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U.S. History
Unit 5:
World War II and Its
Aftermath
1931-1960
Carr
U.S. History
Notes
Unit 5: World War II and Its Aftermath, 1931-1960
Unit 5
World War II and Its Aftermath
Previewing the Unit:
Unit 5 describes how militaristic dictators in Europe and Japan start a worldwide war that forces the
United States to fight on two fronts. Victory leads to an uneasy peace with the Soviet Union, with the
threat of nuclear war looming over the world. The economic expansion brought on by the war and the
return to peace fuels a postwar economic boom and the spread of a suburb-based consumer culture.
Chapter 16:
World War Looms, 1931-1941
Chapter 17:
The United states in World war II, 1941-1945
Chapter 18:
Cold War Conflicts, 1945-1960
Chapter 19:
The Postwar Boom, 1946-1960
1
U.S. History
Notes
Unit 5: World War II and Its Aftermath, 1931-1960
Chapter 16: World War Looms, 1931-1941
Chapter 16 Objective:
To trace the rise of dictators, the beginnings of war, and the American response in the 1930s
Chapter 16 Summary:
America in World Affairs:
In the 1930s, the United States was very divided about its role in world affairs. Some people said the
United States needed to function as a leader; others thought it should remain isolationist.
Immigration and Migration:
During the 1930s, thousands of refugees from Nazi Germany and other totalitarian regimes came to the
United States as immigrants. Their numbers, however, were limited by quotas imposed by the
Immigration Act of 1924.
Voting Rights:
Franklin D. Roosevelt’s election to a third term in 1940 broke the unwritten rule that had limited
previous presidents to a maximum of two terms. This led eventually to the 22nd Amendment, which
imposed a constitutional limit of two terms for presidents.
Chapter 16 Vocabulary:
 Joseph Stalin
 Blitzkrieg
 Totalitarian
 Charles de Gaulle
 Benito Mussolini
 Holocaust
 Fascism
 Kristallnacht
 Adolf Hitler
 Genocide
 Nazism
 Ghetto
 Francisco Franco
 Concentration Camp
 Neutrality Acts
 Axis Powers
 Neville Chamberlain
 Lend-Lease Act
 Winston Churchill
 Atlantic Charter
 Appeasement
 Allies
 Nonaggression Pact
 Hideki Tojo
2
U.S. History
Notes
Unit 5: World War II and Its Aftermath, 1931-1960
Chapter 16: World War Looms, 1931-1941
Chapter 16 Vocabulary Definitions:
1. Fascism
 A form of totalitarianism that stresses nationalism and the importance of the state over
the individual
 Germany, Italy, and Spain became fascist regimes in the lead up to WWII
2. Neutrality Acts
 America’s early attempts to stay out of Europe’s problems and avoid entering the war
 Many Americans did not want to become entangled in another European war after WWI
3. Appeasement
 The willingness to give in to an aggressor’s demands in order to maintain the peace.
 European countries attempted to appease with Adolf Hitler before WWII, but his
demands continued to grow
4. Blitzkrieg
 A wartime strategy that involves fast strikes against the enemy, moving behind and
flanking them to cut off supply lines
 From the German: “Lightning War”
5. Kristallnacht
 The night many Jewish businesses, synagogues, and homes were vandalized and burned
by the Nazis
 Used as an excuse by Hitler to crack down harder on Germany’s Jews
 From the German: “Night of Broken Glass”
6. Concentration Camp
 Prison/labor camps where Germany’s Jews, gypsies, and “undesirables” were sent
during the holocaust
 Unending labor, horrible conditions, starvation, and systematic murder resulted in over
6 million deaths by the end of WWII.
7. Axis Powers
 The three enemy nations during World War II
 Germany, Italy, and Japan
8. Lend-Lease Act
 FDR’s plan to aid the Allied nations against Nazi Germany
 Provided weapons, vehicles, and ammunition for Britain in order to fight the Nazis
 Provided aid just short of actually entering the war
9. Atlantic Charter
 Joint declaration between FDR and Churchill outlining the goals of the war effort against
the Nazis
 Establishes the Allied nations
 Eventually becomes a basis for the United Nations
10. Allies
 The friendly nations during World War II
 Britain, Russia, The United States
3
U.S. History
Notes
Unit 5: World War II and Its Aftermath, 1931-1960
Chapter 16: World War Looms, 1931-1941
Section 1: Dictators Threaten World Peace
Main Idea:
The rise of rulers with total power in Europe and Asia led to World War II.
Why It Matters Now:
Dictators of the 1930s and 1940s changed the course of history, making world leaders especially
watchful for the actions of dictators today.
Nationalism Grips Europe and Asia
 Failures of the World War I Peace Settlement
o Germany resents blame for war, loss of colonies, border territories
o New democracies flounder under social, economic problems
o Dictators rise; driven by nationalism, desire for more territory
 The Rise of Fascism in Italy
o Fascism stresses nationalism, needs of state above individual
o Benito Mussolini plays on fears of economic collapse, communism
o 1922 appointed head of government, establishes totalitarian state
 The Nazis Take Over Germany
o Adolf Hitler leader of National Socialist German Workers’ Party
o Mein Kampf – basic beliefs of Nazism, based on extreme nationalism
o Dismantles democratic Weimar Republic; establishes Third Reich
 Militarists Gain Control in Japan
o 1931, Nationalist military leaders seize Manchuria (Northeast China)
The United States Responds Cautiously
 Americans Cling to Isolationism
o 1935 Neutrality Acts try to keep U.S. out of future wars
4
U.S. History
Notes
Unit 5: World War II and Its Aftermath, 1931-1960
Chapter 16: World War Looms, 1931-1941
Section 2: War in Europe
Main Idea:
Using the sudden mass attack called blitzkrieg, Germany invaded and quickly conquered many European
countries.
Why It Matters Now:
Hitler’s actions started World War II and still serve as a warning to be vigilant about totalitarian
government.
Austria and Czechoslovakia Fall
 Union with Austria
o 1938, German troops march into Austria unopposed, unify with Germany
o U.S., rest of world do nothing to stop Germany
 Bargaining for the Sudetenland
o 1938, Neville Chamberlain meets with Hitler
o Sign Munich Agreement, hand Sudetenland over to Germany
o Winston Churchill condemns appeasement policy, warns war will follow
o Appeasement – giving up principles to pacify and aggressor
The German Offensive Begins
 The Soviet Union Declares Neutrality
o Stalin, Hitler sign nonaggression pact – will not attack each other
o Sign second, secret pact agreeing to divide Poland between them
 Blitzkrieg in Poland
o Sept. 1939, Hitler overruns Poland in blitzkrieg, lightning war
o Germany annexes western Poland; U.S.S.R. attacks, annexes east
o France, Britain declare war on Germany; World War II begins
France and Britain Fight On
 The Fall of France
o German army goes through Ardennes Forest, bypassing Maginot Line
o British, French trapped on Dunkirk; ferried to safety in UK
o France falls; Germans occupy northern France
o General Charles de Gaulle sets up government-in-exile in England
 The Battle of Britain
o Battle of Britain – German planes bomb British targets
o Britain uses radar to track, RAF to defeat German planes
o Unable to win, Hitler calls off invasion of Britain
5
U.S. History
Notes
Unit 5: World War II and Its Aftermath, 1931-1960
Chapter 16: World War Looms, 1931-1941
Section 3: The Holocaust
Main Idea:
During the Holocaust, the Nazis systematically executed 6 million Jews and 5 million other “non-Aryans.”
Why It Matters Now:
After the atrocities of the Holocaust, agencies formed to publicize human rights. These agencies have
remained a force in today’s world.
The Persecution Begins
 Jews Targeted
o Europe has long history of anti-Semitism
o Germans believe Hitler’s claims, blame Jews for problems
o Nazis take away citizenship, jobs, property; requires Star of David on clothing
o Holocaust – murder of 11 million people, more than half are Jews
 Kristallnacht
o Kristallnacht – Nazis attack Jewish homes, business, synagogues
o About 100 Jews killed, hundreds injured, 30,000 arrested
 Nazis blame Jews for causing destruction
Hitler’s “Final Solution”
 The Condemned
o Hitler’s Final Solution – slavery, genocide of “inferior” groups
o Genocide – deliberate, systematic killing of an entire population
o Target Jews, gypsies, freemasons, Jehovah’s Witnesses, unfit Germans
o Nazi death squads round up Jews, shoot them
 Forced Relocation
o Jews forced into ghettos, segregated areas in Polish cities
 Concentration Camps
o Many Jews taken to concentration camps, or labor camps
o Those too weak to work are killed
The Final Stage
 Mass Exterminations
o Germans build death camps; gas chambers used to kill thousands
o At first bodies buried in pits; later cremated to cover up evidence
 The Survivors
o About 6 million Jews killed in death camps, massacres
o Some survive concentration camps
6
U.S. History
Notes
Unit 5: World War II and Its Aftermath, 1931-1960
Chapter 16: World War Looms, 1931-1941
Section 4: America Moves Toward War
Main Idea:
In response to the fighting in Europe, the United States provided economic and military aid to help the
Allies achieve victory.
Why It Matters Now:
The military capability of the U.S. became a deciding factor in World War II and in the world affairs ever
since.
The United States Musters Its Forces
 Moving Cautiously Away from Neutrality
o 1939, FDR persuades Congress to pass “cash-and-carry” provision
 The Axis Threat
o Germany, Japan, Italy sign Tripartite Pact, mutual defense treaty
 Become known as Axis Powers
“The Great Arsenal of Democracy”
 The Lend-Lease Plan
o FDR tells nation if Britain falls, Axis powers free to conquer world
 U.S. must become “arsenal of democracy”
o 1941 Lend-Lease Act – U.S. to lend or lease supplies for defense
 FDR uses “garden-hose” analogy
 Supporting Stalin
o 1941, Hitler breaks pact with Stalin, invades Soviet Union
FDR Plans for War
 The Atlantic Charter
o FDR, Churchill issue Atlantic Charter – joint declaration of war aims
o Allies – nations that fight Axis powers; 26 nations sign Declaration
Japan Attacks the United States
 Japan’s Ambitions in the Pacific
o Hideki Tojo – chief of staff of army that invades China, prime minister
 The Attack on Pearl Harbor
o December 7, 1941 Japanese attack Pearl Harbor
o 2,403 Americans killed; 1,178 wounded
o Over 300 aircraft, 21 ships destroyed or damaged
 Reaction to Pearl Harbor
o Congress approves FDR’s request for declaration of war against Japan
o Germany, Italy declare war on U.S.
o U.S. unprepared to fight in both Atlantic, Pacific Oceans
7
U.S. History
Notes
Unit 5: World War II and Its Aftermath, 1931-1960
Chapter 16: World War Looms, 1931-1941
Chapter 16 Study Questions:
Section 1
1. What were Stalin’s goals and what steps did he take to achieve them?
2. How did Germany’s and Italy’s involvement affect the outcome of the Spanish Civil War?
Section 2
3. Why was the blitzkrieg effective?
4. What terms of surrender did Hitler demand of the French after the fall of France in 1940? What was
General Charles de Gaulle’s reaction?
Section 3
5. What groups did Nazis deem unfit to belong to the Aryan “master race”?
6. How did some Europeans show their resistance to Nazi persecution of the Jews?
Section 4
7. What congressional measures paved the way for the U.S. entry into World War II?
8. Why did the United States enter World War II?
8
U.S. History
Notes
Unit 5: World War II and Its Aftermath, 1931-1960
Chapter 17: The United States in World War II, 1941-1945
Chapter 17 Objective:
To understand the military campaigns, political decisions, and efforts on the home front that won World
War II
Chapter 17 Summary:
Women and Political Power:
As Americans marched off to war, both the armed services and defense industries turned to women to
meet their “manpower” needs. Women proved they could handle almost any job.
Civil Rights:
For America’s minorities, the war meant a struggle for equal treatment in the workplace and in the
military. The government violated the civil rights of Japanese Americans by sending them to internment
camps.
Immigration and Migration:
The war put unprecedented numbers of Americans on the move. Young men left home for military
training and service overseas. As towns and cities with defense plants boomed to the bursting point,
workers moved in to take jobs.
Economic Opportunity:
The post-war period brought renewed opportunities for Americans to forge their dreams of the good
life. The GI Bill of Rights promised to help returning veterans keep that dream alive.
Chapter 17 Vocabulary:
 George Marshall
 Douglas MacArthur
 Women’s Auxiliary Army Corp (WAAC)
 Chester Nimitz
 Philip Randolph
 Battle of Midway
 Manhattan Project
 Kamikaze
 Office of Price Administration (OPA)
 J. Robert Oppenheimer
 War Production Board (WPB)
 Hiroshima
 Rationing
 Nagasaki
 Dwight D. Eisenhower
 Nuremburg Trials
 D-Day
 GI Bill of Rights
 Omar Bradley
 James Farmer
 George Patton
 Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)
 Battle of the Bulge
 Internment
 V-E Day
 Japanese American Citizens League (JACL)
 Harry S. Truman
9
U.S. History
Notes
Unit 5: World War II and Its Aftermath, 1931-1960
Chapter 17: The United States in World War II, 1941-1945
Chapter 17 Vocabulary Definitions:
1. Women’s Auxiliary Army Corp (WAAC)
 A female army unit used in non-combat support roles during World War II
2. Manhattan Project
 The U.S. scientific effort to design and build the world’s first atomic bomb
 Led to the successful testing and deployment of the bomb ending World War II
3. Rationing
 Limiting the number of goods/food people could purchase
 The U.S. employed rationing during WWII in order to maintain a steady supply of goods
for the war effort
4. D-Day
 The code-name for the Allied invasion of Normandy (Northern France)
 Marked the beginning of the U.S./British advance on Hitler’s Germany
 June 6th, 1944
5. Battle of the Bulge
 1944-1945, last major Nazi offensive against the Allies on the Western Front
 The Nazi war machine was unable to recover from losses after the failed operation
6. Douglas MacArthur
 Commander of U.S. forces in the Philippines at the beginning of World War II
 After the war he became military-governor of occupied Japan
 Reshapes Japan’s economy and government
7. Battle of Midway
 A major Pacific naval battle between the U.S. and Japan during WWII
 The turning point of the war in the Pacific
8. Hiroshima
 Major Japanese city and target of the first atomic bomb used in wartime
9. Nuremburg Trials
 Allied trial of Nazi leaders after World War II
 Charged with war crimes and crimes against humanity
10. Internment
 Many Japanese-Americans (including citizens) were placed in concentration camps in
the U.S.
 It was feared that Japanese-Americans were secretly spying/sabotaging for Japan
10
U.S. History
Notes
Unit 5: World War II and Its Aftermath, 1931-1960
Chapter 17: The United States in World War II, 1941-1945
Section 1: Mobilizing for Defense
Main Idea:
Following the attack on Pearl Harbor, the United States mobilized for war.
Why It Matters Now:
Military industries in the United States today are a major part of the American economy.
Americans Join the War Effort
 Selective Service and the GI
o After Pearl Harbor, 5 million men volunteer for military service
 Expanding the Military
o General George Marshall – Army Chief of Staff – calls for women’s corps
o Women’s Auxiliary Army Corps (WAAC) – women in noncombat positions
A Production Miracle
 The Industrial Response
o Factories convert from civilian to war production
o Produce ships, arms rapidly
 People work at record speeds
 Labor’s Contribution
o Nearly 18 million workers in war industries; 6 million are women
o Over 2 million minorities hired; face strong discrimination at first
 Mobilization of Scientists
o Manhattan Project develops atomic bomb
The Federal Government Takes Control
 Economic Controls
o Office of Price Administration (OPA) freezes prices, fights inflation
o Higher taxes, purchase of war bonds lower demand for scarce goods
o War Production Board (WPB) says which companies convert production
 Allocates raw materials
 Organizes collection of recyclable materials
 Rationing
o Rationing – fixed allotments of goods needed by military
11
U.S. History
Notes
Unit 5: World War II and Its Aftermath, 1931-1960
Chapter 17: The United States in World War II, 1941-1945
Section 2: The War for Europe and North Africa
Main Idea:
Allied forces, led by the United States and Great Britain, battled Axis powers for control of Europe and
North Africa.
Why It Matters Now:
During World War II, the United States assumed a leading role in world affairs that continues today.
The United States and Britain Join Forces
 War Plans
o Churchill convinces FDR to strike first against Hitler
 The Battle of the Atlantic
o Hitler orders submarine attacks against supply ships to Britain
o Allies organize convoys of cargo ships with escort:
The Easter Front and the Mediterranean
 The Battle of Stalingrad
o Soviets defeat Germans in bitter winter campaign
 Over 230,000 Germans, 1,100,000 Soviets die
o Battle a turning point: Soviet army begins to move towards Germany
 The North African Front
o General Dwight D. Eisenhower commands invasion of North Africa
o Afrika Korps, led by General Erwin Rommel, surrenders May 1943
 Heroes in Combat
o African Americans – Tuskegee Airmen, Buffaloes – highly decorated
o Mexican-American soldiers win many awards
o Japanese-American unit most decorated unit in U.S. history
The Allies Liberate Europe
 D-Day
o Eisenhower directs allied invasion of Normandy on D-Day June 6, 1944
 The Battle of the Bulge
o October 1944, Allies capture first German town, Aachen
o Battle of the Bulge – Germans push back but have irreplaceable losses
 Liberation of the Death Camps
o Allies in Germany, Soviets in Poland liberate concentration camps
 Unconditional Surrender
o April 1945, Soviet army storms Berlin; Hitler commits suicide
o Eisenhower accepts unconditional surrender of German Reich
o May 8, 1945, V-E Day: Victory in Europe Day
 Roosevelt’s Death
o FDR dies April 12; Vice President Harry S. Truman becomes president
12
U.S. History
Notes
Unit 5: World War II and Its Aftermath, 1931-1960
Chapter 17: The United States in World War II, 1941-1945
Section 3: The War in the Pacific
Main Idea:
In order to defeat Japan and end the war in the Pacific, the United States unleashed a terrible new
weapon, the atomic bomb.
Why It Matters Now:
Countries of the modern world struggle to find ways to prevent the use of nuclear weapons.
The Allies Stem the Japanese Tide
 Japanese Advances
o Gen. Douglas MacArthur leads Allied forces in Philippines
o March 1942 U.S., Filipino troops trapped on Bataan Peninsula
 Bataan Death March
 Doolittle’s Raid
o April 1942, Lt. Col. James Doolittle leads raid on Tokyo
 The Battle of Midway
o Admiral Chester Nimitz commands U.S. naval forces in Pacific
o Allies win Battle of Midway, turning point in Pacific war
o Allies advance island by island to Japan
 “Island Hopping”
The Allies Go on the Offensive
 The Allied Offensive
o Allied offensive begins August 1942 in Guadalcanal
o October 1944, Allies converge on Leyte Island in Philippines
 Return of MacArthur
 The Japanese Defense
o Japan uses Kamikaze attack – pilots crash bomb-laden planes into ships
o Battle of Leyte Gulf is a disaster for Japan
 Imperial Navy severely damaged; plays minor role after
The Atomic Bomb Ends the War
 The Manhattan Project
o J. Robert Oppenheimer is research director of Manhattan Project
o July 1945, atomic bomb tested in New Mexico desert
o President Truman order military to drop 2 atomic bombs on Japan
 Hiroshima and Nagasaki
o August 6, Hiroshima, major military center, destroyed by bomb
o 3 days later, bomb dropped on city of Nagasaki
o September 2,1945 Japan surrenders
Rebuilding Begins
 The Yalta Conference
o February 1945, FDR, Churchill, Stalin meet in Yalta
 Discuss post-war world
o FDR, Churchill concession: temporarily divide Germany into 4 parts
o Stalin promises free elections in Eastern Europe; will fight Japan
 The Nuremberg War Trials
o Nuremberg Trials – 24 Nazi leaders tried, sentenced
 Charged with crimes against humanity, against the peace, war crimes
13
U.S. History
Notes
Unit 5: World War II and Its Aftermath, 1931-1960
Chapter 17: The United States in World War II, 1941-1945
Section 4: The Home Front
Main Idea:
After World War II, Americans adjusted to new economic opportunities and harsh social tension.
Why It Matters Now:
Economic opportunities afforded by World War II led to a more diverse middle class in the United
States.
Opportunity and Adjustment
 Population Shifts
o War triggers mass migrations to town with defense industries
 Social Adjustments
o Families adjust to fathers in military; mothers rear children alone
o 1944 GI Bill of Rights or Servicemen’s Readjustment Act:
 Pays education; loan guarantees for homes, new businesses
Discrimination and Reaction
 Civil Rights Protests
o Racial tensions rise in overcrowded Northern cities
o James Farmer founds Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)
 Works on racial segregation in North
o 1943 racial violence sweeps across country; Detroit riots worst case
 Tensions in Los Angeles
o Anti-Mexican zoot suit riots involve thousands servicemen, civilians
Internment of Japanese Americans
 Japanese Americans Placed in Internment Camps
o Hawaii governor forced to order internment (confinement) of Japanese
o U.S. Army forces 110,000 Japanese Americans into prison camps
14
U.S. History
Notes
Unit 5: World War II and Its Aftermath, 1931-1960
Chapter 17: The United States in World War II, 1941-1945
Chapter 17 Study Questions:
Section 1
1. How did the U.S. military reflect the diversity of American society during World War II?
2. How did the federal government’s actions influence civilian life during World War II?
Section 2
3. What role did the media play in helping the country mobilize?
4. How did the Allies win control of the Atlantic Ocean between 1941 and 1943?
Section 3
5. What was the significance of the Battle of Stalingrad?
6. How did the Battle of the Bulge signal the beginning of the end of World War II?
Section 4
7. Briefly describe the island war in the Pacific.
8. Why did President Truman decide to use atomic weapons?
Section 5
9. How did the U.S. economy change during World War II?
10. What events show the persistence of racial tensions?
15
U.S. History
Notes
Unit 5: World War II and Its Aftermath, 1931-1960
Chapter 18: Cold War Conflicts, 1945-1960
Chapter 18 Objective:
To understand the international and domestic tensions resulting from the Cold War
Chapter 18 Summary:
Economic Opportunity:
After World War II, the United States converted to a peacetime economy. It faced the monumental
tasks if supplying jobs for returning soldiers and meeting civilian demand for goods that were
unavailable during wartime.
Civil Rights:
A major challenge to the Constitution arose during the Cold War. It was the challenge to the rights of
free speech and assembly that resulted from Senator Joseph McCarthy’s attacks on suspected
Communist.
Science and Technology:
The brilliant scientific achievements that led to the creation of the atomic and hydrogen bombs also cast
a shadow of impending nuclear holocaust over the 1950s. Despite this fear, many peaceful applications
of nuclear energy resulted.
Chapter 18 Vocabulary:
 United Nations (UN)
 Hollywood Ten
 Satellite Nation
 Blacklist
 Containment
 Alger Hiss
 Iron Curtain
 Ethel and Julius Rosenberg
 Cold War
 Joseph McCarthy
 Truman Doctrine
 McCarthyism
 Marshall Plan
 H-bomb
 Berlin Airlift
 Dwight D. Eisenhower
 North Atlantic Treaty Organization
 John Foster Dulles
(NATO)
 Brinkmanship
 Chiang Kai-shek
 Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
 Mao Zedong
 Warsaw Pact
 Taiwan
 Eisenhower Doctrine
th
 38 Parallel
 Nikita Khrushchev
 Korean War
 Francis Gary Powers
 House Un-American Activities Committee
 U-2 Incident
(HUAC)
16
U.S. History
Notes
Unit 5: World War II and Its Aftermath, 1931-1960
Chapter 18: Cold War Conflicts, 1945-1960
Chapter 18 Vocabulary Definitions:
1. United Nations (UN)
 Formed June 26th, 1945
 Organization formed to promote peace
 Became an arena for the United States and the Soviet Union to “fight”
2. Containment
 U.S. foreign policy throughout the cold war designed to stop the spread of communism
3. Iron Curtain
 Churchill’s description of the dividing line between Democratic Western Europe and
Communist Eastern Europe
4. Cold War
 The 1945-1991 conflict between Communist Eastern and Democratic Western
ideologies
 Did not result in outright armed conflict between the two major nations, U.S. and
U.S.S.R.
5. Truman Doctrine
 The political policy that the U.S. would provide aid to any nation threatened by
communism
6. Marshall Plan
 The U.S. plan to rebuild western Europe by investing huge sums of money into
reconstruction
 Designed to keep western Europe from possibly becoming communist
7. Berlin Airlift
 Massive series of aerial supply drops into West Berlin in order to help people behind a
Soviet blockade
8. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
 An alliance of nations intended to defend against a possible Soviet attack
9. Mao Zedong
 Communist leader of China
th
10. 38 Parallel
 Dividing line between Communist North Korea and Democratic South Korea
17
U.S. History
Notes
Unit 5: World War II and Its Aftermath, 1931-1960
Chapter 18: Cold War Conflicts, 1945-1960
Chapter 18 Vocabulary Definitions (continued):
11. Korean War
 1950 war fought between Communist North Korea and Democratic South Korea
 North was supported by China, South by U.S.
 “Proxy” war between world superpowers
12. House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC)
 Government panel that investigated suspected Communists in America
13. Blacklist
 People with Communist ties unable to find work
 Hollywood actors and studio workers were blacklisted for suspected Communist links
14. Ethel and Julius Rosenberg
 Accused spies sentenced to death for selling U.S. H-Bomb secrets to the Soviets
15. McCarthyism
 Attacking suspected communists with little or no evidence
 Named for Senator Joseph McCarthy who used this tactic in order to further his own
political gain
16. Brinkmanship
 The political policy in which a nation is willing to bring the world to the very edge of
destruction in order to secure its goals
17. Warsaw Pact
 Soviet led alliance formed to counter the Western NATO alliance
18. Eisenhower Doctrine
 U.S. foreign policy which stated America would support any Middle Eastern countries
threatened by Communist takeover
 Increased Cold War tensions
19. Nikita Khrushchev
 Soviet Premier after Stalin
 Attempted to improve relations between U.S. and U.S.S.R.
 Leader of U.S.S.R. during U-2 incident and Cuban Missile Crisis
20. U-2 Incident
 Incident in which a U.S. spy plane was shot down over Soviet Union
 Greatly increased Cold War tensions
18
U.S. History
Notes
Unit 5: World War II and Its Aftermath, 1931-1960
Chapter 18: Cold War Conflicts, 1945-1960
Section 1: Origins of the Cold War
Main Idea:
The United States and the Soviet Union emerged from World War II as two “superpowers” with vastly
different political and economic systems.
Why It Matters Now:
After World War II, differences between the United States and the Soviet Union led to a Cold War that
lasted almost to the 21st century.
Former Allies Clash
 U.S.-Soviet Relations
o U.S., U.S.S.R. have very different economic, political systems
 The United Nations
o 1945, United Nations established as new peacekeeping body
 The Potsdam Conference
o July 1945 conference with U.S., Great Britain, Soviet Union
o Stalin does not allow free, multiparty elections in Poland
 Bans democratic parties
Tension Mounts
 Soviets Tighten Their Grip on Eastern Europe
o Installs communist rule in satellite nations, countries it dominates
 United States Establishes a Policy of Containment
o U.S. policy of containment – measures to prevent spread of communism
o Churchill describes division of Europe as iron curtain
Cold War in Europe
 The Truman Doctrine
o 1945-1991 Cold War – Conflict between U.S., U.S.S.R.
 Neither nation directly confronts the other on battlefield
o Truman Doctrine – support against armed minorities, outsiders
 The Marshall Plan
o 1947, Sec. of State George Marshall proposes aid to nations in need
o Marshall Plan revives 16 nations
Superpowers Struggle Over Germany
 The Berlin Airlift
o 1948, Stalin closes highway, rail routes into West Berlin
o Berlin Airlift – Britain, U.S. fly food, supplies into West Berlin
o 1949, Stalin lifts blockade
 The NATO Alliance
o Fear of Soviets leads to North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
19
U.S. History
Notes
Unit 5: World War II and Its Aftermath, 1931-1960
Chapter 18: Cold War Conflicts, 1945-1960
Section 2: The Cold War Heats Up
Main Idea:
After World War II, China became a communist nation and Korea was split into a communist north and a
democratic south.
Why It Matters Now:
Ongoing tensions with China and North Korea continue to involve the United States.
China Becomes a Communist Country
 America Reacts to Communist takeover
o U.S. public stunned by Communist takeover
o Conservatives blame Truman for not sending enough aid
The Korean War
 A Divided Country
o 38th Parallel (38° N Latitude) divides Japanese surrender in Korea
o North of 38th parallel surrenders to U.S.S.R.; south to U.S.
 North Korea Attacks South Korea
o 1950, North Korea invades South, begins Korean War
o MacArthur put in command of South Korean, U.S., other forces
The United States Fights in Korea
 MacArthur’s Counterattack
o MacArthur attacks North Koreans from 2 sides, pushes into north
 The Chinese Fight Back
o China sends troops to help North Korea; push south, capture Seoul
 MacArthur Recommends Attacking China
o MacArthur calls for war with China; Truman rejects request
o Soviet Union, China have mutual assistance pact
 MacArthur Versus Truman
o MacArthur continues to push for invasion of China; Truman fires him
 Settling for Stalemate
o 1951, Soviet Union suggests cease-fire
o 1953 armistice: Korea still divided; demilitarized zone established
o Lack of success, high human, financial costs help elect Eisenhower
20
U.S. History
Notes
Unit 5: World War II and Its Aftermath, 1931-1960
Chapter 18: Cold War Conflicts, 1945-1960
Section 3: The Cold War at Home
Main Idea:
During the late 1940s and early 1950s, fear of communism led to reckless charges against innocent
citizens.
Why It Matters Now:
Americans today remain vigilant about unfounded accusations.
Fear of Communist Influence
 American Sentiments
o Communist takeover of Eastern Europe, China fuel fear of its spread
o 100,000 in U.S. Communist Party; some fear may be loyal to U.S.S.R.
 The House Un-American Activities Committee
o House Un-American Activities Committee investigates Communist ties
o Investigates Communist influence in movie industry
o Hollywood Ten refuse to testify, sent to prison
o Hollywood blacklist – people with Communist ties, cannot get work
Spy Cases Stun the Nation
 Alger Hiss
o Alger Hiss accused of spying for Soviet Union; convicted of perjury
o Congressman Richard Nixon gains fame for pursuing charges
 The Rosenbergs
o 1949, Soviets explode atomic bomb sooner than expected
o Ethel, Julius Rosenberg, minor Communist Party activists, implicated
o Rosenbergs sentenced to death; Supreme Court upholds conviction
McCarthy Launches His “Witch Hunt”
 McCarthy’s Tactics
o Senator Joseph McCarthy a strong anti-Communist activist
o McCarthyism – attacking suspected Communists without evidence
 McCarthy’s Downfall
o 1954, McCarthy accuses members of U.S. Army
o Televised hearing show him bullying witnesses
o Loses public support; Senate condemns him for improper conduct
 Other Anti-Communist Measures
o People become afraid to speak out on public issues
21
U.S. History
Notes
Unit 5: World War II and Its Aftermath, 1931-1960
Chapter 18: Cold War Conflicts, 1945-1960
Section 4: Two Nations Live on the Edge
Main Idea:
During the 1950s, the United States and the Soviet Union came to the brink of nuclear war.
Why It Matters Now:
The Cold War continued into the following decades, affecting U.S. policies in Cuba, Central America,
Southeast Asia, and the Middle East.
Brinkmanship Rules U.S. Policy
 Race for the H-Bomb
o H-Bomb – hydrogen bomb – nuclear weapon more powerful than atom bomb
o 1952, U.S. explodes first H-bomb; 1953, Soviets explode one
 The Policy of Brinkmanship
o John Foster Dulles, secretary of state under Dwight D. Eisenhower
o Dulles proposes brinkmanship policy:
 Willingness to risk nuclear war to prevent spread of communism
The Cold War Spreads Around the World
 The Warsaw Pact
o U.S.-Soviet relations thaw after Stalin’s death in 1953
o Form Warsaw Pact – military alliance with 7 Eastern European countries
 The Eisenhower Doctrine
o Soviet prestige in Middle East rises because of support for Egypt
o Eisenhower Doctrine – U.S. will defend Middle East against Communists
The Cold War Takes to the Skies
 A New Soviet Leader
o Nikita Khrushchev emerges as new Soviet leader; favors:
 Peaceful coexistence and economic, scientific competition
 The Space Race
o October 1957, Soviets launch Sputnik, first artificial satellite
o Shocked Americans pour money into own space program
 A U-2 is Shot Down
o Francis Gary Powers shot down on last flight over Soviet Territory
 Renewed Confrontation
o Eisenhower first denies, then concedes U-2 was spying
o Agrees to stop flights, refuses to apologize as Khrushchev demands
o U-2 incident renews tension between superpowers; peace summit cancelled
22
U.S. History
Notes
Unit 5: World War II and Its Aftermath, 1931-1960
Chapter 18: Cold War Conflicts, 1945-1960
Chapter 18 Study Questions:
Section 1
1. What were the goals of U.S. foreign policy in the Cold War?
2. Describe the Truman Doctrine and how America reacted to it.
Section 2
3. What was the purpose of the NATO alliance?
4. What global events led to U.S. involvement in Korea?
Section 3
5. What issue between General Douglas MacArthur and President Truman eventually cost MacArthur
his job?
6. What actions of Joseph McCarthy worsened the national hysteria about communism?
Section 4
7. How did the Rosenberg case fuel anti-communist feeling?
8. How did the U.S., including the CIA, wage the Cold War in the 1950s?
23
U.S. History
Notes
Unit 5: World War II and Its Aftermath, 1931-1960
Chapter 19: The Postwar Boom, 1946-1960
Chapter 19 Objective:
To understand the economic, social, and cultural changes that occurred in postwar America
Chapter 19 Summary:
Women and Political Power:
The ideal woman of the 1950s was a wife, mother, and homemaker. Many suburban housewives,
however, felt dissatisfied and bored with their lack of identity.
Economic Opportunity:
The economic boom of the postwar years brought prosperity to millions of Americans. However, the
nation experienced a recession during 1957-1958, and the national debt rose.
Science and Technology:
The rapid rise of television in the 1950s affected many aspects of American life. Television provided
entertainment and information, but critics objected to the stereotypes and violence it presented.
Diversity and National Identity:
Thousands of Mexican Americans and Native Americans fought for the United States in World War II.
After the war, these citizens faced discrimination in a society that ignored the rights of minorities.
Chapter 19 Vocabulary:
 GI Bill of Rights
 Planned Obsolescence
 Suburb
 Mass Media
 Harry S. Truman
 Federal Communications Commission
(FCC)
 Dixiecrat
 Beat Movement
 Fair Deal
 Rock ‘n’ Roll
 Conglomerate
 Jazz
 Franchise
 Urban Renewal
 Baby Boom
 Bracero
 Dr. Jonas Salk
 Termination Policy
 Consumerism
24
U.S. History
Notes
Unit 5: World War II and Its Aftermath, 1931-1960
Chapter 19: The Postwar Boom, 1946-1960
Chapter 19 Vocabulary Definitions:
1. GI Bill of Rights
 Government assistance for veterans
 Provided loans for home purchase and college
2. Suburb
 Residential communities surrounding larger cities
 “Cookie Cutter” homes
3. Harry S. Truman
 President after WWII
 Oversaw the difficult transition from wartime to peacetime
 Ordered integration of armed forces
4. Dixiecrat
 Southern democrats that disagreed with Truman’s push for civil rights
 Split to form their own party
5. Baby Boom
 Period of years after WWII in which the nation’s birthrate increased dramatically
 Eventually led to social and economic problems
6. Consumerism
 The cultural push for Americans to buy more
 Glorified the purchasing of “stuff”
7. Mass Media
 Communication method designed to reach very large audiences very quickly
 Radio and television
8. Beat Movement
 A non-conformist subculture that began in the 1950s
 A backlash against the conformity message of the 1950s
9. Urban Renewal
 The attempt to clear out run-down inner city buildings and build low-cost housing for
urban poor
10. Bracero
 A Program that allowed many Mexican immigrants into the U.S. as workers
25
U.S. History
Notes
Unit 5: World War II and Its Aftermath, 1931-1960
Chapter 19: The Postwar Boom, 1946-1960
Section 1: Postwar America
Main Idea:
The Truman and Eisenhower administrations led the nation to make social, economic, and political
adjustments following World War II.
Why It Matters Now:
In the years after World War II, the United States became the economic and military power that it still is
today.
Readjustment and Recovery
 The Impact of the GI Bill
o 1944 GI Bill of Rights eases veterans’ return to civilian life
o Pays partial tuition, unemployment benefits; provides loans
 Housing Crisis
o 10 million returning veterans face housing shortage
o Developers use assembly-line methods to mass-produce houses
o Build suburbs – small residential communities around cities
Meeting Economic Challenges
 President Truman’s Inheritance
o Harry S. Truman can make difficult decisions, take responsibility
Social Unrest Persists
 Truman Supports Civil Rights
o African Americans, especially veterans, demand rights as citizens
o Congress rejects civil rights laws; Truman issues executive orders:
 Integrates armed forces; ends discrimination in government hiring
 The 1948 Election
o Southern Democrats – Dixiecrats – protest civil rights, form own party
 The Fair Deal
o Truman’s Fair Deal is ambitious economic program, includes:
 Higher minimum wage, flood control projects, low-income housing
Republicans Take the Middle Road
 I Like Ike!
o Truman’s approval rating drops over Korean War, McCarthyism
o Eisenhower wins; Republicans narrowly take Congress
 Walking the Middle of the Road
o Eisenhower conservative about money, liberal on social issues
o Ike tries to avoid civil rights movement, which is gaining strength
o On economy, works for balanced budget, tax cut
o Pushes social legislation, new Department of Health, Education, Welfare
o Popularity soars; is reelected in 1956
26
U.S. History
Notes
Unit 5: World War II and Its Aftermath, 1931-1960
Chapter 19: The Postwar Boom, 1946-1960
Section 2: The American Dream in the Fifties
Main Idea:
During the 1950s, the economy boomed, and many Americans enjoyed material comfort.
Why It Matters Now:
The “American dream,” a notion that was largely shaped by the 1950s, is still pursued today.
The Organization and the Organization Man
 Employment in the U.S.
o By 1956, majority of Americans not in blue-collar (industrial) jobs
o More in higher-paying, white-collar (office, professional) positions
 Franchises
o Franchise – company offers similar products, services in many places
 Also the right to use company name and system
o Fast-food restaurants among first, most successful franchises
 Social Conformity
o Many employees with well-paid, secure jobs lose individuality
o Companies reward teamwork, loyalty, encourage conformity
The Suburban Lifestyle
 The Baby Boom
o 1950s, 85% of new homes built in suburbs
o 1945-1965 baby boom – soaring birth rate after soldiers return
 Advances in Medicine and Childcare
o New drugs fight, prevent childhood diseases
o Dr. Jonas Salk develops vaccine for polio(myelitis)
o Pediatrician Dr. Benjamin Spock writes popular guide for parents
 Women’s Roles
o Magazines, TV, movies glorify role of homemaker, mother
o Over 1/5th of suburban wives dissatisfied with their lives
o 1960, 40% mothers work; limited opportunities, less pay than men
 Leisure in the Fifties
o Shorter work week, paid vacation, labor-saving devices free up time
o People have time for recreational activities, spectator sports
o Book, magazine, comic book sales climb rapidly
The Automobile Culture
 Automania
o Cheap, plentiful gas, easy credit, advertising increase car sales
o No public transit in suburbs; cars necessary
 The Interstate Highway System
o Interstate Highway Act – nationwide highway network unites country
o Towns near highways prosper; those near older, smaller roads decline
 Mobility Takes Its Toll
o Auto boom stimulates new businesses – drive-in movies, etc.
o Cars create social, environmental problems – accidents, pollution, etc.
o Upper-, middle-class whites leave cities; jobs, business follow
o Economic gulf widens between suburban and urban
o Also widens gap between middle class and the poor
27
U.S. History
Notes
Unit 5: World War II and Its Aftermath, 1931-1960
Consumerism Unbound
 New Products
o Consumerism (buying material goods) equated with success
o Numerous new products appear on market in response to demand
 Planned Obsolescence
o Planned obsolescence – making products that get outdated, wear out
 Makes consumers buy or want to buy new ones
 Buy Now, Pay Later
o Credit purchases, credit cards, installments extend payment period
o Private debt grows; consumers confident of future prosperity
 The Advertising Age
o Most people have satisfied basic needs; ads encourage extra spending
o Psychological appeals in ads lure consumers to particular products
o Ads appear in all media; television emerges as powerful new tool
28
U.S. History
Notes
Unit 5: World War II and Its Aftermath, 1931-1960
Chapter 19: The Postwar Boom, 1946-1960
Section 3: Popular Culture
Main Idea:
Mainstream Americans, as well as the nation’s subcultures, embraced new forms of entertainment
during the 1950s.
Why It Matters Now:
Televisions and rock ‘n’ roll, integral parts of the nation’s culture today, emerged during the postwar
era.
New Era of the Mass Media
 The Rise of Television
o Mass Media – means of communication that reach large audiences
o TV first widely available 1948; in almost 20% of homes in 1960
o Lifestyle changes: TV Guide is popular magazine; TV dinners
 Stereotypes and Gunslingers
o Women, minorities on TV are stereotypes; few black, Latinos
o Westerns glorify historical frontier conflicts
o Raise concerns about effect of violence on children
A Subculture Emerges
 The Beat Movement
o Beat movement – writers, artists express social, literary nonconformity
African Americans and Rock ‘n’ Roll
 Rock ‘n’ Roll
o Black musicians add electric instruments to blues – rhythm and blues
o Rock ‘n’ roll – mix of rhythm and blues, country, pop
o Music appeals to newly affluent teens who can buy records
o Many adults concerned music will lead to delinquency, immorality
29
U.S. History
Notes
Unit 5: World War II and Its Aftermath, 1931-1960
Chapter 19: The Postwar Boom, 1946-1960
Section 4: The Other America
Main Idea:
Amidst the prosperity of the 1950s, millions of Americans lived in poverty.
Why It Matters Now:
America today continues to experience a marked income gap between affluent and non-affluent people.
The Urban Poor
 White Flight
o 1962, 25% of Americans below poverty level
o Post WWII-1960, 5 million blacks go from rural South to urban North
o White flight results in loss of businesses, tax payers to cities
o Cities can no longer afford to maintain or improve:
 Schools, public transportation, police and fire departments
 The Inner Cities
o Poverty grows rapidly in decaying inner cities
 Urban Renewal
o Urban renewal – replace rundown buildings with new low-income housing
o Not enough housing built for displaced people
Poverty Leads to Activism
 Mexicans Seek Employment
o Many Southwest Mexicans become U.S. citizens after Mexican War
o 1942-47, Mexican braceros, hired hands, allowed into U.S. to work
30
U.S. History
Notes
Unit 5: World War II and Its Aftermath, 1931-1960
Chapter 19: The Postwar Boom, 1946-1960
Chapter 19 Study Questions:
Section 1
1. How did the GI Bill of Rights help World War II veterans?
2. What domestic and foreign issues concerned voters during the 1952 presidential election?
Section 2
3. What shift in employment trends had occurred by the mid-1950s?
4. How did life in the suburbs provide the model for the American dream?
Section 3
5. What strategies did radio stations use to counteract the mass popularity of television?
6. How did African-American performers influence American popular culture in the 1950s?
Section 4
7. How did many major cities change in the 1950s?
8. What obstacles to improving their lives did Native Americans face in the 1950s?
31