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Characterized by severely strained relationships in which others
tend to be treated as objects without feelings
Antisocial Personality Disorder
There is a pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the
rights of others
Histrionic Personality Disorder
Pervasive and excessive emotionality and attention-seeking
Narcissistic Personality Disorder
A pervasive pattern of grandiosity, need for admiration, and lack
of empathy
Borderline Personality Disorder
A pervasive pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships,
self-image, and affected, and marked impulsivity beginning in
early adulthood. Five or more of the following:
A. Frantic efforts to avoid real or imaged abandonment Separation Anxiety
B. A pattern of unstable and intense interpersonal
relationships characterized by alternating between extremes
of idealization and devaluation
C. Identity disturbance, markedly and persistently unstable
self-image or sense of self AS IF
D. Impulsivity
E. Recurrent suicidal behavior or self mutilating behavior
F. Affective instability
G. Chronic feelings of emptiness
H. Inappropriate, intense anger
I. Transient, stress-related paranoid ideation or severe
dissociative symptoms
Object Relations Theory
Otto Kernberg
James Masterson
Margaret Mahler
Object constancy
Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT)
Marsha Linehan
There are four primary modes of treatment in DBT :
1. Individual therapy
2. Group skills training
3. Telephone contact
4. Therapist consultation
“Dialectical Behaviour Therapy, which will now be described,
focuses specifically on this pattern of problem behaviours and in
particular, the parasuicidal behaviour. The term 'dialectical' is
derived from classical philosophy. It refers to a form of
argument in which an assertion is first made about a particular
issue (the 'thesis'), the opposing position is then formulated (the
'antithesis' ) and finally a 'synthesis' is sought between the two
extremes, embodying the valuable features of each position and
resolving any contradictions between the two. This synthesis
then acts as the thesis for the next cycle. In this way truth is seen
as a process which develops over time in transactions between
people. From this perspective there can be no statement
representing absolute truth. Truth is approached as the middle
way between extremes. The dialectical approach to
understanding and treatment of human problems is therefore
non-dogmatic, open and has a systemic and transactional
orientation. The dialectical viewpoint underlies the entire
structure of therapy. . .”
Barry Kiehn and Michaela Swales