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Transcript
Class 29: History of
Ann T. Orlando
5 April 2006
th
20
C
Introduction
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The end of the Victorian Age
WW I
Communist Revolution in Russia
Economic Exuberance and Depression
WW II
Cold War
Victory of Americanism in West
Queen Victoria
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Reigned 1837-1901
Stability in England, during time of British
expansion abroad: India, Africa, Australia
Through Victoria and Albert (German prince)
and the marriage of their children,
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Queen Victoria was the ‘grandmother’ of major
royal monarchs during WW I
Germany, Russia, Austria, England
Gave a false sense of stability to Europe
Contributing Factors to WW I
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System of National Alliances established by
Congress of Vienna
Disconnect in Europe among political system
(regal); society (urbanization); and economics
(worker movements)
Disintegration of Ottoman Empire
Arms race among France, Germany, England
The Great War, The War to End All Wars
1914-1918
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Starts with assassination of Archduke Francis
Ferdinand (heir to throne) of Austria by a Serbian
Because of system of alliances, Germany and
Ottoman Empire support Austria; Russia, France,
England, Italy support Serbian nationalists
Expectation that war would be over quickly
Modern technology had created incredibly lethal
weapons; but strategic thinking had not advanced
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Trench warfare,
Massive loss of life on battle field; 9,000,000 died
War did not end quickly (11/11/18)
Political Result of WW I
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Destruction of Ottoman Empire; Middle Eastern
holding divided between England and France
Destruction of Austro-Hungarian Empire; end of
HRE
Political and Economic Punishment of Germany;
loss of territories won from France in FrancoPrussian War
Rise of America as a world power
Collapse of Russian monarchy, rise of communism
League of Nations (to which neither the US nor
Soviet Union belonged)
Social and Economic Result of WW I
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Massive displacement of peoples due to
revised political boundaries
Germany, especially, unable to compete
economically
All major European countries were nearly
bankrupt because of the war
The US became the banker to the world
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When the US goes into a depression in 1929,
takes the rest of the world with it
Nationalism as Replacement for Religion
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Lenin and then Stalin in Soviet Union attempt to
create national identity and loyalty focused
exclusively around the State
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Common good, but without dignity of person
No private property
Enforced sameness
Beehive model of society and economics
Hitler does much the same thing in Germany
between the Wars
Mussolini in Italy
Spanish Civil War results in a unity of religion and
nationalism
Europe at End of WW I
www.wwnorton.com/college/history/ralph/resource/wwii.htm
Hitler and Appeasement
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Europe is tired of War after WWI; horrors of trench
warfare still very fresh
Recognition that economic reparations against
Germany at Treaty of Versailles had been overly
punitive
Willing to do almost anything to avoid War
After Hitler invades Czechoslovak, England and
France refuse to sanction Germany
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Munich Agreement 1938
Neville Chamberlain, Prime Minister of England: “Peace in
our time”,
WWII 1939-1945
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Hitler invades Poland, 1939
Axis powers (Germany, Italy, Japan)
Allied Powers (US, England, France, Soviet Union)
Truly a world war in ways WWI had not been
Massive civilian as well as military casualties (21 M
in Soviet Union; 11 M China; 6 M)
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Total casualties in WWII 56M (1/2 civilian)
Within this horror of Holocaust
World-wide refugee problem
Reshaping Map of World
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Elimination of colonial powers, or at least
plan for independence
State of Israel
World divided between US and Soviet Union
‘spheres of influence’
Note this represents the victory of two
‘Enlightenment’ powers
United Nations
Cold War
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Massive armament
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Threat of ‘Mutually Assured Destruction’
Science and Technology as means to military and
political survival
Competing economic and social models that come
from Enlightenment
In Soviet Union, break from ancient forms of society;
not unlike French Revolution
In US increasing concern about “Red Menace”
From Time Magazine, Jan 1959
history.acusd.edu/gen/USPics14/75657.jpg
America as World Leader
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Amazing historical fact: America defeats Soviet Union as a result of economic
not military warfare, 1989
Confidence that if only everyone else was like us they would be so much better
off; collapse of Soviet Union seemed to justify that view, especially after debacle
of Vietnam War
Economic Power
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Cultural Power
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Economic prosperity makes US culture envy of many
US able to project its cultural influence
But, US can no longer chose to be isolated
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US economic power rebuilds societies within US sphere of influence
Soviet Union tries, but does not have the economic resources to do this
Disparity between Western/Eastern Europe; North/South Korea
Pearl Harbor
Threat of ICBMs
9/11
World-wide economic interdependence has grown such that US economy is
completely dependent on world economy, not vice versa