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The Byzantine Empire, Russia,
and Eastern Europe
Chapter 9
Page 280
Section 1
The Byzantine Empire
• A: Constantinople sits at crossroads
– Mediterranean Sea- Black Sea
– Europe and Asia
– Named Constantinople after Emperor Constantine
– Lasted 1000 years longer then western part of
Roman Empire
– City had high walls, easy to defend
– Grew rich through trade
B. Byzantium under Justinian
• Emperor Justinian- 527-565
• Tried to bring back Rome to its former
• Conquered most of original Roman territory
• Would not keep long
• Rebuilt Constantinople- Hagia Sophia- famous
Christian temple- domed roof
• Justinian’s code- Body of Civil Law
• Justinian had absolute power- autocrat
• Wife Theodora was top advisor and pursued
own policies
• Army and navy best in world at the time
• Greek Fire
• 600-700’s constant pressure from invaders
would shrink and weaken empire, but would
continue to exist
C. Byzantine Christianity
• Byzantine rejected papal authority
• Monarchs appointed their own patriarchs- or
top religious officials
• Eventually, Eastern Orthodox would differ
from western Christianity
• Great Schism caused of the use of icons-
D. Collapse
• Seljuk Turks push Byzantine out of Asia Minor
– Surrounded the city several times, but could not
• 4th Crusade- Crusaders actually sack the city
– Take many of its riches back to Europe
– City would never be the same
• 1453- Ottoman Turks capture and pillage the
– Renamed it Istanbul- Muslim city now
Section 2
Rise of Russia
• A. Geography of Russia
– 3 Regions
– Northern forces- supplied natural resources
– Southern farmland- great for growing grainsUkraine region
– Steppe- open treeless grassland, also in south but
further east
• Ural Mountains separate Europe from Asia
– Did not hinder migration
– Many rivers for transportation
B. Kiev
• Kiev was first cultural center of what would
become Russia
• Russian are ancestors of Slavs who migrated
from Poland and Belarus
• Vikings would also come south
• Rurik, a Viking prince, belonged to Rus tribe
• Called their land Russia
C. Byzantines gain influence
• Byzantines sent Christian missionaries to
convert the Russians
• Translated Bible into Cyrillic- slavic alphabet
• Russians converted in large numbers and
Byzantines and Russians grew close politically
D. Mongol Rule
• 1200’s- Genghis Khan led Golden Horde across
Asia and Eastern Europe
• Batu, his grandson, would conquer Kiev and
• As long as they paid tribute, Mongol
conquered areas could rule themselves
• Let the Russians remain Christian
• However, because of Mongols, Russia would
remain isolated from Europe
E. Moscow
• Princes of Moscow slowly take power
• Have tributes brought to Moscow where
Mongols would collect
• When Mongol power declined, Moscow filled
the void
• Ivan the Great helped make Moscow capital
and expanded Russian lands
• Called himself tsar-
• 1547, Ivan the Great first official Russian Tsar
• However, his Grandson, Ivan the terrible,
would turn Tsar into absolute ruler
• Became unstable toward the end of his life
• Had political dissenters and enemies killed
• Oprichniki- agents of terror to enforce Tsars
Section 3
Shaping Eastern Europe
• A. Geography Shapes Eastern Europe
– Eastern Europe lies on Balkan Peninsula and
between Germany and Russia
– Main Rivers are Vistula and Danube that flow to
Baltic Sea or Black Sea
– Much diversity because of location
B. Migrations Contribute to Diversity
• Early middle ages, Slavs spread from present
day Belarus
• West Slavs Moved to Poland, Czeck, and
Slovak Republic
• South Slavs moved to Balkands
• Area became a crossroads of Christian and
Muslim traditions
• Jews who were discriminated in other parts of
Europe, found refuge in Poland and other
Eastern Europe countries
– Cracow
C. 3 Early Kingdoms
• Poland
– Missionaries arrived in 900- converted to Christian
– Queen Jadwiga and Duke Wladyslaw united
Poland and Lithuania
– Was a powerful eastern Europe kingdom
– Diet– However, location left few natural boarders,
invaders and surrounding countries gobbled up
• Magyars in Hungary
– Raided Europe but settled in Hungary
– Controlled the surrounding area
– Golden Bull of 1222– However, Mongols probably killed half of
– Eventually taken over by Ottoman turks
• Balkan Kingdom
– South Slavs were ancestors of the Serbs
– Serbs became Christian
– Set up a Serb Kingdom in Balkan Peninsula
– Adopted many of the Roman laws under Dusan
– Would fall apart after invaded by Turks