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Transcript
Biosphere Revision Booklet
Section 1 Distribution of Biomes
Tundra
Desert
Tropical rainforest
Describe the distribution (global location) of
1. Tropical Rainforest ………………………………………………………………………………..
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
2. Desert
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
3. Tundra
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Exam Question
Describe the distribution of tropical rainforest in Africa.
(2 marks)
………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………
Factors that explain biome location
Factor
Explanation
Development
Temperature
Links strongly to latitude and is the important
factor explaining where biomes are found.
Where temperatures are warm vegetation
grows most (as long as there is water).
This means that near the equator where
temperatures are hot all year you can find
rainforest, for example in Central Africa
(Congo) and the Amazon in South America.
Where temperatures are cold, especially below
6 C there is a shorter growing season and
vegetation does not grow fast.
As a result in northern latitudes you find the
tundra ecosystem with only small plants
and mosses, for example in northern
Canada.
This is shown by rainforest trees such as the
Brazil Nut Tree growing up to 60m high.
Rainfall
Where rainfall is high vegetation will be more
dense and higher, for example the tropical
rainforest ecosystem near the equator where
rainfall exceeds 2000mm a year.
Where rainfall is low you have deserts, less than
250mm a year.
Altitude
Soils
Altitude impacts on vegetation because it
impacts on temperature and rainfall on a local
scale. The first impact of altitude is that it
decreases temperature (6C for every 1000m in
height).
Also, at high altitude precipitation can increase
as can the amount of snow.
Waterlogged soils can often be acidic and
therefore only certain plants can grow.
Desert soils lack organic matter and are often
thin and impermeable making it hard for
vegetation to grow.
Poor drainage can make it difficult for trees to
grow.
This means vegetation is sparse and slow
growing, for example, cactus in Arizona
Desert.
This means that at high altitude you can
find coniferous trees which can survive low
temperatures and tundra near the
mountain tops, for example in the Rockies
in North America.
As a result you find coniferous pine trees
which can easily shed snow.
As a result you often find coniferous trees
growing in places with acidic soils e.g. in
Upland Wales.
This shows another reason why there is
little vegetation in deserts, for example in
Arizona.
This results in peat bogs rather than forests
in parts of Scotland.
2011 Exam Question
Explain how temperature and precipitation affect the distribution of global biomes. (6 marks)
You need 3 separate points to answer this question. Each point should be explained then developed. Developed
statements are
…as a result of this…
…..this means that….
…this is important because…..
….this leads to….
…this shows that…..
Firstly, .....................................................................................................................
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
Secondly, ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….........
Thirdly, ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
To conclude, most important reason is .................................................................................
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
2014 Exam Question
Explain how altitude and soils (local factors) can affect biome distribution. (6 marks)
Firstly, ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Secondly, …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
Thirdly, ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
To conclude, most important local factor is ………………………………………………………………………..
Section 2 - Goods and Services
Goods are products grown or found in an ecosystem, for example, fruit, nuts, meat, fish, eggs, wood, medicines
and rubber.
Services are ways in which ecosystems provide things we need by regulating the atmosphere, water cycle and
soils.
The best way to answer a question on goods and services is using the tropical rainforest. Your case study of the
tropical rainforest is the Tambopata region of the Peruvian Amazon in South America.
Goods
The first product (good) is food e.g. nuts. Brazil nut
trees in the Tambopata provide a food source.
The second product produced is bush meat, for
example, monkeys.
Services
The rainforest regulates the atmosphere by
photosynthesis, the vegetation absorbs carbon dioxide
from the air and produces oxygen.
This is important for the Ese-Eja people who get
protein from the brazil nuts and can sell them through
trade.
This is also important for the indigenous people as it
forms part of traditional hunting rituals and a source of
food.
This is important because it acts as a sink for carbon
dioxide produced by people through burning of fossil
fuels.
The rainforest regulates the water cycle through
evapo-transpiration returning water to the atmosphere
store, and so increasing rainfall in the Amazon.
This is important because the Tambopata region is long
way from the ocean.
The vegetation intercepts and absorbs rainwater,
reducing run-off into rivers.
The rainforest regulates soil by adding nutrients such
as nitrate when vegetation dies and decomposes.
This results in less soil erosion and fewer floods
downstream along rivers.
This is important because rainforest soils are
sometimes relatively infertile.
Additionally, the rainforest canopy protects the soil
from the heavy rainfall. Roots also hold the soil
together.
This means the soil is protected from erosion.
Finally, decomposing vegetation adds organic matter to
the soil.
This means it absorbs water and reduces flooding.
Exam Question 2011
Examine the value of a named biome in providing goods and services. (6 marks)
Make it clear which global biome you are writing about and the example place. Remember to include at least
one good and one service. Remember the developed statement in the middle of each point.
This answer will look at ………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………….........................................................................................................
A good produced by the rainforest is ...................................................................................
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
A service provided by the rainforest is ………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
A second good / service is ……………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
To conclude, ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
Exam Question 2013
How does the biosphere regulate soil health and atmospheric composition? (6 marks)
Firstly, ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
Secondly, ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Thirdly, ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
To conclude the most important service is .............................................................................
Section 3 - Human Degradation (destruction) of the biosphere
The best case study to use here is the Tambopata region of the Peruvian Amazon. You can either be asked to
explain the human activities, or explain their impact on the rainforest ecosystem.
Direct destruction
Activity
Explanation of activity
Logging
The most valuable hard wood emergent trees, for
example mahogany and brazil nut trees in the
Tambopata are cut down and sold to make furniture.
The biggest cause of deforestation in the Amazon.
Large areas have been cut down and burned to clear
land for grass and grazing by cattle. The beef is then
sold around the world with more meat being eaten.
Cattle ranching
Gold mining
In the Tambopata there are lots of illegal gold mines.
These clear areas to mine and use mercury in the
process.
Road building
The Trans-Amazonia highway has been built close to
the Tambopata, destroying some habitats.
Development – link to the
ecosystem
This results in certain species being
threatened by extinction and many
other trees being damaged.
This means that such large areas
are cleared, the soil is exposed to
the heavy rain and is eroded. The
nutrient cycle is also broken with
much less decomposition taking
place.
This leads to the mercury poisons
the water, killing many fish and
entering the food chain, also
threatening the health of the Eseeja indigenous people.
This is important because it
provides a route into the forest for
many small scale farmers who then
cut down forest to make farms.
Exam Question 2010
Explain how human activities threaten the biosphere. (6 marks)
Key here is start with the human activity and then link it to the destruction of the biosphere. Make sure you use
your case here.
Firstly, …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
Secondly, …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Thirdly, ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
To conclude the most significant activity is .............................................................................
Indirect destruction
The tropical rainforest is thought to be indirectly threatened by climate change. There have been two big
droughts in the Tambopata, the most recent in 2012. Many trees were killed and large numbers of fish died due
to the drying up of lakes and rivers.
Section 3 - The biosphere can be managed to conserve it and make human use of it more sustainable.
Sustainable development means looking after environment to ensure that the needs of future generations can be
met. It needs to ensure economic, social and environmental sustainability.
Global Scale management – CITES – Convention of International Trade and Endangered Species
CITES agreement is signed by most countries (166) to
limit the trade of endangered species such as ivory
from elephant tusks.
The treaty provides a useful legal structure for
countries to improve conservation and stop illegal
exports / imports.
As part of the treaty China is using propaganda,
especially at airports, to stop parts of illegally hunted
animals being brought into the country.
The main problem with the treaty is that it is difficult to
enforce, especially for countries with long land
borders.
Another problem is that species that are not high
profile or not endangered because of hunting are still
at risk.
This means that species in the greatest danger of
becoming extinction should not be hunted as much,
and therefore increase in numbers.
Many African countries, such as Malawi, are working
with airlines and conservation groups to stop illegal
hunting and the trading of the goods.
This is important because China is currently the biggest
market for endangered species, such as the tiger in SE
Asia.
This is shown by the border between China and Burma
(Myanmar), over which many species used in
traditional Chinese medicine are traded.
This is shown by the example of the natterjack toad,
Britain’s most endangered species.
National and Local Scale Management
Many countries use a national strategy of having certain areas protected from development to use for
conservation. In the UK there are 12 national parks, for example, the Lake District. On a local scale planning
permission, road building and industry is strictly controlled. However, with most land used privately owned and
used for farming there is limited land for natural ecosystems such as woodland.
The best example to use in an answer here is the Tambopata Reserve in the Peruvian Amazon. This is an area
with very high species diversity.
Strategy
Core Area
Wildlife
Corridors
Protected areas
Explanation
Within the Tambopata reserve there are
core areas where no human activity is
allowed at all. The area is just for wildlife.
The different core areas are linked by
wildlife corridors. This means animal can
travel along these zones to other core
areas.
These are areas around the core where
limited human activity is allowed. This
includes small scale slash and burn farming
by the Ese-eja, and collecting of brazil nuts
for trading.
Development
This is important because the habitats of the
endangered species such as tapirs is protected
from human interference.
This means that the likelihood of in-breeding is
reduced and maintains diversity in the gene
pool.
This is important because of the social aspects of
sustainability whereby the indigenous people
are able to maintain their traditional existence
and have some ability to trade, without any
large scale damage to the rainforest.
Additionally, some eco-tourism resorts
have been built in this zone.
Peripheral
areas
The outer areas of the reserve have some
legal mining and farming, but with limited
licences to ensure that the most
environmentally sound practices are used.
This is important because it allows Peru to make
hard currency from the Tambopata and
hopefully encourage the conservation of the
rainforest environment. This should mean that
local people have incentive to conserve the
rainforest as they get an income from it.
This means that people living in the region have
income from the goods of the rainforest,
showing economic sustainability.
Exam Question 2012
Examine management methods used to conserve the biosphere. (6 marks)
For a general management question like this try to have one point on a global management strategy (CITES) and
one point on a national strategy (the use of national parks). Remember to develop your points.
Firstly, …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
Secondly, …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Thirdly, ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
To conclude, most effective management strategy is ……………………………………………………………..
Glossary
Ecosystem
Biome
Distribution
Latitude
Temperature
Precipitation
Altitude
Soil
Goods
Services
Vegetation
Evapo-transpiration
Interception
Tambopata
Decomposition
Nutrient