Download Chapter 23, part 1

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts
no text concepts found
Transcript
Anatomy & Physiology
SIXTH EDITION
Chapter 23, part 1
The Respiratory System
PowerPoint® Lecture Slide Presentation prepared by
Dr. Kathleen A. Ireland, Biology Instructor, Seabury Hall, Maui, Hawaii
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Frederic H. Martini
Fundamentals of
SECTION 23-1
The Respiratory System: An Introduction
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Learning Objectives
• Describe the primary functions of the respiratory
system
• Identify the organs of the respiratory system and
describe their functions
• Define and compare the processes of external and
internal respiration
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Learning Objectives
• Summarize the physical principles governing the
movement of air into the lungs and the diffusion
of gases into the blood
• Explain the important structural features of the
respiratory membrane
• Describe how oxygen and carbon dioxide are
picked up, transported and released in the blood
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Functions of the respiratory system
• Gas exchange between air and circulating blood
• Moving air from the exchange surface of the
lungs
• Protection of respiratory surfaces
• Production of sound
• Provision for olfactory sensations
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Organization of the respiratory system
• Upper respiratory system
• Nose, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, pharynx
• Lower respiratory system
• Larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 23.1 The Components of the Respiratory
System
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 23.1
The Respiratory tract
• Conducting passageways carrying air to and from
the alveoli
• Upper respiratory passages filter and humidify
incoming air
• Lower passageways include delicate
conduction passages and alveolar exchange
surfaces
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Respiratory Mucosa
• Respiratory epithelium and underlying
connective tissue
• Respiratory membrane, supported by lamina
propria, changes along tract
• Lines conducting portion of respiratory tract
• Protected from contamination by respiratory
defense system
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 23.2 The Respiratory Epithelium of the
Nasal Cavity and Conducting System
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 23.2
SECTION 23-2
The Upper Respiratory System
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
The nose and nasal cavity consists of:
• External nares
• Nasal cavity
• Vestibule
• Superior, middle and inferior meatuses
• Hard and soft palates
• Internal nares
• Nasal mucosa
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 23.3 The Nose, Nasal Cavity, and
Pharynx
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 23.3a, b
Figure 23.3 The Nose, Nasal Cavity, and
Pharynx
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 23.3c
Nose /nasal passages -functions
4 main specialized functions1)incoming air is warmed, moistened, and filtered
2) olfactory - stimuli are received in nasal
epithelia
3) modify speech - large, hollow resonating
chambers
4) Love - the vomer-nasal apparatus
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
The pharynx
• Shared by the digestive and respiratory systems
• Divided into three sections:
• Nasopharynx – superior portion
• Oropharynx – continuous with the oral cavity
• Laryngopharynx – between the hyoid bone and
the esophagus
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
SECTION 23-3
The Larynx
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
The larynx
• Air passes through the glottis on the way to the
lungs
• Larynx protects the glottis
• Cartilages of the larynx
• Three large cartilages
• Thyroid, cricoid, and epiglottis
• Paired cartilages
• Arytenoids, corniculate, and cuneiform
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Folds of the larynx
• Inelastic vestibular folds
• Delicate vocal folds
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 23.4 The Anatomy of the Larynx
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 23.4
Sound production
• Air passing through the glottis vibrates the vocal
folds producing sound waves
• Pitch depends on conditions of vocal folds
• Diameter
• Length
• Tension
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 23.5 The Glottis
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 23.5a, b
The laryngeal musculature
• Muscles of the neck and pharynx position and
stabilize the larynx
• When swallowing,these muscles
• Elevate the larynx
• Bend the epiglottis over the glottis
• Intrinsic muscles control tension on the vocal
folds and open the glottis
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
SECTION 23-4
The Trachea and Primary Bronchi
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
The trachea
• Extends from the sixth cervical vertebra to the
fifth thoracic vertebra
• A tough, flexible tube running from the larynx to
the bronchi
• Held open by C-shaped tracheal cartilages in
submucosa
• Mucosa is similar to the nasopharynx
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 23.6 The Anatomy of the Trachea
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 23.6a, b
Figure 23.6 The Anatomy of the Trachea
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 23.6c
The primary bronchi
• Trachea branches in the mediastinum into right
and left bronchi
• Bronchi enter the lungs at the hilus
• Root = the connective tissue mass including:
• Bronchus
• Pulmonary vessels
• Nerves
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings