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Transcript
Journal of the American College of Cardiology
© 2000 by the American College of Cardiology
Published by Elsevier Science Inc.
Vol. 36, No. 1, 2000
ISSN 0735-1097/00/$20.00
PII S0735-1097(00)00682-3
Pediatric Cardiology
Long-Term Outcome in Congenitally
Corrected Transposition of the Great Arteries
A Multi-Institutional Study
Thomas P. Graham, Jr., MD, FACC,* Yvonne D. Bernard, RN,* Beverly G. Mellen, PHD,*
David Celermajer, MD,† Helmut Baumgartner, MD,‡ Frank Cetta, MD, FACC,§
Heidi M. Connolly, MD, FACC,㛳 William R. Davidson, MD, FACC,¶ Mikael Dellborg, MD,#
Elyse Foster, MD, FACC,** Welton M. Gersony, MD, FACC,†† Ira H. Gessner, MD, FACC,††
Roger A. Hurwitz, MD, FACC,§§ Harald Kaemmerer, MD,㛳 㛳 John D. Kugler, MD, FACC,¶¶
Daniel J. Murphy, MD, FACC,## Jacqueline A. Noonan, MD, FACC,*** Cynthia Morris, MD,†††
Joseph K. Perloff, MD, FACC,††† Stephen P. Sanders, MD, FACC,§§§
James L. Sutherland, MD, FACC㛳 㛳 㛳
Nashville, Tennessee; Sydney, Australia; Vienna, Austria; Chicago, Illinois; Rochester, Minnesota;
Hershey, Pennsylvania; Goteborg, Sweden; San Francisco, California; New York, New York; Gainesville, Florida;
Indianapolis, Indiana; Hannover, Germany; Omaha, Nebraska; Cleveland, Ohio; Lexington, Kentucky;
Portland, Oregon; Los Angeles, California; Durham, North Carolina; and Atlanta, Georgia
The purpose of this study was to determine long-term outcome in adults with congenitally
corrected transposition of the great arteries (CCTGA), with particular emphasis on systemic
ventricular dysfunction and congestive heart failure (CHF).
BACKGROUND Patients with CCTGA have the anatomical right ventricle as their systemic pumping
chamber, with ventricular dysfunction and CHF being relatively common in older adults.
METHODS
Retrospective analysis of records of 182 patients from 19 institutions were reviewed to
determine current status and possible risk factors for systemic ventricular dysfunction and
CHF. Factors considered included age, gender, associated cardiac defects, operative history,
heart block, arrhythmias and tricuspid (i.e., systemic atrioventricular) regurgitation (TR).
RESULTS
Both CHF and systemic ventricular dysfunction were common in groups with or without
associated cardiac lesions. By age 45, 67% of patients with associated lesions had CHF, and
25% of patients without associated lesions had this complication. The rates of systemic
ventricular dysfunction and CHF were higher with increasing age, the presence of significant
associated cardiac lesions, history of arrhythmia, pacemaker implantation, prior surgery of any
type, and particularly with tricuspid valvuloplasty or replacement. Aortic regurgitation (a
previously unreported problem) was also relatively common in this patient population.
CONCLUSIONS Patients with CCTGA are increasingly subject to CHF with advancing age; this complication
is extremely common by the fourth and fifth decades. Tricuspid (systemic atrioventricular)
valvular regurgitation is strongly associated with RV (anatomical right ventricle connected to
aorta in CCTGA patients; systemic ventricle in CCTGA) dysfunction and CHF; whether it
is causative or a secondary complication remains speculative. (J Am Coll Cardiol 2000;36:
255– 61) © 2000 by the American College of Cardiology
OBJECTIVES
In congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries
(CCTGA), dysfunction of the systemic right ventricle
occurs with increasing frequency in older patients (1– 4).
From *Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee; †Royal Prince
Alfred Hospital, Sydney, Australia; ‡Vienna General Hospital, Vienna, Austria;
§Loyola University, Chicago, Illinois; 㛳Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota; ¶Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, Pennsylvania; #Sahlgrenska University/Ostra Hospital, Goteborg, Sweden; **University of California, San Francisco, California; ††Babies
Hospital, New York, New York; ‡‡University of Florida, Gainesville; §§Indiana
University, Indianapolis; 㛳 㛳Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany; ¶¶University of Nebraska, Omaha; ##Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio; ***University of
Kentucky, Lexington; †††University of Oregon, Portland; ‡‡‡University of California, Los Angeles; §§§Duke University, Durham, North Carolina; 㛳 㛳 㛳Children’s
Heart Center, Atlanta, Georgia. Support for this study was provided by the Pediatric
Cardiology Development Fund, Vanderbilt University Medical Center.
Manuscript received July 6, 1999; revised manuscript received January 17, 2000,
accepted March 2, 2000.
The factors contributing to this problem are poorly understood. Indeed, there are patients with uncomplicated
CCTGA whose right ventricles appear to function normally, well into late adulthood (5–12). Surgical intervention
for associated lesions has been associated recently with
prolonged adult survival. Various potential risk factors for
systemic ventricular failure in CCTGA have been implicated, including systemic atrioventricular valvular regurgitation (tricuspid regurgitation [TR]) (3,4,13,14), associated
congenital cardiac defects (15,16), complete heart block
(17), and surgical intervention, particularly open heart
operations (18 –20). The rarity of this condition has contributed to limited experience at any single institution, and
published reports therefore contain relatively small numbers
of patients. Accordingly, the Project Committee of the
256
Graham et al.
Outcome in Corrected Transposition
JACC Vol. 36, No. 1, 2000
July 2000:255–61
Table 2. Collaborating Institutions
Abbreviations and Acronyms
AR
⫽ aortic regurgitation
CCTGA ⫽ congenitally corrected transposition of the
great arteries
CHF
⫽ congestive heart failure
LA
⫽ left atrium
LV
⫽ anatomical left ventricle connected to
pulmonary artery in CCTGA patients
PS
⫽ pulmonary stenosis
RV
⫽ anatomical right ventricle connected to
aorta in CCTGA patients; systemic
ventricle in CCTGA
TR
⫽ tricuspid regurgitation (right ventricular/
atrioventricular regurgitation)
VSD
⫽ ventricular septal defect
International Society of Adult Congenital Cardiac Disease
undertook a multicenter retrospective review to determine
the prevalence of congestive heart failure (CHF) and right
ventricular dysfunction in CCTGA as a function of age, and
the probable risk factors associated with this problem.
METHODS
All members of the International Society for Adult Congenital Cardiac Disease were invited to include patients
fulfilling entry criteria in the study by filling out a patient
data form and sending it to the coordinating center by
October 27, 1997. In centers where an institutional review
board required approval for the study, it was obtained. Most
institutions reported exemption from this requirement because no patient names or identifying numbers were made
known to the data coordinating center at Vanderbilt University Medical Center. The criteria for inclusion or exclusion from the study are shown in Table 1. There were 182
patients from 19 institutions enrolled. The institution physician director and number of patients from each institution
are indicated in Table 2. Not all institutions had a robust
database to ensure capture of all adult congenital heart
disease patient encounters. Each physician director, however, provided a careful search of his own database to ensure
Table 1. Criteria for Inclusion in the Study
I. Age ⱖ18 years at time of entry into study or at time of death or
transplant.
II. Diagnosis: CCTGA characterized by atrioventricular and ventriculo–
arterial discordance whereby the anatomical left ventricle supports
the pulmonary circulation and the anatomical right ventricle supports
the systemic circulation.
A. Associated lesions could include ventricular septal defect (VSD),
pulmonary stenosis (PS), pulmonary atresia (PA), abnormalities
of the tricuspid (systemic atrioventricular) valve including
tricuspid regurgitation with or without Ebstein-like
malformation, and double outlet right ventricle.
B. Associated lesions that excluded patients from the study included
hypoplastic right or left ventricle, single ventricle,
superior–inferior ventricles, and criss-cross atrioventricular
connections.
Institution
Atlanta/Emory
Cleveland Clinic
Columbia/Presbyterian
Duke
Florida
Goteborg, Sweden
Hannover, Germany
Hershey, PA
Indiana
Kentucky
Loyola, Chicago
Mayo Clinic
Nebraska
Oregon
Sydney, Australia
UCSF
UCLA
Vanderbilt
Vienna, Austria
Dr.
Dr.
Dr.
Dr.
Dr.
Dr.
Dr.
Dr.
Dr.
Dr.
Dr.
Dr.
Dr.
Dr.
Dr.
Dr.
Dr.
Dr.
Dr.
M.D. Director
No. of
Patients
J. Sutherland
D. Murphy
Welton Gersony
S. Sanders
I. Gessner
M. Dellborg
H. Kaemmerer
W. Davidson
R. Hurwitz
J. Noonan
F. Cetta
H. Connolly
J. Kugler
C. Morris
D. Celermajer
E. Foster
J. Perloff
T. Graham
H. Baumgartner
7
14
6
7
9
4
15
5
3
5
13
22
4
8
2
5
18
25
10
as complete a CCTGA population capture as possible.
Because CCTGA is such an unusual diagnosis, it is our
hypothesis that most patients would be included in this
review.
These chart reviews were performed without any patient
being identified except by number. The study was in compliance with each institution’s human studies committee.
Patients were classified into two groups. Group I included 132 patients with significant associated lesions. This
group included patients with any of the following lesions:
large ventricular septal defect (VSD), moderate or severe
pulmonary stenosis (PS), pulmonary atresia, moderate or
severe TR and Ebstein-like anomaly of the tricuspid valve.
Group II consisted of 50 patients with minor or no
significant lesions (see Table 3). The VSD size was estimated clinically and by echocardiography.
Pulmonary stenosis was classified as mild if catheterization or Doppler estimates indicated a peak systolic gradient
of ⬍35 mm Hg. Estimation of TR was by Doppler study in
most patients, with the following guidelines for investigators: mild, no RV (anatomical right ventricle connected to
aorta in CCTGA patients; systemic ventricle in CCTGA)
enlargement, TR jet ⬍5 cm2; moderate, RV enlargement,
Table 3. Classification of Patient Groups
Group I. CCTGA with associated lesions (n ⫽ 132)
A. Large VSD
68%
B. Pulmonary stenosis (PS)*
47%
C. Pulmonary atresia (PA)
8%
D. Moderate or severe tricuspid regurgitation (TR)
57%
E. Ebstein-like anomaly of tricuspid valve (82% have TR)
32%
Group II. CCTGA without associated significant lesions (n ⫽ 50)
F. No associated lesions
16%
G. Small VSD
18%
H. Mild PS
14%
I. Mild TR
71%
*Includes patients with homograft stenosis.
Graham et al.
Outcome in Corrected Transposition
JACC Vol. 36, No. 1, 2000
July 2000:255–61
257
Table 4. Demographic and Clinical Variables by Patient Group
Age (yr, mean ⫾ SD)
Gender
CHF
RV Dysfunction:
Any
Moderate or severe
TR:
Any
Moderate or severe
Pacemaker
Arrhythmia
Open heart surgery
(excludes transplant)
LV Dysfunction
AR
Group I
(Associated Lesions)
(n ⴝ 132)
Group II
(No Associated Lesions)
(n ⴝ 50)
p Value
32 ⫾ 12
37% female
51%
34 ⫾ 15
52% female
34%
NS
NS
0.04
70%
39%
55%
32%
NS
NS
82%
57%
45%
47%
70%
85%
40%
27%
29%
15%
NS
NS
0.04
0.04
0.001
25%
36%
7%
25%
0.014
NS
TR jet 5 to 8 cm2; severe, RV enlargement, TR jet 8 cm2 ⫹
pulmonary vein reversal in systole. Angiographic estimates
of TR were used by a few investigators with these guidelines: mild, normal RV size, contrast fills 10% to 25% of left
atrium (LA), clears in 1 to 2 beats; moderate, definite RV
enlargement, contrast fills ⬎25% of LA, fails to clear in 2
beats; severe, marked RV enlargement, contrast fills most of
LA (⫾ pulmonary veins), fails to clear in 3 beats.
In addition, investigators provided the following information for each patient: operative history, occurrence of
heart block/pacemaker insertion, occurrence of significant
arrhythmia requiring treatment, estimate of mitral and
aortic regurgitation, latest chest film with cardiothoracic
ratio for cardiomegaly estimate, and right and left ventricular function assessment (echocardiograph, angiogram,
magnetic resonance imaging, or radionuclide angiography
estimate as normal, or mild, moderate or severely decreased). In addition, evidence for clinical systemic ventricular dysfunction (congestive heart failure, CHF) and date of
onset of CHF were provided. Data supporting the diagnosis
of CHF were cardiomegaly, pulmonary congestion, edema,
hepatomegaly, gallop rhythm, fatigue and digoxin/diuretic/
afterload reduction therapy. Finally, current functional classifications using the Warnes-Somerville ability index and
the Toronto classification were provided.
Warnes-Somerville Ability Index
Grade 1: Normal life; full-time work or school; can
manage pregnancy.
Grade 2: Able to do part-time work; life modified by
symptoms.
Grade 3: Unable to work; noticeable limitation of activities.
Grade 4: Extreme limitation; dependent; almost housebound.
Toronto Congenital Heart Disease Functional Class
Class 1: Asymptomatic.
Class 2: Symptoms are present but do not interfere with
normal activities.
Class 3: Symptoms interfere with some but not most
activities.
Class 4: Symptoms interfere with most if not all activities.
Statistical methods. Demographic and clinical variables
were summarized using mean ⫾ SD and proportions within
groups I (CCTGA with significant associated lesions) and
II (CCTGA with minor or no associated lesions). Differences between groups were assessed by Pearson’s chi-square,
the Fisher exact test, and the two-sided, two-sample t test.
The association of selected variables with clinical CHF, RV
dysfunction, and LV (anatomical left ventricle connected to
pulmonary artery in CCTGA patients) dysfunction was
assessed by calculating odds ratio (OR) estimates and 95%
confidence intervals. These estimates were combined over
both groups using the Mantel-Haenszel method in the
absence of statistically significant differences between
groups. Survival curves were generated using Kaplan-Meier
estimates, and differences in survival between groups were
assessed by the log-rank test. The statistical software packages S-PLUS and SAS were used. A p value ⬍0.05 was
considered statistically significant.
RESULTS
Table 4 shows statistical analysis and t-test analysis for
pertinent variables for the two groups. Patient ages were not
different between the two groups and averaged 32 ⫾ 13
years (range 18 to 75 years) for the entire group of 182
patients.
Clinical CHF. Clinical CHF was common and significantly more common in patients with associated lesions,
51% versus 34%. Figure 1 shows that the probability of
freedom from CHF is clearly greater for group II versus
group I when this variable is assessed versus advancing age.
By age 45 years, 67% of patients in group I have CHF,
258
Graham et al.
Outcome in Corrected Transposition
JACC Vol. 36, No. 1, 2000
July 2000:255–61
Figure 1. Probability of freedom from CHF for group I (associated lesions)
and group II (no significant associated lesions) as a function of increasing
age (N ⫽ 175 instead of 182 because it was unclear in 7 patients whether
they had clinical CHF).
Figure 3. Probability of freedom from mild, moderate, or severe left
ventricular dysfunction with increasing age (N ⫽ 147 because data were
unavailable to make this determination in 35 patients).
whereas 25% of patients in group II, those patients with
only minor or no associated lesions, have this complication.
Systemic ventricular dysfunction and tricuspid regurgitation. Right (systemic) ventricular dysfunction was common in both groups, 70% and 55%, as was TR, 82% and
84%. Neither of these conditions were significantly different
between groups (see Table 4).
Figure 2 shows the probability of freedom from moderate
or severe RV (systemic ventricular) dysfunction as a function
of age. There is a clear continuing increase in systemic
ventricular dysfunction with increasing age; by age 45 years,
56% of patients with associated lesions and 32% of patients
without significant associated lesions have this complication. Although group I patients did have a higher incidence
of RV dysfunction than group II patients at any age, the
probability curves were not statistically different (p ⫽ 0.08).
The incidence of pacemaker therapy, significant arrhythmia requiring treatment, and open heart surgery were all
significantly greater in group I patients than group II
patients (see Table 4).
Pulmonary ventricular dysfunction and AR. Pulmonary
(anatomical left ventricular) dysfunction was present in 25%
of patients in group I and only 7% in group II. Left
ventricular dysfunction also showed an increase in incidence
with increasing age (Fig. 3). By age 45 years, 20% of
patients in group I and 5% in group II had LV dysfunction.
Again, although LV dysfunction as a function of age was
more common in group I than group II patients, the
difference in probability curves was not significant (p ⫽
0.11).
Finally, aortic regurgitation (AR) was a relatively common finding in patient groups I and II, 36% and 25%, but
not significantly different between groups (Table 4).
Risk factors for CHF: Ventricular dysfunction. In an
attempt to determine potential correlates for all patients,
clinical CHF, RV dysfunction, and LV dysfunction, OR
estimates were calculated for possible risk factors (Table 5).
For clinical CHF, the strongest risk factors were tricuspid
valve surgery, TR, significant arrhythmia, history of any
open heart surgery, and pacemaker therapy. For RV dysfunction, these same risk factors are significant. In addition,
male gender appears to be a risk factor of borderline
significance.
For LV dysfunction, there were no clearly significant risk
factors as assessed by this method of OR estimates.
Functional classification. Despite the relatively high frequency of objective CHF and/or ventricular dysfunction,
Figures 4 and 5 show estimates of the functional classification in which most patients consider themselves, with none
or minimal symptoms when assessed in this manner.
DISCUSSION
Figure 2. Probability of freedom from moderate or severe RV dysfunction
as a function of increasing age. (N ⫽ 168 because data were unavailable to
make this determination in 14 patients.)
Systemic ventricular dysfunction and CHF. The present
study is the largest multicenter attempt to review the clinical
Graham et al.
Outcome in Corrected Transposition
JACC Vol. 36, No. 1, 2000
July 2000:255–61
259
Table 5. Odds Ratio (OR) Estimates for Clinical CHF, RV Dysfunction, and LV Dysfunction
CHF
TV replacement or valvuloplasty§
TR*
Arrhythmia
Surgery (no transplant)
Pacemaker
Sex
PA§
Only VSD closure (⫾PS repair)§
PS or PA
PS
VSD
RV Dysfunction*
LV Dysfunction†
OR‡
95% CI
p Value
OR‡
95% CI
p Value
OR‡
95% CI
p Value
4.33
3.42
2.37
2.14
2.08
1.58
1.42
0.77
0.58
0.54
0.49
(1.69, 11.1)
(1.75, 6.67)
(1.24, 4.51)
(1.06, 4.32)
(1.08, 3.96)
(0.84, 2.95)
(0.38, 5.32)
(0.31, 1.88)
(0.29, 1.13)
(0.27, 1.06)
(0.23, 0.99)
0.001
0.0003
0.008
0.03
0.03
0.15
0.75
0.56
0.11
0.07
0.05
3.63
2.54
3.14
2.54
2.05
1.92
0.34
0.69
0.39
0.51
0.52
(1.48, 8.87)
(1.29, 5.00)
(1.58, 6.22)
(1.15, 5.58)
(1.05, 4.01)
(0.99, 3.71)
(0.07, 1.70)
(0.27, 1.75)
(0.19, 0.80)
(0.25, 1.02)
(0.24, 1.07)
0.004
0.006
0.0009
0.02
0.03
0.05
0.31
0.43
0.008
0.05
0.08
0.59
0.63
1.73
1.40
0.70
0.99
1.46
1.22
0.79
0.62
2.31
(0.18, 1.93)
(0.26, 1.51)
(0.72, 4.09)
(0.54, 3.59)
(0.28, 1.71)
(0.42, 2.32)
(0.33, 6.29)
(0.41, 3.55)
(0.33, 1.88)
(0.25, 1.51)
(0.83, 6.37)
0.38
0.31
0.21
0.47
0.43
0.99
0.69
0.72
0.60
0.29
0.11
*Moderate or severe. †Mild, moderate, or severe. ‡Mantel-Haenszel OR estimate (combined over study groups I and II) except where noted. §Group I only.
course of patients with a rare form of congenital heart
disease— congenitally corrected transposition of the great
arteries. These data clearly indicate the increasing incidence
of systemic ventricular dysfunction and clinical CHF with
increasing age in patients with CCTGA. In patients’ most
productive middle years, symptomatic CHF is extremely
common. In patients with significant associated defects and
prior open heart surgery, two thirds of patients have CHF
by age 45. This complication also is common in middleaged adults with CCTGA and no associated significant
lesions; by the fifth decade more than one-third developed
this symptom. This is the largest cohort reported with this
condition, and it clearly indicates the potentially tenuous
nature of the compensated systemic right ventricle.
TR. Although it appears that systemic atrioventricular
valve (tricuspid) regurgitation plays a role in the determination of RV dysfunction and CHF, it is extremely difficult
to estimate whether this abnormality plays a primary or a
secondary role. Prieto and associates (14) in a cohort of 40
patients with CCTGA found TR to be a major risk factor
for systemic ventricular dysfunction during a follow-up of 7
to 36 years (mean 20 years). These investigators considered
the valvular abnormality to precede or precipitate CHF in
most of their patients.
Do these patients develop TR because of systemic ventricular dysfunction, or do they have TR, which hastens the
development of systemic ventricular dysfunction? It is probable that each scenario can play a role in individual patients.
In addition, it is clear that open heart surgery (particularly
tricuspid valve surgery) is associated with an increased risk
of RV dysfunction and CHF—possibly related to an in-
Figure 4. Warnes-Somerville functional classification for both patient
groups.
crease in afterload and/or difficulty in myocardial protection
during surgery. Acar and associates (21) recently reported
serial echocardiographic data in 82 patients with CCTGA,
which indicated the marked dependence of TR on RV
loading conditions. Lundstrom and colleagues (18) suggested that CCTGA patients with symptomatic CHF and
TR should have tricuspid valve replacement prior to significant RV dilation. We concur that early tricuspid valve
replacement may be useful for selected individuals with RV
dilation in an attempt to preserve ventricular function.
Systemic ventricular dysfunction: Associated variables.
It is also probable that with the occurrence of symptomatic
heart block and ventricular pacing (which can result in
discordant ventricular contraction), systemic ventricular
dysfunction worsens.
The factors associated with preserved systemic ventricular
function in some elderly patients are poorly understood.
Recently, Hornung and associates (22) showed myocardial
perfusion defects in five unoperated patients with CCTGA
studied by myocardial perfusion scanning. There was evidence for reversible myocardial ischemia in four patients and
fixed defects indicating infarction in five. One interpretation
of these findings is that intermittent episodes of myocardial
ischemia occur in these patients at times of high oxygen
consumption (stress, exercise, hypertension). There could be
inadequate coronary flow to a markedly hypertrophied
systemic right ventricle supplied by a right coronary artery
system with limited ability to provide adequate perfusion
during the extremes of metabolic demands. Patients who
continue with good systolic function may have right coronary artery systems that are more well developed and
Figure 5. Toronto functional classification for both patient groups.
260
Graham et al.
Outcome in Corrected Transposition
provide adequate myocardial perfusion at times of high
oxygen demand.
AR. The presence of AR in 25% to 36% of patients was an
unexpected finding that has not been reported previously. In
patients with large right to left intracardiac shunts due to
VSD and pulmonary outflow obstruction, the aorta would
be expected to dilate, a finding that could lead to this
complication. In the majority of patients, however, right-to
left shunting was not present, and thus could not account
for aortic dilation or AR. Unfortunately, we do not have
data quantifying aortic root size in any of our patients, and
bicuspid aortic valve was not reported in any of our 182
patients. Thus, the cause(s) of AR in CCTGA remains
undefined.
Left ventricular dysfunction. The finding of LV dysfunction in a number of patients limits the option of doing the
so-called double switch operation (23–29) or makes this an
option best entertained at a relatively young age before LV
dysfunction becomes a problem. Because this procedure is
most frequently applied in patients with a large VSD, it may
need to be considered as a first surgical option before the
potential detrimental effects of open heart surgery contribute to clinical CHF.
Study limitations. This study was limited by its retrospective analyses. In addition, patients with CCTGA associated
with ventricular dysfunction and CHF may be more likely
to be referred to regional centers and thus included in a
center’s database. This could theoretically lead to an overestimation of these complications. Because CCTGA is such
a rare condition, however, it is likely that most patients with
this condition will eventually get referred to a regional
center for adult congenital heart disease and be included in
a database. Finally, part of the data reported depend on
defining the function of the morphologic, subaortic right
ventricle. Current information indicates that the ejection
fraction values of both the subpulmonary and the subaortic
normal right ventricle are nearly the same or only slightly
less than the normal left ventricle (30 –32).
Conclusions. In conclusion, systemic ventricular dysfunction and clinical CHF are extremely common in middleaged adults with CCTGA. Although some patients with
this congenital abnormality continue to do extremely well
beyond age 60, this circumstance is the exception rather
than the rule. Aggressive medical treatment with afterload
reduction would appear indicated for these patients with
ventricular enlargement and early symptoms. The benefits
of the prophylactic use of vasodilators is unproven, but
deserves study in an attempt to delay or prevent systemic
ventricular dysfunction.
In addition, earlier surgical management of these patients
before ventricular dysfunction becomes prominent should
be incorporated into management in an attempt to improve
long-term outcome. Patients with favorable anatomy, depressed RV function, and normal LV function should be
considered for the double-switch operation by centers with
experience and expertise in this procedure. Multi-
JACC Vol. 36, No. 1, 2000
July 2000:255–61
institutional collaborative studies will be needed to clarify
the merit of each of these management strategies.
Reprint requests and correspondence: Dr. Thomas P. Graham,
Jr., Pediatric Cardiology, Vanderbilt Medical Center, D2212
MCN, Nashville, Tennessee 37232-2572. E-mail: [email protected]
mc.mail.vanderbilt.edu.
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