece. Athens created an alliance with other Greek city-states. Modern scholars call this alliance the Delian League after Delos, the location where the league held meetings. From the start, Athens dominated the Delian League. Sparta Delos Athens (in red above) and the other city-states of the Delian League (in yellow above) joined forces to defend against future Persian invasions. Notice that Sparta is not a member. The most important long-term contributions of ancient Greek civilization are primarily found in the area of government and law. The architectural style in Washington, D.C. is neoclassical, meaning that it is inspired by ancient Greek and Roman architecture. These styles use tall columns, symmetrical shapes, and triangular pediments, like those seen in the Supreme Court Building at left. The architecture of the nation’s capital expresses the influence of classical Greek and Roman political ideals on our government. The Hall of Columns is a dramatic, high-ceilinged corridor over 100 feet long. It runs along the NorthSouth axis of the first floor of the House wing in the U.S. Capitol, directly beneath the Hall of the House of Representatives. These columns, like to columns at the front of the Supreme Court Building, are of the Corinthian style. There are three main columns in Greek architecture, Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian. Ionia and Corinth were Greek citystates. The term Doric derives from the Dorian invaders who built the citystate of Sparta. These are the Doric columns of the crypt in the U.S. Capitol Building. These sandstone columns support the arches that hold up the floor of the Rotunda above. These ionic columns belong to the Rayburn House Office Building. Our Congressman, Andre Carson, has his office in room 2453 of this building. The White House and the Lincoln Memorial are also examples of classical architecture in Washington, D.C. These are Corinthian columns in the Library of Congress’ main reading room in Washington, D.C. In Indianapolis, the Central Library’s columns are Doric. The Indiana War Memorial’s columns are ionic. The memorial is based upon the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus, a tomb built by Greek architects in the Fourth century B.C. These columns inside the Indiana Statehouse are in the Corinthian style. The years after the Persian Wars, from 460 B.C. to 429 B.C., were a golden age for Athens. Under the leadership of Pericles, Athens was a direct democracy. In a direct democracy, all citizens vote on all laws. This is Phidias Showing the Frieze of the Parthenon to Pericles, Aspasia, Alcibiades and Friends, by Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema, from 1868. Citizens took part directly in the day-today affairs of government. Today, the citizens in most democratic countries participate in government indirectly through elected representatives. We have a representative (or indirect) democracy. We vote to elect others who vote on legislation because they represent us. By the time of Pericles, the Athenian assembly met several times a month. A Council of Five Hundred, selected by lot, conducted daily government business. Pericles believed that all citizens, regardless of wealth or social class, should take part in government. This is Raphael’s School of Athens. It was painted between 1509 and 1511 to decorate a room in the Apostolic Palace in the Vatican. Nearly every great ancient Greek philosopher can be found in the painting. Athens paid a salary to men who participated in the government, enabling poor men to serve. The setting suggests the open exchange of ideas that occurs in a democracy. Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle are numbers 12, 14, and 15, respectively. Many Greeks outside of Athens resented Athenian domination. Before long, the Greek world was split into rival camps. This is Spartan Woman Giving a Shield to Her Son by Jean-JacquesFrançois Le Barbier (1805). In the folklore of Sparta, when a son left home for the armed forces, his mother said: “Fight well and fairly. Return with your shield - or on it.” To counter the Delian League, Sparta and other enemies of Athens formed the Peloponnesian League. In 431 B.C., warfare broke out between Athens and Sparta. This conflict, which became known as the Peloponnesian War, soon engulfed all of Greece. The fighting lasted for twenty-seven years. The Peloponnesian League (Sparta) is in yellow and the Delian League (Athens) is in orange on the map at left. When Sparta’s powerful army came near to Athens, Pericles allowed people from the countryside to move inside the city walls. The overcrowded conditions led to a terrible plague that killed many Athenians, including Pericles himself. This is Plague in an Ancient City by Michael Sweerts from about 1652. As the war dragged on, each side committed savage acts against the other. Sparta even allied itself with Persia, the longtime enemy of the Greeks. Finally, in 404 B.C., with the help of the Persian navy, the Spartans captured Athens. The victors stripped Athens of its empire. The Peloponnesian War ended Athenian domination of the Greek world. Athens remained the cultural center of Greece. However, its spirit and vitality declined. This vase was created by the Spartan artist known as the Rider Painter in the Sixth century B.C. While the Greeks battled among themselves, a new power rose in Macedonia, a kingdom to the north of Greece. By 359 B.C., its ambitious ruler stood poised to conquer the quarrelsome Greek citystates. This is Aristotle Tutoring Alexander, by Jean Leon Gerome Ferris from 1895. and now… some more final exam questions… Which civilizations were organized into city-states? a) Ancient Greece and Mayans b) Rome and Egypt c) Phoenicia and India d) Ancient China and Ghana Which civilizations were organized into city-states? a) Ancient Greece and Mayans b) Rome and Egypt c) Phoenicia and India d) Ancient China and Ghana Important long-term contributions of Ancient Greek and Roman civilizations are primarily found in the area of a) government and law. b) military technology. c) religious doctrine. d) economic policy. Important long-term contributions of Ancient Greek and Roman civilizations are primarily found in the area of a) government and law. b) military technology. c) religious doctrine. d) economic policy.