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Transcript
Livestock Breeding Systems
Sire
animal’s male parent
Offspring
animal in relation to its parents
Dam
animal’s female parent
Progeny
descendent or offspring of an animal
Expected Progeny Difference (EPD)
performance “expected” from the progeny of each sire or dam
Phenotype
animal’s physical characteristics
Genotype
animal’s genetic composition
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Accuracy (ACC)
range from 0-1.0; closer to one accuracy, more proven or “accurate” the EPD is
expected to be
Dystocia
abnormal, slow or difficult birth; usually because of ineffective contractions of
the uterus
Breeding Value
value of an animal as a parent
Hybrid Vigor
crossbred offspring exceed the average of the two parental breeds
Homozygous
identical pairs of genes
Inbreeding
mating of related individuals in which the sire and dam share at least one
ancestor
Accompanies: Livestock Breeding Systems
1
Livestock Breeding Systems
Inbreeding Coefficient
measure of how inbred an animal is (the probability two genes of a pair in an
individual will be homozygous because they are replicates of a single ancestral
gene)
Deleterious Gene
could cause undesirable effects on an individual’s viability, productivity and
economic value
Inbreeding Depression
increase in homozygosity provides the opportunity for unfavorable recessive
genes
Linebreeding
form of inbreeding which attempts to maintain a close relationship to a highly
regarded ancestor
Rotational Crossbreeding System
designed to maximize hybrid vigor and produce replacement females through
the rotation of different sire breeds
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Rotational-Terminal Crossbreeding
system which produces replacement females through the rotation while taking
advantage of producing crossbred offspring
Static Crossbreeding System
system in which replacement females must be purchased from or produced in
a separate population; also known as Terminal Crossbreeding System
Modified Static Crossbreeding System
system which differs from static crossbreeding programs because it is modified
to produce replacement females
Composite
signifies new breeds or new lines
Composite Breeding System
system which combines desirable traits of two or more breeds of cattle into one
“package”
Accompanies: Livestock Breeding Systems
2
Livestock Breeding Systems
Hand Mating
used by purebred breeders to control mating in which females are kept apart
from the males until desired time of breeding
Pen Mating
used mostly by commercial breeders; males and females coexist throughout
the breeding season or year round
Stud Mating
used mostly by the poultry and rabbit industry; females are mated individually
by a superior male which is kept by himself in a pen or coop
Artificial Insemination (AI)
process by which semen from the male is placed into the reproductive tract of
the female using mechanical means rather than by natural service
Gestation
length a baby is carried
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Parturition
act of giving birth
Embryo Transfer
early pregnancy embryos are removed from a genetically superior female and
placed into the reproductive tract of a suitable recipient for gestation and
parturition
Accompanies: Livestock Breeding Systems
3