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Chapter 28
Truman: Neither War Nor
Beginnings of the Cold War
 Dealing With a New World
 President in His Own Right
 The Korean War
Beginnings of the Cold War
Section 1
Controlling the Atom
Problems with the Russians
Truman Doctrine
A. Characteristics of Truman
No College Education
Served in WWI
County Judge
Very intelligent, hardworking, and fair
B. Building a New World
United Nations—replaced League of
nations and goal was to preserve peace
 US Congress ratified UN Charter with a
vote of 8-2
United Nations (continued)
General Assembly—
Included delegates
from every member
nation. (town hall
meeting of the world)
– Each member got one
vote (except for Russia
which got 3)
– Responsible for budget
and electing new
United Nations (continued)
Security Council—eleven members
including the Big Five (police force of the
– Big Five had permanent seats and right to
– Others were elected to two-year terms
– Looked into disputes
C. Controlling the Atom
Bernard Baruch—
proposed a world
agency that would
oversee atomic
energy and inspect
atomic plants.
 Program failed
because of the USSR
D. Problems with the Russians
Forced Communism
on Poland
 Eastern European
Countries became
 Iron Curtain—term
used by Churchill to
describe the line
between Sovietdominated Europe
and the West.
Problems with the Russians
Soviets prevented free passage of people,
information, and ideas across its borders.
 Turkey and Greece were both facing
Communist insurgents
 Atomic secrets had been leaked to the
E. Warnings about Russia
Containment—trying to keep the Soviet
Union from expanding its area of influence
 George Keenan—warned that Communism
must be contained because they plan to
conquer the world.
F. The Truman Doctrine
Dean Ascheson—warned that if Greece fell
to Communism, Asia, Africa, and Europe
were in grave danger
 George Marshall (along with Ascheson)—
developed a plan so this would not
 Truman Doctrine—US policy of economic
and military support to those who were
being subjugated to outside forces
G. Greek-Turkish Aid Bill
First law giving aid to oppose Communist
 Helped defeat the influence of
Communism in their countries
H. Marshall Plan (ERP)
US would help Europe
economically over the
next 3-4 years to
keep its economy
healthy and
 Huge Success…in
addition, they were
able to buy our goods
and kept our
economy flourishing.
I. Point Four Program
Gave economic aid to the poor free
nations in Asia, Africa, and Latin America
Section 2: Dealing with a New
Bringing the Boys
Atomic Energy Act
Converting to
Taft-Hartley Act
An Active Congress
The Fair Deal
Problems with
Berlin Blockade
Election of 1948
A. Bringing the Boys Home
1946—armed forces decreased from 12
million to 3 million
 GI Bill of Rights
– Provided hospitals and clinics
– Payments to unemployed veterans
– Preference for federal jobs
– Free tuition, books, and on-the-job training
B. Atomic Energy Act
Transferred the control of atomic energy
from government to civilian hands
 However, all production facilities and
nuclear plants would be government
 Commission was set up to control the
peacetime development of atomic energy
C. Converting to Peacetime
1st time the nation did
not face a depression
after the war
 No shortage of jobs
 Troubled by strikes,
shortages of
resources, and
D. The Taft-Hartley Act
Limited Union activities in order to prevent
strikes and corruption
– Outlawed the closed shop—had to pay dues
to join a union
– Allowed the union shop—required workers to
join a union
– Permitted states to enact a right-to-work
law—forbid the union shop in that state
– Law was passed over Truman’s veto.
E. An Active Congress
Lowered taxes (especially for the wealthy)
 Cut back on aid to farmers, social security,
and education
 22nd Amendment—limited a president to
two terms
 Presidential Succession Act—changed the
order in which someone became President
if the President dies during office.
F. Truman’s Fair Deal
Extension of FDR’s New Deal that included
civil rights laws.
– Desegregated armed forces
– Appointed first black governor and judge
– Fought for rights of blacks in civil rights cases
G. The Problem of Germany
After WWII, Germany
was split into 4 zones
of occupation: US,
Russia, Britain, and
 US, Britain, and
France merged their
together to become
one territory
 Russia felt threatened
and started the Berlin
H. Potsdam Conference
Leaders met to confirm that Nazi “war
criminals” would be tried
 Many were executed.
 Many Japanese leaders later faced the
same fate
I. The Berlin Blockade
Germany was divided into eastern and
western Germany
 Russia banned all supplies from entering
West Berlin to prevent the Western
Powers from forming a government there.
J. Berlin Airlift
US, England, and France supplied the city with
clothing, food and coal by air (Berlin Airlift)
Russia accepted defeat and lifted the ban
 The two sides remained separated with Eastern
Germany becoming a satellite nation of Russia.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization—
Atlantic Pact that created allies between
the US, Canada and ten other Western
European nation
– Military enforcement for the prevention of the
spread of communism
– Eisenhower is named first Commander of
NATO forces
L. The Election of 1948
Tom Dewey—R
 Truman –D
 Democrats were divided:
– Dixiecrats—insisted on segregation of blacks
and nominated Strom Thurmond
– Progressives—believed in cooperating with
Russia and nominated Henry Wallace
– Truman still wins despite the division due to
his hard work on his campaign.
Section 3: President in His Own
Truman’s Fair Deal (pros and cons)
 The Second Red Scare
 World Situation Worsens
 Rise of McCarthyism
 Protecting the United States
A. Fair Deal
Successful: minimum
wage increase,
extension of social
security, and money
for projects to help
the poor
 Unsuccessful: civil
rights laws, national
health insurance, and
aid to farmers
B. The Second Red Scare
House Un-American Activities Committee
(HUAC)—held public hearings against
those who were suspicious of communist
 Richard Nixon—one of the most active
members of the HUAC.
 Alger Hiss—accused of providing
documents to the Russians. “Red Herring”
C. World Situation Worsens
Soviet Union explodes an atomic bomb in
 Klaus Fuchs—confessed to giving Russians
secrets about the bomb
 China becomes Communist under Mao
D. Rise of McCarthyism
Joseph McCarthy—
senator who claimed
that the State
department was
infested with
E. Protecting the US
McCarran Act—required all Communist
Organizations to register with the Attorney
 McCarran-Warren Act—new immigration
law to keep out Communists.
– Quota system, loyalty checks, and deportation
Rosenbergs—sentenced to
death for giving key secrets
to Russians about the bomb.